Presentation on theme: "What is Salutary Neglect?"— Presentation transcript:
1What is Salutary Neglect? BellringerWhat is Salutary Neglect?politically ignoring the colonies as long as profits were madeWhat is Habeas Corpus?Right to an examination of evidence for trial.Who promoted the idea of separating the branches of government into the Executive, Judicial and Legislative?Baron de Montesquieu
2According to John Locke, what are the three Natural Rights? BellringerAccording to John Locke, what are the three Natural Rights?Life, Liberty and PropertyWhat are two attempts at self-government in the early American Colonies?House of Burgesses and the Mayflower CompactWhich section of Colonial America stressed education, making schools for any towns with 50+ people?New England
3In the map below draw and label the following (Use the map on Page 90): Mississippi River, Central Plains, Great Plains, Gulf of Mexico, Atlantic Ocean, Pacific Ocean, Appalachian Mountains, Rocky Mountains, and the Great lakes. Create a Compass Rose with 8 points of direction.
5Historical influences Democracy- power by the people was originally developed in Ancient Athens (Greece). Athens had a direct democracy, where all eligible citizens participated in government by taking part in discussions.Republic-originally developed in Rome, voters elect representatives who speak and act for the citizens. Sometimes called a representative democracy.
7English influencesThe American colonies were originally owned by the British, therefore they adopted many of the same concepts of government including:-Common law-Magna Carta-Petition of Right-The English Bill of Rights
8Common LawThe common law system developed over time from the customs and traditions of the court system and decisions. It became the legal system of all the nations that England colonized, including the 13 colonies
9Magna Carta1215- English Nobles forced King John to sign the Magna Carta, which limits the kings power. For example, it guaranteed the right to trial by a jury (but only for nobles)
10Petition of Right1628 King Charles I put into writing certain legal rights and traditions such as Habeas Corpus. This requires a person be brought before a court with evidence shown to prove the person should be sent to trial. This prevents arrest and imprisonment without trial.
11The English Bill of Rights After a decade of fighting, Parliament overthrew King James II and replaced him with William and Mary of Orange. First, William and Mary had to sign the English Bill of Rights to establish that Representative government (Parliament) and the rule of law outweighed the monarch.
12Enlightened ThinkersThe Enlightenment occurred in the 17th and 18th centuries ( s). During the Enlightenment philosophers were concerned with the relationship between the people and the government.-John Locke-Baron de Montesquieu-Voltaire
13John Locke Ideas -Natural Rights (Life, Liberty, Property) -Social Contract: people grant power to the government by following its laws if it protects their natural rights-Consent of the governed: if the government does not protect natural rights, then it can be overthrownInfluencedLocke’s ideas influence the Declaration of Independence, Constitution, and the Bill of rights
14Baron de Montesquieu Ideas Believed the British political system was successful because the power to govern was divided between the Monarch and two houses of Parliament. In other words, governmental power was balancedInfluencedThe three branches of government as set up by the US Constitution
15VoltaireIdeasWrote the Philosophical letters to praise the British institutions and rights. Believed in the freedom of speech, especially to denounce injusticeInfluencedFirst Amendment Freedom of Speech
16Royal ColoniesAll colonies needed a Charter, or written permission from the king, to be formed. By 1730 most colonies were returned to Royal control. However, colonists mostly practiced self government because the king was thousands of miles away.
17Salutary NeglectEngland was mostly concerned that the colonies produced a profit for the nation. To ensure this, Mercantilism was enforced and prevent colonists from manufacturing their own goods, or purchasing from foreign nations.Additionally, England practiced Salutary Neglect, or the healthy ignoring of the colonies. This gave Colonists the opportunity to create their own laws, justice systems and Legislative bodies.
18Self GovernmentThere are several examples of early colonial attempts at self government:The House of Burgesses in JamestownThe Mayflower Compact in Plymouth
19Road to RevolutionThe English governed the colonies for a century using salutary neglect. As the colonists continued to practice self rule, the British fought the French and Indians for control.This war was known as the French and Indian War from
20French and Indian War- Causes The French and British had been fighting for decades, both in Europe and in colonial areas. In North America, both the British and the French claimed control of the Ohio River Valley.As English Colonists continued to expand westward this dispute came to a head.
21French and Indian allies The Indians sided with the French because to them, the French were the lesser of two evils. The French did not attempt to colonize the new world by building settlements and clearing land for plantations. Instead, the French only built small trading forts. From these forts the French traded guns and French goods for furs.
23American responseThe Colonists helped start the French and Indian War. George Washington ambushed a French Fort, renaming it Fort Necessity. Eventually he lost the fort to French forces who outnumbered the colonists.In response, Ben Franklin proposed the Albany Plan of Union. The goals of the Albany Plan of Union was to create a council of Colonial delegates to strengthen their position. Unfortunately it failed.
