Presentation on theme: "Baron de Montesquieu Right to an examination of evidence for trial. politically ignoring the colonies as long as profits were made Bellringer What is Salutary."— Presentation transcript:
Baron de Montesquieu Right to an examination of evidence for trial. politically ignoring the colonies as long as profits were made Bellringer What is Salutary Neglect? What is Habeas Corpus? Who promoted the idea of separating the branches of government into the Executive, Judicial and Legislative?
New England House of Burgesses and the Mayflower Compact Life, Liberty and Property Bellringer According to John Locke, what are the three Natural Rights? What are two attempts at self- government in the early American Colonies? Which section of Colonial America stressed education, making schools for any towns with 50+ people?
In the map below draw and label the following (Use the map on Page 90): Mississippi River, Central Plains, Great Plains, Gulf of Mexico, Atlantic Ocean, Pacific Ocean, Appalachian Mountains, Rocky Mountains, and the Great lakes. Create a Compass Rose with 8 points of direction.
Foundations of American Society
Historical influences Democracy- power by the people was originally developed in Ancient Athens (Greece). Athens had a direct democracy, where all eligible citizens participated in government by taking part in discussions. Republic-originally developed in Rome, voters elect representatives who speak and act for the citizens. Sometimes called a representative democracy.
In other words…
English influences The American colonies were originally owned by the British, therefore they adopted many of the same concepts of government including: -Common law -Magna Carta -Petition of Right -The English Bill of Rights
Common Law The common law system developed over time from the customs and traditions of the court system and decisions. It became the legal system of all the nations that England colonized, including the 13 colonies
Magna Carta 1215- English Nobles forced King John to sign the Magna Carta, which limits the kings power. For example, it guaranteed the right to trial by a jury (but only for nobles)
Petition of Right 1628 King Charles I put into writing certain legal rights and traditions such as Habeas Corpus. This requires a person be brought before a court with evidence shown to prove the person should be sent to trial. This prevents arrest and imprisonment without trial.
The English Bill of Rights After a decade of fighting, Parliament overthrew King James II and replaced him with William and Mary of Orange. First, William and Mary had to sign the English Bill of Rights to establish that Representative government (Parliament) and the rule of law outweighed the monarch.
Enlightened Thinkers The Enlightenment occurred in the 17 th and 18 th centuries (1600-1700s). During the Enlightenment philosophers were concerned with the relationship between the people and the government. -John Locke -Baron de Montesquieu -Voltaire
John Locke Ideas -Natural Rights (Life, Liberty, Property) -Social Contract: people grant power to the government by following its laws if it protects their natural rights -Consent of the governed: if the government does not protect natural rights, then it can be overthrown Influenced Locke’s ideas influence the Declaration of Independence, Constitution, and the Bill of rights
Baron de Montesquieu Ideas Believed the British political system was successful because the power to govern was divided between the Monarch and two houses of Parliament. In other words, governmental power was balanced Influenced The three branches of government as set up by the US Constitution
Voltaire Ideas Wrote the Philosophical letters to praise the British institutions and rights. Believed in the freedom of speech, especially to denounce injustice Influenced First Amendment Freedom of Speech
Royal Colonies All colonies needed a Charter, or written permission from the king, to be formed. By 1730 most colonies were returned to Royal control. However, colonists mostly practiced self government because the king was thousands of miles away.
Salutary Neglect England was mostly concerned that the colonies produced a profit for the nation. To ensure this, Mercantilism was enforced and prevent colonists from manufacturing their own goods, or purchasing from foreign nations. Additionally, England practiced Salutary Neglect, or the healthy ignoring of the colonies. This gave Colonists the opportunity to create their own laws, justice systems and Legislative bodies.
Self Government There are several examples of early colonial attempts at self government: 1)The House of Burgesses in Jamestown 2)The Mayflower Compact in Plymouth
Road to Revolution The English governed the colonies for a century using salutary neglect. As the colonists continued to practice self rule, the British fought the French and Indians for control. This war was known as the French and Indian War from 1754-1763.
French and Indian War- Causes The French and British had been fighting for decades, both in Europe and in colonial areas. In North America, both the British and the French claimed control of the Ohio River Valley. As English Colonists continued to expand westward this dispute came to a head.
French and Indian allies The Indians sided with the French because to them, the French were the lesser of two evils. The French did not attempt to colonize the new world by building settlements and clearing land for plantations. Instead, the French only built small trading forts. From these forts the French traded guns and French goods for furs.
See the difference?
American response The Colonists helped start the French and Indian War. George Washington ambushed a French Fort, renaming it Fort Necessity. Eventually he lost the fort to French forces who outnumbered the colonists. In response, Ben Franklin proposed the Albany Plan of Union. The goals of the Albany Plan of Union was to create a council of Colonial delegates to strengthen their position. Unfortunately it failed.
