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Most English colonists were glad to be part of the British Empire. Life was good and the American colonies had the highest standard of living in the world!

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Presentation on theme: "Most English colonists were glad to be part of the British Empire. Life was good and the American colonies had the highest standard of living in the world!"— Presentation transcript:

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2 Most English colonists were glad to be part of the British Empire. Life was good and the American colonies had the highest standard of living in the world! I CAN DESCRIBE SALUTARY NEGLECT AND WHAT IT MEANS TO THE CAUSE OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION

3 Salutary neglect Period of time between where the colonies saw little/no intervention by England in colonial affairs – Sir Robert Walpole- – Sir Robert Walpole--believed colonies should be left alone; best for England – Colonies developed self-reliance and effective organization – 13 separate colonial governments emerged – Americans became used to managing their own affairs w/o government interference I CAN DESCRIBE SALUTARY NEGLECT AND WHAT IT MEANS TO THE CAUSE OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION

4 American Revolutionary War is also known as the War for Independence, – We were 3000 miles away from England

5 WHAT IS mercantilism Belief that WEALTH was power An economic system in which a “mother country” attempts to establish colonies for the benefit of the mother country – Mother country tries to sell more than it bought and keep all the money in the family – All European countries at this time used mercantilism I CAN DEFINE MERCANTILISM AND ITS FOUR GOALS/PURPOSES

6 Goals/purposes of mercantilism 1. Ensure British naval power 2. Colonies provide raw materials 3. Colonies a market for British goods 4. Keep all the money in the British Empire I CAN DEFINE MERCANTILISM AND ITS FOUR GOALS/PURPOSES

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8 In order to ensure England’s wealth, all colonial purchases had to be purchased with “hard money” I CAN DEFINE MERCANTILISM AND ITS FOUR GOALS/PURPOSES

9 Enumerated articles Certain products (like tobacco) that were forbidden to be sold anywhere but to England I CAN DEFINE WHAT ENUMERATED ARTICLES ARE

10 parliament Law making body of England Consists of the House of Lords and House of Commons

11 Navigation laws Navigation Law of laws passed to enforce the mercantilist system – First enacted in 1650 – Goal was to stop Dutch shippers involved in American trade – Not enforced well early on I CAN SUMMARIZE THE REASON AND EFFECTS OF THE NAVIGATION ACTS

12 To avoid much of the parts of the Mercantilist system, colonists resort to smuggling JOHN HANCOCK--#1 smuggler, “King of All Smugglers”, wealthy businessman I CAN SUMMARIZE THE REASON AND EFFECTS OF THE NAVIGATION ACTS

13 1763 marked a new era of relations between England and the colonies

14 George grenville Prime Minister who first began the effort to get colonial America to help pay

15 King george III King of England during the Revolutionary War

16 British debt was huge! Lots of debt from the French and Indian War. British want the colonies to pay 1/3 rd of maintaining protection in the America’s I CAN LIST THE MAJOR TAXES/ACTS PLACED UPON THE COLONIES BY ENGLAND

17 Sugar act 1764 Sugar Act of 1764 – First law ever passed for raising tax revenue in the colonies – Created resentment, then anger died down I CAN LIST THE MAJOR TAXES/ACTS PLACED UPON THE COLONIES BY ENGLAND

18 Quartering Act of 1765 – Required certain colonies to provide food and quarters for British troops Stamp Act of 1765 – To raise money to support military force in colonies – Mandated the use of stamped paper or stamps showing payment of tax I CAN LIST THE MAJOR TAXES/ACTS PLACED UPON THE COLONIES BY ENGLAND

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20 Admiralty courts ADMIRALTY COURTS – Similar to military courts – No juries allowed – Guilty until you could prove innocence Trial by jury and “innocent until proven guilty” historic BRITISH RIGHTS I CAN LIST THE MAJOR TAXES/ACTS PLACED UPON THE COLONIES BY ENGLAND

21 Royal veto Was a method used by the King and Parliament to reject colonial laws I CAN LIST THE MAJOR TAXES/ACTS PLACED UPON THE COLONIES BY ENGLAND

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23 NO TAXATION WITHOUT REPRESENTATION Many colonist felt as thought they didn’t have representation on tax matters – Denied the right of Parliament, in which NO AMERICANS served, to impose taxes on them Grenville’s Response? – VIRTUAL REPRESENTATION Every member of Parliament represented ALL BRITISH persons, even American colonists!! I CAN EXPLAIN THE COLONIAL RESPONSES TO THESE ACTS

24 Colonial actions to the stamp act Stamp Act Congress of 1765 – Brought together in NY City 27 delegates from 9 colonies – Drew up a statement of grievances (complaints) – Begged King and Parliament to repeal act – Significance was began COLONIAL UNITY NonImportation Agreements – All will NOT buy or trade with England I CAN EXPLAIN THE COLONIAL RESPONSES TO THESE ACTS

