5PreviewIn the 1700 & 1800s there are revolutions in: British America, France, Italy, Germany, Haiti, Peru, Mexico, Brazil, and Japan.We will look at many of these revolutions, but we will spend the most time on the “American Revolution” as you currently live in the United States.
6The Revolution… or Rebellion… or War Depending on who you speak to the conflict between the colonies and Britain could be a number of different things (British v US).Some people think that the event started at the Boston Massacre, some think it dates back to the French and Indian war.What most people do agree on is that taxes became one of the biggest issues.
7French & Indian WarA land war was fought in North America betweenThis is known as the French and Indian war (as the French and Indians largely fought together).Britain won this war, but felt it was only fair that the colonist pay for it (as Britain felt it was spending money helping the colonists)
8Taxes Britain intended to get its payment through taxes. Sugar Act: a tax passed on sugar and non-British goods. (Not noticed- affects merchants)Stamp Act: A stamp is required on anything paper (news papers, documents, playing cards). This causes a HUGE uproar as it affects many people.Parliament would repeal the Stamp Act, but maintains its authority to govern the colonies, and would impose more taxes in the future.
9The Colonists felt that they could only be directly taxed by their own elected officials. Anything else was Tyranny: “Taxation without Representation is tyranny.”Parliament’s response to the unrest was to pass an Act reconfirming they could legally rule the colonies.This period ends the British policy of Salutary Neglect, or Healthy disregard.
10Townshend Acts: Will place taxes on British glass, lead, paints, paper, and tea. Americans will boycott, not buy, British goodsAs tensions grow a group of colonist and British soldiers will get into a fight in Boston, 5 die.This will be called a Massacre by Samuel Adams, and an engraving will be made by a silversmith, Paul Revere, and sent through out the colonies.
11The Boston Tea PartyThe large majority of duties place on items by the Townshend act will be dropped, except for the tax on tea.1773 Parliament, trying to help a struggling company, gives the British East India Company exclusive rights to sell tea in the Colonies.Colonist are angry as they feel it threatens their merchants, and a boycott is called for.16 men, dressed as Mohawk Indians, will board 3 ships and dump 90,000 lbs of tea into the harbor in the event that we know as the Boston Tea Party.
12The Intolerable Acts: The Boston Port Act & Administration of Justice Act
13The Intolerable Acts: The Quartering Act & The Massachusetts Government Act
14The Fighting Begins The Intolerable Acts will cause another boycott. Militias (minutemen), groups of volunteer soldiers, will be formedOn April , 700 British troops are seen heading towards Concord MA to seize weapons, and the Minutemen are called on.The British meet about Minutemen in Lexington MA, after a mystery first shot, the war begins, and 8 militia men die.The British meet 100s of Militia at Concord, are turned away, and over 200 British die.
15It beginsAfter the Battles of Lexington & Concord the 2nd Continental Congress (1775) will be formed (the 1st recommended the boycotts in 1774)The 2nd CC decides that the Colonies should have their own army, called the Continental Army. George Washington is selected as their leader.Independence is not declared at this point.
16Common Sense Written by Thomas Paine Called for Independence for the coloniesSaid no one should be ruled by a kingSuggested a DemocracySold 120,000 copiesWell Received & spreads patriotic ideas
17Independence FinallyJune 7th, 1776, Richard Lee of VA suggest Independence for the Colonies at the CC (the Lee Resolution)A Committee is formed, but the writing of the Declaration is left to Jefferson.On July 2nd, the Lee Resolution is approvedOn July 4th the Declaration of Independence is approved.
19The War Starts (Officially) 40,000 British Troops + 30,000 Hessians (Mercenaries: fight for pay soldiers)Full force of the British Navy20,000 Colonial Troops & George Washington
20Washington, being outnumbered and humiliated early, decides to fight a defensive war. He only engages in battles he thinks he can win, and willingly retreats to fight another day.The British are not fighting the war to win, but to reunify the Colonies with Britain.Therefore, they never go for the “kill” when they have the opportunity.Result: Lots of moving, with numerous small battles. The War goes slowly
21Important Events/Battles Battle of SaratogaValley Forge1777, the British Surrender at the Battle of Saratoga (Benedict Arnold).This victory will convince the French to lend military support to the Americas (as the French hate the British and will join almost anyone fighting the Brits). This provides new troops, supplies, and a navy.Winter of2,500 men will die from the Continental Army from exposure & diseaseWashington holds the army together through charisma. The army will survive to fight in 1778
22The End: Battle of Yorktown The War continues to be a stalemateThe British General, Lord Cornwall, will move his men to Yorktown hoping to be evacuated by the British Navy.The French will cut off the sea, the Colonist cut off the landCornwall surrendered.Roughly 25,000 colonists will (6,500 Combat, 10,000 disease, and 8,500 as prisoners)The Revolution will officially end with the Treaty of Paris (1783)The End: Battle of Yorktown
23Articles of Confederation & Constitution The Americas will adopt the Articles of Confederation as their first governing document, & are specifically designed to be weakThe Articles are so poor they will be replaced with the a Constitution that has: 3 Branches of Government, Checks and Balances, a Bill of rights, & became the law of the LandGeorge Washington would be the 1st President of the United States.
