Presentation on theme: "The American Revolution What I know about the American Revolution What I want to learn about the American Revolution What I learned about the American."— Presentation transcript:
Isaac Wilkins was a vocal and adamant Loyalist in New York who published pro- British newspaper essays and pamphlets as the “Westchester Farmer.” With other opponents of rebellion he issued a declaration in April 1775 to “express our honest abhorrence (loathing) of all unlawful congresses and committees, and that we are determined at the hazard of our lives and properties to support the King and [English Constitution” [Rivington’s New-York Gazetteer, 20 April 1775]. After residing in Nova Scotia for several years, he returned to New York where his Long Island farm was destroyed by American soldiers. Unlike many Loyalists, however, Wilkins established his post-revolution life in America. He died in New York in 1830
“the sufferings of all from mobs, rioters and trespassers” Mob Attacks on Loyalists in Massachusetts *Aug. 1774 – Feb. 1775
The Boston Massacre (March 5,1770 ) The Boston Massacre was the killing of five colonists by British regulars on March 5, 1770. It was the culmination of tensions in the American colonies that had been growing since Royal troops first appeared in Massachusetts in October 1768 to enforce the heavy tax burden imposed by the Townshend Acts. What prompted the Boston Massacre? Paul Revere “The Bloody Massacre”
The Townshend Revenue Act Taxes on glass, paint, oil, lead, paper, and tea were applied with the design of raising revenue for the administration of the colonies. Reaction to the Act - 1768, customs officials impounded a sloop owned by John Hancock, for violations of the trade regulations. Crowds mobbed the customs office, forcing the officials to retire to a British Warship in the Harbor. Troops began to occupy Boston on October 1, 1768. Bostonians offered no resistance. Rather they changed their tactics. They established non-importation agreements that quickly spread throughout the colonies. British trade soon dried up and the powerful merchants of Britain once again interceded on behalf of the colonies. Reflection: The Townshend Act TTYN
The Boston Massacre (March 5,1770) Timeline &The Aftermath…. June 29, 1767 – the British Parliament Passes the Townshend Acts October 1, 1768 - British Troops Start Arriving to Boston March 5, 1770 - The Boston Massacre Occurs October 24-30, 1770 - The Trial of Captain Preston November 27 - Dec 14, 1770 - the Trial of the British Soldiers The Color of War - Crispus Attucks was a sailor mulatto (African American and Native American descent), died on the spot. The Aftermath…. The Boston Massacre was a signal event leading to the Revolutionary War. It led directly to the Royal Governor evacuating the occupying army from the town of Boston. It would soon bring the revolution to armed rebellion throughout the colonies.
The Gaspee Affair Considering the events of Boston Massacre and the Gaspee Incident…can we consider the Colonist not only unruly but also terrorists? TTYN
Committees of Correspondence What was the purpose of the Committees of Correspondence? Before there were cell phones and facebook, people still had to find a way to communicate. The Committees allowed neighboring colonies to communicate and alert each other about incidents with Britain Every good resistance campaign requires a base: The Committees allowed for expansion within the resistance movement.
Committees of Correspondence Samuel Adams, one of the men instrumental in the founding of the United States of America, had an interesting career as a writer for newspapers among other things. He often wrote for the Boston Gazette, which was an alternative to some of the early pro Tory newspapers in New England. Adams wrote under several pen names as a means of avoiding scrutiny from the Governor of Massachusetts and others in England. Pen Name: Vindex
The Tea Act The Tea Act, passed by Parliament on May 10, 1773, Final spark to the revolutionary movement in Boston. The act was not intended to raise revenue in the American colonies, and in fact imposed no new taxes. It was designed to prop up the East India Company. This tea was to be shipped directly to the colonies, and sold at a bargain price. The Townshend Duties were still in place, however, and the radical leaders in America found reason to believe that this act was a maneuver to buy popular support for the taxes already in force. The direct sale of tea, via British agents, would also have undercut the business of local merchants. Colonists in Philadelphia and New York turned the tea ships back to Britain. In Charleston the cargo was left to rot on the docks. In Boston the Royal Governor was stubborn & held the ships in port, where the colonists would not allow them to unload. Cargoes of tea filled the harbor, and the British ship's crews were stalled in Boston looking for work and often finding trouble. This situation led to the ______ _________ _______??????
