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©2001 Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville All rights reserved. Today Wednesday Observation Techniques and Field notes “ Using Ethnography in Contextual.

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Presentation on theme: "©2001 Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville All rights reserved. Today Wednesday Observation Techniques and Field notes “ Using Ethnography in Contextual."— Presentation transcript:

1 ©2001 Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville All rights reserved. Today Wednesday Observation Techniques and Field notes “ Using Ethnography in Contextual Design” Observation Exercise Contextual Inquiry Reading: CD Ch. 2, 3, 4 CS 321 Human-Computer Interaction Small Group Discussion Reading The Psychopathology of Everyday Things” by D. Norman BDS Ch. 2 & Ch. 3

2 ©2001 Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville All rights reserved. Contextual Inquiry Learning what users do and what they care about.

3 ©2001 Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville All rights reserved. Can you recall an incident where the design of something has caused a problem? What was it about the design that caused a problem?

4 ©2001 Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville All rights reserved. This has got to be the worst design ever for a shower control. It is so bad there is a sticker on the faucet giving instructions for how to make the water come out of the shower. You'll never guess how you turn on the shower. You reach under the faucet, grab the part where the water comes out and pull down on it! Design suggestion This design is bad for a number of reasons. One is that nothing else works like this. Another is that the "control" for turning on the shower doesn't look anything like a control, so the control is basically hidden. Frequently, when devices come with instructions stuck on them, there is a problem with the design. How do you turn on the shower?

5 ©2001 Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville All rights reserved. As a means of deleting files and documents, the Macintosh trashcan is a perfectly intuitive metaphor. Unfortunately, the designers decided to extend the trashcan metaphor to include the completely counterintuitive function of ejecting diskettes: drag an image of the diskette to the trashcan to eject it from the computer. The Macintosh simply took the trashcan metaphor too far. They gave the trashcan magical powers that are completely incompatible with the established metaphorical association of deleting files. As a result, new users express anxiety and dismay at the metaphor, and even experienced users express reluctance to use the metaphor: “I don’t want to delete the files on the diskette, I just want the computer to spit it out.” How do you eject a disk?

6 ©2001 Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville All rights reserved. How do People reason about what they do? Reasoning requires a Knowledge Representation (KR) A Knowledge Representation Language (KRL) is a theory of Reasoning (cognition) KRL = A structure to encode facts + Methods for combining old facts to derive new facts Examples :  Formal Logic  Neural Network  Rule Based Reasoning  Cased Based Reasoning  Model Based Reasoning

7 ©2001 Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville All rights reserved. Mental Models The models people have of themselves, others, the environment, and the things with which they interact “Small-scale-model of External Reality” Consider alternatives Try out situations Use knowledge of past events in dealing with the present and future Provides predictive and explanatory power for understanding how things interact.

8 ©2001 Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville All rights reserved. Structural and Functional Models Structural Models An internalized form of a system Functional Models Internalized procedural knowledge of how a system works Examples: How many stop lights are between your house and the campus? How do you look-up someone’s phone number?

9 ©2001 Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville All rights reserved. How do we use Mental Models? Help us problem solve by providing us with the ability to predict what our actions will accomplish (predictive power) Help us learn by providing us with the ability to explain how a particular event occurred (explanatory power). We develop them through interactions with the world and use them to select what actions we will take.

10 ©2001 Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville All rights reserved. Conceptual Model A reasonably accurate and consistent representation of the target system. Design Goal – Devise the conceptual model that reflects a user’s mental model

11 ©2001 Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville All rights reserved. Contextual Inquiry Field data-gathering technique Studies a select number of individuals in depth to arrive at an understanding of work practice across all customers - Ethnography Core Idea: Go to where the user works Observe (participate) Discuss

12 ©2001 Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville All rights reserved. Four Principles of CI 1.Context 2.Partnership 3.Interpretation 4.Focus

13 ©2001 Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville All rights reserved. Context Get as close as possible to the ideal situation of being physically present. Gather data of an ongoing experience Gather concrete data Avoid abstract data Avoid summary experience Use real artifacts If a retrospective account is necessary, listen for holes and ask questions.