25 violence Sons of Liberty/Daughters of Liberty – Enforced nonimportation agreements – Used “tar and feathers” I CAN EXPLAIN THE COLONIAL RESPONSES TO THESE ACTS

26 Did it work? England was hit hard – Hundreds of English workers out of work – Want Parliament to do away with Stamp Act I CAN EXPLAIN THE COLONIAL RESPONSES TO THESE ACTS

27 Declaratory act Passed with repeal of Stamp Act Said Parliament had the right to do WHATEVER it wanted with the colonies LINES IN THE SAND WERE DRAWN! I CAN EXPLAIN THE COLONIAL RESPONSES TO THESE ACTS

28 CHARLES TOWNSHEND New PM after Grenville Known as “Champagne Charley” (liked his adult beverages!) I CAN DESCRIBE THE BOSTON MASSACRE

29 TOWNSHEND ACTS Light tax on glass, white lead, paper, paint, and tea – Paid at the ports instead of directly by the colonists – Thought that would go OK for colonists Problems? – Colonists felt powerful after repeal of Stamp Act – Money to pay royal governors and judges in America Colonists had control of money and could control these BUT, if this happened, they COULD NOT control them! I CAN DESCRIBE THE BOSTON MASSACRE

30 Solutions? – NONIMPORTATION again, but not as successful I CAN DESCRIBE THE BOSTON MASSACRE

31 Nicknames for british soldiers 1. Redcoats 2. Bloodybacks 3. Lobsterbacks I CAN DESCRIBE THE BOSTON MASSACRE

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33 Boston massacre March 5 th, 1770 Tension building between British “REDCOATS” and colonists Violence erupted…first death CRISPUS ATTUCKS Used as propaganda to convince colonists of colonial cause

34 An eyewitness account "An unruly gang of civilians (colonists), to the amount of thirty or forty, mostly boys and many of them drunk, left a local tavern and saw a regiment of British soldiers. The gang assembled... near the sentry at the Custom- house door, began taunting the British, calling them names and throwing snow balls, along with horse manure and ice balls... I saw a party of soldiers come from the main guard, and draw themselves up... the people still continued in Boston Mass

35 An eyewitness account the street, crying, 'Fire, fire, and be damned,' and threw more snow balls. British Captain Preston could not control the crowd as they taunted the soldiers. He ordered his troops "Don’t fire!" but with the commotion I heard the word 'fire' given... and instantly the soldiers fired one after another." The troops fired and killed three men instantly; another two died later. The first man to die was Crispus Attucks, a black man. “ Boston Mass

36 When the smoke and confusion cleared, five Bostonians were dead or dying. John Adams, a lawyer (and future President), helped win acquittal for six of the soldiers, but his cousin, Sam Adams, a patriot leader, called the incident a "plot to massacre the inhabitants of Boston" and was used to rouse fellow colonists to rebel. Boston Mass.

37 Boston massacre townspeople against 10 Redcoats British were being provoked The Redcoats fired, wounding and killing 11 townspeople Crispus Attucks was the first person to die in this massacre Famous picture painted by Paul Revere I CAN DESCRIBE THE BOSTON MASSACRE

38 Lord North Took over after Townshend A “yes” man to King George!

39 Samuel Adams “Engineer of the Revolution” or “Penman of the Revolution” – Master at propaganda – Kept the tensions with Great Britain high Created in Massachusetts COMMITTEES of CORRESPONDENCE – These were men who wrote letters from one town to another in Mass. – Soon it became intercolonial – The colonists would exchange letters and build resentment against the British.

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41 Boston tea party 1773 Govt tried to help British East India Tea Company by giving them a monopoly on free trade Several “tea parties” occurred resulting in the burning of ships and tea In Boston, the colonists boarded all three ships and dumped 342 chests of tea into the harbor EFFECT? The British passed the Intolerable Acts I CAN DESCRIBE THE BOSTON TEA PARTY AND THE INTOLERABLE ACTS AND QUEBEC ACT

42 Intolerable Acts 1774 Also known as the Coercive Acts Intolerable Acts said… 1. The Port of Boston was to be closed until the damages paid for 2. Restricted town meetings 3. New stronger Quartering Act 4. If any English soldier killed an American, he would be tried in England I CAN DESCRIBE THE BOSTON TEA PARTY AND THE INTOLERABLE ACTS AND QUEBEC ACT

43 Quebec act 1774 QUEBEC ACT – Not really a punishment on Boston, but happened at the same time – Extended the borders of Quebec all the way down to the Ohio River Valley – Colonists fear Catholicism and French Canadian threat again! I CAN DESCRIBE THE BOSTON TEA PARTY AND THE INTOLERABLE ACTS AND QUEBEC ACT

