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Spectroscopy with Milder Photons: Molecular Vibrations.

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Presentation on theme: "Spectroscopy with Milder Photons: Molecular Vibrations."— Presentation transcript:

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4 Spectroscopy with Milder Photons: Molecular Vibrations

5 Solar Radiation What wavelengths are present? This depends on the wavelengths given off by the sun (black body radiation) AND the wavelengths absorbed by the atmosphere

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7 Incident Light on Earth Water: 725, 820 and 975 Oxygen Oxygen and Ozone <400 Water Carbon Dioxide and other Greenhouse gasses >1200

8 Troposphere: weather Commercial airplanes and jets: 11 km, 1/3 to 1/5 atmosphere Stratosphere: from 10% to 0.1% of our density, from 18 km to > 50 km horizontal air flow Oxygen and Ozone in upper stratosphere is v. imp for UV Oxygen rich atmosphere is due to plants and algae (not originally here)

9 Oxygen, Ozone and UV Stratosphere: O 2 + h --> 2 O < 241 nm (496 kJ/mol) O 3 + h --> O 2 + O nm

10 What happens to the visible light once it reaches the earth? The pigments of life Chlorophyll Heme (e.g. Myoglobin) Carotenoids, retinal etc. These chromophores are conjugated molecules …

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14 Wavelength and Molecule Size As the size of the conjugated system gets larger, the wavelength gets longer. Which is larger, the molecule or the wavelength? How much larger? Wavelength of 200 nm, molecule length is < 1 nm. Wavelength is much much larger.

15 Red lamp: emits at 600 Blue lamp: emit at 450 Red dye: absorbs at (passing at 600) Indigo dye: absorb at (passing at 450)

16 Chlorophyll

17 beta Carotene

18 anthocyanin

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21 How Many Photons Are Needed? Chl + h --> Chl + + e - Energy in a nm photon: ~200 kJ/mole Energy needed for reactions below is ~ 500 kJ/mole oxygen CO 2 + H 2 O --> (CH 2 O) + O 2 2H 2 O --> 2H 2 + O 2 4 Photons/ 4 electrons/ 4 protons/ one oxygen

22 Some UV Radiation Does Reach the Earth How is UV distinct from visible? Almost double the energy per photon! Makes radicals, causes significant chemical reactions Skin cancer, begins with “DNA damage”

23 DNA 2’ Deoxyribo Nucleic Acid

24 Photochemistry of Alkenes: DNA Damage Several akenes can be combined to form larger carbon “skeletons” Lets review the orbitals that might be involved

25 Ethene

26 1,3 Butadiene: Conjugation

27 Combining two alkenes Reactants: three double bonds (612 kJ/mole), one single bond (348 kJ/mole) 2184 Product: one double bond, five single bonds 2352 More stable If aligned by matching the orbitals of two reactants: highest occupied and lowest unoccupied, can react.

28 UV Photochemistry Reactants: two double bonds (612 kJ/mole), 1224 Product: four single bonds (348 kJ/mole), 1392 More stable However… cannot align orbitals properly in ground state to react. Use light: reaction begins from an excited state, e.g. LUMO and LUMO can match Many alkenes undergo bond forming reactions in response to light.

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30 DNA: UV photochemistry

31 Summary: UV and Visible Visible light is sufficient for electronic transitions and sometimes for eject electrons from substances if thery are large pigments with loosely bound electrons. The latter is the basis for the generation of essentially all fuels. Rarely are these are destructive processes. Ultraviolet light is sufficient for larger electronic transitions, to eject electrons from many substances, and to facilitate otherwise impossible chemical reactions. Commonly these are destructive processes.

32 Sunscreen Para aminobenzoic acid (PABA) blocks some of the UV irradiation (right). Titanium oxide is also used for this purpose, but it has no chromophore. How can this work?

33 Sunblock PABA para aminobenzoic acid: absorbs UV (bluish tinge) Titanium dioxide: scatters UV (bright white)

34 Melanin, the skin pigment, is a similarly conjugated system, formed by joining several double bonds Eumelanin:black/brown Pheomelanin: red/orange

35 Photodynamic Therapy (Abs nm)

36 Photodynamic Therapy The porphyrin excited states react with water and oxygen to generate reactive/toxic chemical species (radicals, and excited electronic states). (Abs nm) Like many molecules, porphyrins are selectively taken up by cancer cells

37 The Greenhouse: Visible Light Penetrates, but IR?

38 Greenhouse Visible Light Comes to Earth from Sun Infrared Leaves earth: does it fail to escape atmosphere? It can either pass through the atmosphere, be absorbed and re- radiated, or be absorbed and converted to heat.

39 Greenhouse Which atmospheric gasses “trap” the heat from the IR radiation

40 Rising CO 2

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45 Global Warming: Expected Consequences drought, new deserts ocean ice melting: many major cities will be deluged

46 Models based on historical data, considering “natural” cycles, have been open to debate Data from NASA Global Hydrology and Climate Center

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49 Global Energy Consumption, 1998 based on talk by N. Lewis, Cal Tech GasHydro Renew Total: 12.8 TW (15% Electricity) U.S.: 3.3 TW (10% Electricity)


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