Did Somebody Say Party? On Monday morning, the 29th of November, 1773, a handbill was posted all over Boston, containing the following words: "Friends! Brethren! Countrymen!--That worst of plagues, the detested tea, shipped for this port by the East India Company, is now arrived in the harbor. The hour of destruction, or manly opposition to the machinations of tyranny, stares you in the face. Every friend to his country, to himself and to posterity, is now called upon to meet at Faneuil Hall, at nine o'clock THIS DAY (at which time the bells will ring), to make united and successful resistance to this last, worst, and most destructive measure of administration."
So, what was in the Tea Act? Who benefited from the Tea Act? Britain! ! Why did Britain benefit??? Monopoly on Britain tea imports Many members of British Parliament held shares in the British East Company Permitted the British East India Company to sell tea directly to colony’s without the middlemen (cheaper tea!)
What’s Next? In response to the Boston Tea Party, with the blessing of King George, Lord North unleashed a few new Acts, Bills, and Laws. The Intolerable Acts, 1774 or the Coercive Acts The Port Act The Quartering Act The Administration of Justice Act The Massachusetts Government Act The Quebec Act Good Bye Self-Rule Honey, I’m home! Not Guilty I say!! Closed for Renovations We hate the French
The Response First Continental Congress, Sept. 5 – Oct 26, 1774 The colonies presented there were united in a determination to show a combined authority to Great Britain. Their aims were not uniform at all. Pennsylvania and New York sent delegates with firm instructions to seek a resolution with England. The other colonies voices were defensive of colonial rights, but pretty evenly divided between those who sought legislative parity, and the more radical members who were prepared for separation.
The Rides of Paul Revere and William Dawes The Shot Heard ’Round the World! Lexington & Concord April 18,1775
The Response The Second Continental Congress, May 1775 Lexington and Concord changed everything. In May 1775, with Redcoats once again storming Boston, the Second Continental Congress convened in Philadelphia. The questions were different this time. - How would the colonist meet the military threat of the British? - Answer: The CONTINENTAL ARMY would be created. - George Washington of Virginia to be the supreme commander
The Battle of Bunker Hill, June 1775 While the Americans had suffered heavy casualties, with 150 dead and 270 wounded, British losses had been far worse, with 226 killed and 828 wounded. The British in Boston were thoroughly demoralized by their victory.
Last Ditch Effort Attached to your Majesty’s person, family, and Government, with all devotion that principle and affection can inspire; connected with Great Britain by the strongest ties that can unite societies, and deploring every event that tends in any degree to weaken them, we solemnly assure your Majesty, that we not only most ardently desire the former harmony between her and these Colonies may be restored, but that a concord may be established between them upon so firm a basis as to perpetuate its blessings, uninterrupted by any future dissensions, to succeeding generations in both countries, and to transmit your Majesty’s name to posterity, adorned with that signal and lasting glory that has attended the memory of those illustrious personages, whose virtues and abilities have extricated states from dangerous convulsions, and by securing the happiness to others, have erected the most noble and durable monuments to their own fame. The Olive Branch Petition Second Continental Congress July 1775 On August 23, George III proclaimed the American colonies to be in rebellion and urged that all efforts should be made “to suppress such rebellion, and bring the traitors to justice.” King George Response
Thomas Paine: Common Sense, Jan. 1776 Challenged the authority of the British government and the royal monarchy. The plain language that Paine used spoke to the common people of America and was the first work to openly ask for independence from Great Britain.
The American Revolution What I know about the American Revolution What I want to learn about the American Revolution What I learned about the American Revolution
Resources: Thomas Paine Common Sense John Adams DVD Declaration of Independence Writings from Sam Adams Writings from King George III Activities: K-W-L Split Note-Taking DBQ Small Group-Work TTYN Do Now’s Chapter Readings Short Response Assessment