Treaty of Paris 1763 The British win the French and Indian War (A.K.A. Seven Years War). The French lost their lands to the British, and the colonists felt their efforts in the war earned them the right to move into newly acquired lands. However, the British had other ideas… Turning Point in History: The British now control most of North America and the Natives can no longer play the British against the French
Proclamation Line of 1763 The British prohibited expansion west of the Appalachian Mountains. The goal was to avoid conflict with the Native Americans. To the American Colonists, it was a sudden departure from Salutary Neglect.
Update your maps
Effects The proclamation line of 1763 was meant to avoid conflicts between the colonists and Natives. Instead, it caused deep resentment among the colonists, who largely ignored the line. The Proclamation Line of 1763 was one of many actions by the British as they abandoned the practice of salutary neglect. The Proclamation Line of 1763 also led to the American Revolution
Causes of the American Revolution There were several causes of the American Revolution. However, the major push for independence did not start until Salutary Neglect ended along with the French and Indian War. 1)Economic causes 2)Political causes 3)Social and ideological causes
Economic Causes By 1763 Great Britain had control over much of North America, but it had a huge war debt to repay. Believing that the colonies should pay for their own defense, the British began to harshly enforce Mercantilism. Additionally, Parliament passed a number of taxes to generate revenue. 1)Sugar Act- tax on imports to the colonies 2)Stamp Act- tax on printed material including newspapers, wills and stamps The Colonists rejected these taxes and forced their appeal, or cancelling.
Economic Causes cont. In 1767 Britain passed the Townshend Acts, another tax on Imports. The colonists rejected this tax as well, and smuggled many goods into America. Eventually, the British used Writs of Assistance, a type of search warrant, to find smuggled goods.
Political Causes Colonists viewed the new taxes as a threat to their liberties, including the right to property. They claimed Great Britain had violated their natural rights by taxing the colonists who had no representation in Parliament. Britain argued that Parliament represented all citizens.
The Boston Massacre In 1770, many Bostonians were unemployed. They blamed the British taxes and enforcement of Mercantilism for their plight. One night, some of these men came upon British Soldiers and began shouting at them. Eventually the soldiers opened fire, killing 5 American Colonists. All had been unarmed. News of the massacre spread throughout the colonies.
Social and Ideological causes Enlightened thought had caused many colonists to question authority and increased a sense of justice among the people. Additionally, years of Salutary Neglect led the American colonists to develop self-sufficient lives with independent political systems. Give two examples of self government by the colonies prior to independence Mayflower compact House of Burgesses
No Taxation… The issue of taxation without representation rose again with the 1773 Tax Act which made British tea much cheaper than other imported tea. Colonists responded by destroying three shiploads of British Tea during the Boston Tea Party. This protest led to the Intolerable Acts of 1774. 21 LK
Intolerable Acts of 1774 The Intolerable Acts were meant to punish the colonists for the Boston tea Party. The Port of Boston was closed, town meetings were forbidden and the legislature’s powers were limited. Additionally more troops were sent to occupy Boston. These extra soldiers were ‘quartered’ in colonial homes. Colonists were forced to house, feed and care for these British soldiers.
Political Cartoon Who is represented by the ‘children’? Who are the men in uniform? Do you think the uniformed men are taking the ‘children’ seriously?
Continental Congress In late 1774 delegates from 12 of the colonies met in Philadelphia to plan a response to the British actions. This meeting was the first Continental Congress. The delegates decided to boycott British goods and issued a suggestion that all colonists arm themselves and train militias.
Loyalists and Patriots Patriot- colonist who supported freedom from England. Loyalist (tory)-colonist who supported the king and England. Not all Colonists supported the movement for independence. Many wanted to stay loyal to the King as long as taxes and natural rights were safeguarded. Tensions between these groups grew throughout the Revolutionary war period.
The American Revolution The Revolutionary war began in 1775 with the battles of Lexington and Concord. The colonists had been stock piling guns and training militias. 700 British soldiers marched to Concord to destroy these weapons, but 70 militia men attempted to stop them. They were defeated. But outside of Lexington, over 4,000 patriots gather to stop the British. Over 70 British soldiers were killed and the Revolution had begun.
Independence The Revolutionary War was not started with the goal on Independence, however, once the war had begun, Patriot Colonists could no longer see a solution to the conflict with Britain. Many colonists were persuaded into Independence by Thomas Paine’s pamphlet Common Sense. In Common Sense colonists were urged to take action to create an independent nation to safeguard their own natural rights.
Review Because of fertile land and a long growing season, plantations in the thirteen colonies developed in 1.New England 2.The Middle Atlantic Region 3.The South 4.The upper Mississippi River Valley
Review The pamphlet Common Sense, by Thomas Paine, aided the American cause in the Revolutionary War because it 1.Convinced France to join in the fight against England 2.Led to the repeal of the Stamp Act 3.Created a new system of government for the United States 4.Persuaded individuals who were undecided to support independence
Review In the Colonial Era, developments such as the New England town meetings and the establishment of the Virginia House of Burgesses represented 1.Colonial attempts to build a strong national government 2.Efforts by the British to strengthen their control over the colonies 3.Steps in the growth of representative democracy 4.Early social reform movements