14 ©2001 Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville All rights reserved. Partnership Develop a collaborative relationship in trying to understand the work Relationship Models Interviewer/Interviewee Expert/Novice Guest/Host Parent/Child Master/Apprentice

15 ©2001 Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville All rights reserved. Interpretation Designs are built on the interpretation of facts From facts, the designer makes a hypothesis about what the fact means (interpretation) The hypothesis has an implication for the design Share interpretations & design ideas with the user Validate your understanding Helps links design to the interpretation

16 ©2001 Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville All rights reserved. Focus Point of view the interview takes while studying work. Keep conversation on topic Guide the user toward parts of the work relevant to the design Watch for interpersonal triggers Surprises Contradictions Nods

17 ©2001 Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville All rights reserved. In Class Exercise Break-up into six groups (as evenly divided as possible) Swap war stories about: Problems you have using a software program Choose the one everyone in the group thinks is the best story

18 ©2001 Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville All rights reserved. Gathering Observation Data: Ethnographic Research Ethnography is a research technique in anthropology that involves the study of groups and people within the context of their everyday activities. The approach requires the researcher become a “participant-observer”, systematically recording observations and experiences. Click movie to play

19 ©2001 Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville All rights reserved. Ethnographic Research Data gathered within natural setting. Develop a descriptive understanding. Setting includes dynamic network of inter-related variables. Qualitative research. Famous Ethnographers Margaret Mead & Jane Goodall Click movie to play

20 ©2001 Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville All rights reserved. Ethnography and Design In the context of design, the aim of ethnographic research is to develop a thorough understanding of current work practices as a basis for the design of computer support. Click movie to play

21 ©2001 Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville All rights reserved. Characteristics of Ethnographic Research Researcher is the instrument. Data gathered in natural setting. Data gathered through observations, interviews, data analysis, and questionnaires. Data gathered using more than one of these sources and validated through cross checking. Click movie to play

22 ©2001 Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville All rights reserved. Stages of Collection Informal stage: Collection of data; insights used to modify data collection and refine research questions Formal stage: sorting, organizing, and reducing the volume of the data “Thick Description”: identifying patterns, interpreting causes, consequences, and relationships to understand and provide explanation Description should be sufficiently realistic for others to see the implications Click movie to play

23 ©2001 Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville All rights reserved. Observations

24 ©2001 Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville All rights reserved. Observational Data Rough materials collected during observation. Obtain relevant data needed to improve and/or change systems. Methods of recording data: written notes, audiotape, sketches, photographs, and/or video tapes. Click movie to play

25 ©2001 Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville All rights reserved. Focus of Observations Physical setting. Activities. Human, social environment. Formal interactions. Informal interactions. Verbal & Non-verbal communications. What does not happen. Click movie to play

26 ©2001 Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville All rights reserved. Field Notes

27 ©2001 Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville All rights reserved. Characteristics of Field Notes Organize data Accurate. Detailed, thorough. Descriptive. Content part and reflective part. Click movie to play

28 ©2001 Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville All rights reserved. Format: Divided Page How does this relate to the teacher’s learning style? The students sat quietly in the darkened lab. One student sat in front of each of the multimedia computers. Each computer faced the back wall where the image from the instructor’s computer was projected. The teacher demonstrated a step with the software then had the children do the same step on their computer. As each child finished, the child waited for the teacher to demonstrate the next step.... Click movie to play

29 ©2001 Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville All rights reserved. Format: Large Left Margin The students sat quietly in the darkened lab. One student sat in front of each of the multimedia computers. Each computer faced the back wall where the image from the instructor’s computer was projected. The teacher demonstrated a step with the software then had the children do the same step on their computer. As each child finished, the child waited for the teacher to demonstrate the next step.... How does this relate to teacher’s preferred Learning style? Click movie to play

30 ©2001 Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville All rights reserved. Format: Separate Files Save descriptive part of field notes in one file. Use large left margin. Save reflective part of field notes in second file. Click movie to play

31 ©2001 Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville All rights reserved. Keep in Mind Transcribe data into field notes as soon as possible after observation. Don’t discuss observations with your team until you have written the field notes. Find quiet place to work that contains necessary equipment. Allow sufficient time for transcription and interpretation. Click movie to play

32 ©2001 Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville All rights reserved. Exercise Observation/Note Taking Assignment Purpose: To observe and describe a work setting, an individual working within that setting, and the actions of the individual. To practice developing field notes and interpreting observation data


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