24Treaty of Paris 1763The British win the French and Indian War (A.K.A. Seven Years War). The French lost their lands to the British, and the colonists felt their efforts in the war earned them the right to move into newly acquired lands. However, the British had other ideas…Turning Point in History: The British now control most of North America and the Natives can no longer play the British against the French
25Proclamation Line of 1763The British prohibited expansion west of the Appalachian Mountains. The goal was to avoid conflict with the Native Americans. To the American Colonists, it was a sudden departure from Salutary Neglect.
27EffectsThe proclamation line of 1763 was meant to avoid conflicts between the colonists and Natives. Instead, it caused deep resentment among the colonists, who largely ignored the line. The Proclamation Line of 1763 was one of many actions by the British as they abandoned the practice of salutary neglect. The Proclamation Line of 1763 also led to the American Revolution
28Causes of the American Revolution There were several causes of the American Revolution. However, the major push for independence did not start until Salutary Neglect ended along with the French and Indian War.Economic causesPolitical causesSocial and ideological causes
29Economic CausesBy 1763 Great Britain had control over much of North America, but it had a huge war debt to repay. Believing that the colonies should pay for their own defense, the British began to harshly enforce Mercantilism. Additionally, Parliament passed a number of taxes to generate revenue.Sugar Act- tax on imports to the coloniesStamp Act- tax on printed material including newspapers, wills and stampsThe Colonists rejected these taxes and forced their appeal, or cancelling.
30Economic Causes cont.In 1767 Britain passed the Townshend Acts, another tax on Imports. The colonists rejected this tax as well, and smuggled many goods into America. Eventually, the British used Writs of Assistance, a type of search warrant, to find smuggled goods.
31Political CausesColonists viewed the new taxes as a threat to their liberties, including the right to property. They claimed Great Britain had violated their natural rights by taxing the colonists who had no representation in Parliament. Britain argued that Parliament represented all citizens.
32The Boston MassacreIn 1770, many Bostonians were unemployed. They blamed the British taxes and enforcement of Mercantilism for their plight. One night, some of these men came upon British Soldiers and began shouting at them. Eventually the soldiers opened fire, killing 5 American Colonists. All had been unarmed. News of the massacre spread throughout the colonies.
33Social and Ideological causes Enlightened thought had caused many colonists to question authority and increased a sense of justice among the people. Additionally, years of Salutary Neglect led the American colonists to develop self-sufficient lives with independent political systems.Give two examples of self government by the colonies prior to independenceMayflower compactHouse of Burgesses
34No Taxation…The issue of taxation without representation rose again with the 1773 Tax Act which made British tea much cheaper than other imported tea. Colonists responded by destroying three shiploads of British Tea during the Boston Tea Party. This protest led to the Intolerable Acts of 1774.21 LK
35Intolerable Acts of 1774The Intolerable Acts were meant to punish the colonists for the Boston tea Party. The Port of Boston was closed, town meetings were forbidden and the legislature’s powers were limited. Additionally more troops were sent to occupy Boston.These extra soldiers were ‘quartered’ in colonial homes. Colonists were forced to house, feed and care for these British soldiers.
36Political Cartoon Who is represented by the ‘children’? Who are the men in uniform?Do you think the uniformed men are taking the ‘children’ seriously?
37Continental CongressIn late 1774 delegates from 12 of the colonies met in Philadelphia to plan a response to the British actions. This meeting was the first Continental Congress. The delegates decided to boycott British goods and issued a suggestion that all colonists arm themselves and train militias.
38Loyalists and Patriots Not all Colonists supported the movement for independence. Many wanted to stay loyal to the King as long as taxes and natural rights were safeguarded. Tensions between these groups grew throughout the Revolutionary war period.Patriot- colonist who supported freedom from England.Loyalist (tory)-colonist who supported the king and England.
39The American Revolution The Revolutionary war began in 1775 with the battles of Lexington and Concord. The colonists had been stock piling guns and training militias British soldiers marched to Concord to destroy these weapons, but 70 militia men attempted to stop them. They were defeated. But outside of Lexington, over 4,000 patriots gather to stop the British. Over 70 British soldiers were killed and the Revolution had begun.The Shot heard ‘round the world
40IndependenceThe Revolutionary War was not started with the goal on Independence, however, once the war had begun, Patriot Colonists could no longer see a solution to the conflict with Britain. Many colonists were persuaded into Independence by Thomas Paine’s pamphlet Common Sense. In Common Sense colonists were urged to take action to create an independent nation to safeguard their own natural rights.
41ReviewBecause of fertile land and a long growing season, plantations in the thirteen colonies developed inNew EnglandThe Middle Atlantic RegionThe SouthThe upper Mississippi River Valley
42ReviewThe pamphlet Common Sense, by Thomas Paine, aided the American cause in the Revolutionary War because itConvinced France to join in the fight against EnglandLed to the repeal of the Stamp ActCreated a new system of government for the United StatesPersuaded individuals who were undecided to support independence
43ReviewIn the Colonial Era, developments such as the New England town meetings and the establishment of the Virginia House of Burgesses representedColonial attempts to build a strong national governmentEfforts by the British to strengthen their control over the coloniesSteps in the growth of representative democracyEarly social reform movements