44 Colonial reaction to quebec act Set a dangerous precedent – No representative assemblies and denials of jury trials---NO WAY!! Upset land settlers who were wanting to move into the area Aroused anti-Catholics who thought area was marked for Protestantism I CAN DESCRIBE THE BOSTON TEA PARTY AND THE INTOLERABLE ACTS AND QUEBEC ACT

45 1 st continental congress Met b/c of the INTOLERABLE ACTS Colonies send their representatives to Philadelphia to form a Congress in response to the Intolerable Acts in 1774 Created a document called “The Association” No real desire yet for independence Called for a boycott of British made goods Would meet again in 1775 if conditions with Britain did not get better Main goal was to try and negotiate with King George and Parliament I CAN SUMMARIZE THE EVENTS OF THE FIRST CONTINENTAL CONGRESS

46 After the Boston Tea Party the British send more troops to enforce the Intolerable Acts. The British sent troops mainly to get our gunpowder and to seize Sam Adams and John Hancock. Colonial militias prepare for war. I CAN SUMMARIZE THE EVENTS OF THE FIRST CONTINENTAL CONGRESS

47 minutemen Citizens who could on a moments notice be prepared to defend their country I CAN DESCRIBE THE EVENT OF THE BATTLE OF LEXINGTON AND CONCORD

48 Paul revere and william dawes Rode on horseback to notify Minutemen British had arrived! I CAN DESCRIBE THE EVENT OF THE BATTLE OF LEXINGTON AND CONCORD

49 Battle of lexington and concord 1775 Known as the “shot heard around the world” I CAN DESCRIBE THE EVENT OF THE BATTLE OF LEXINGTON AND CONCORD

50 British searching for stolen weapons– “search and seizure” Stopped at Lexington and encountered 56 Minutemen Minutemen stood up for what they believed was their land SHOT HEARD ‘ROUND THE WORLD I CAN DESCRIBE THE EVENT OF THE BATTLE OF LEXINGTON AND CONCORD

51 British Captain Pitcarin orders Minutemen off the green. Response by the Minutemen, “this is our green” Controversy over who fired the first shot 8 Americans killed. British didn’t find any weapons and continued to Concord I CAN DESCRIBE THE EVENT OF THE BATTLE OF LEXINGTON AND CONCORD

52 Americans 90 dead wounded or captured British 250 dead, wounded, or captured Minutemen engage British troops at Concord Bridge. British find some weapons at Concord. British return to Boston, 5,000 Minutemen attack British troops. I CAN DESCRIBE THE EVENT OF THE BATTLE OF LEXINGTON AND CONCORD

53 Englands strengths 1. Population 2. Money 3. Navy 4. Support of Natives I CAN LIST THE BRITISH STRENGTHS/WEAKNESSES

54 American strengths 1. Outstanding leadership 2. Economic aid from France 3. Defensive military tactics work 4. Able to produce enough food 5. Great marksmen 6. Moral advantage--just cause I CAN LIST THE COLONIES STRENGTHS/WEAKNESSES

55 British weaknesses 1. Distance to the colonies 2. Size of America 3. Poor leadership 4. American only had to tie, British had to win I CAN LIST THE BRITISH STRENGTHS/WEAKNESSES

56 American weaknesses 1. Poorly organized for war 2. Jealousy among colonies 3. Economic difficulties 4. Military challenges 5. Morale low/greedy profiteers 6. Only select few committed to cause I CAN LIST THE COLONIES STRENGTHS/WEAKNESSES

57 PopulationManufacturingMoneyArmyLeadersGeographyNavy Will to Fight Approximately 12 million Highly developed Richest country in the world Large, well trained army plus Hessians Few officers capable of leading Strange land---difficult to re-supply troops Naval world power Trained soldiers---but no heart Approximately 3 million and 1/3 loyal to England. Practically none No $$$ to support the war Volunteers, poorly equipped Dedicated officers plus foreign leaders Familiar land, easy access to supplies No navy Defending homeland---will to fight Factors Great BritainUnited States

58 Attrition [the Brits had a long supply line]. Guerilla tactics [fight an insurgent war  you don’t have to win a battle, just wear the British down] Make an alliance with one of Britain’s enemies. The Americans The British Break the colonies in half by getting between the No. & the So. Blockade the ports to prevent the flow of goods and supplies from an ally. “Divide and Conquer”  use the Loyalists.

59 Marquis de Lafayette Youthful French officer who gave America not only military service, but also $200,000 of his own money I CAN DISCUSS MAJOR PEOPLE INVOLVED IN THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION

60 Baron von stueben Drillmaster who whipped the Army into shape I CAN DISCUSS MAJOR PEOPLE INVOLVED IN THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION

61 Three famous African American’s who helped colonies 1. Peter Salem 2. Salem Poor 3. Prince Whipple I CAN DISCUSS MAJOR PEOPLE INVOLVED IN THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION

62 Around 1/3 rd of the colonists supported the Revolution, 1/3 rd supported the British, and 1/3 rd were apathetic!

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