24European RevolutionsFollowing the American Revolution there would be a series of revolutions and unifications in Europe.The French Revolution was one of the most radical revolutions in history, and resulted in the major upheaval of French Society.The peoples of Germany and Italy would unify to form nation-states for the first time in history.
25French RevolutionIn 1700s France was divide into three distinct social groups.First EstateSecond EstateThird EstateEveryone else made up 95% of the country
26The 3rd Estate had generally accepted the fact that they were the low level of society. They had problems with the fact that:Only the nobility could have guns, hunt, and force the peasants to workThat the nobility could create taxes, but didn’t pay taxesThat the 3rd estate paid all most all the taxes, and they were all ready poor.Between French Wars and the Palace of Versailles the nation of France was almost bankrupt.Problems in France
27The RevolutionMay 1789: French Citizens (inspired by the Enlightenment) declare a National Assembly, and start forming a constitution.The King stops the Assembly from meeting, which results in riots throughout France, and in Paris where the Bastille is destroyed.The Assembly would lose control after one year, but it had instituted the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizens, which stated that “Men are born free and remain equal in rights.”
28The Revolution continued without a clear leader. The French will periodically band together to wage wars against Austria and Prussia.In 1793 the Revolution gets really violent. The violence is known as the Reign of Terror and headed by the Committee for Public Safety.For 18 months numerous nobility were beheaded, including King Louis XVI, by the guillotine.In 1794 more conservative people took control.
29Napoleon BonaparteIn 1799 Napoleon, a military leader, would seize control of the French governmentHe would rule France as a dictator, but upheld numerous ideas from the revolution such as citizens’ equality, individual liberties, and the protection of property rights.In 1804 he instituted a law that protected these ideals, and is known as the Napoleonic Code.
30Napoleon conquered Austria, Germany, Prussia, Portugal, and Russia. France would control and influence much of EuropeAs Napoleon conquered Europe he would spread the idea of popular sovereignty, or that the people should govern themselves.
31Italian UnificationItaly in the 1800s consisted of numerous city-states ruled by Princes or the Pope, and the Northern regions of the country were controlled by AustriaThere was a movement for Italy to gain their independence from Austria known as the Risorgimento, Italian for resurrection
32In 1848, the Kingdom of Sardinia (northern Italy), led by King Victor Emanuel II, made an agreement with France to get rid of the Austrians.The French quickly beat the Austrians, but did not confer with the Italian King when making the peace treaty.Austria retained possession of Venetia, and the central states of Italy remained autonomous.Italian Uprising
33The Kingdom of Sardinia annexed many of the central Italian states (after allowing those areas to vote on the annexation)1860, Giuseppe Garibaldi led his volunteer army, the Red Shirts, into southern Italy and conquered Naples and Sicily for SardiniaIn 1861 the first Italian parliament declared Victor Emanuel II King of ItalyIn 1870 all of Italy was unified with the additions of Venetia and Rome
34German UnificationAfter the 1848 revolutions Germany saw its’ opportunity for unification.Germany had traditionally been ruled by the Austrian Empire, but Austria was weak.At the same time a liberal middle class of business and factory owners were pushing for a national German market.The strongest German state, Prussia, took the lead in unifying the country.
35In 1866 Prussia defeated Austria in a war and was now 2/3 of all German territory In 1867 Prussia unified with the Northern German ConfederationOtto Von Bismarck, Prussia’s Prime Minister, was the mastermind of the expansion.Bismarck wanted Prussia to remain strong in the future unified German, and needed to “convince” the southern German states to join the northern states.
36Bismarck and the Northern German States provoked the French into attacking them. The Southern German states, who were strongly anti-French, joined with the Northern states in 1871.The combined German forces would defeat France, and establish a unified German Empire.
37Latin American Revolutions The Spanish and Portuguese had been in control of South and Central America since the 1400s, but many European powers had possessions in that part of the world.Many of the occupied areas started to rebel.We will look at the rebellions that happened in Haiti and New Granada.
38Saint Domingue (Haitian) Revolution 1791- Saint Domingue Revolution will be inspired by the French RevolutionSlaves outnumbered the white ruling class on the island of Saint Domingue at this timeIn addition to slaves there was a 3rd class of mulatto people, or individuals of mixed decent.
39A free black, Toussaint L’Ouverture, would join the rebellion and become a leader of the movement By 1800 the slaves had taken control of the island, and eliminated most of their opposition.Napoleon would send a French force to crush the rebellion, but a combined black mulatto defeated the French.The first black republic of the island would be founded, and they would rename the island Haiti
40New Granada Revolution New Granada was largely controlled by SpainAs New Granada doesn’t exist today, this revolution took place across many modern day countiesThe revolution would be led by a revolutionary Creole named Simon Bolivar, and would earn the nickname “The Liberator”New Granada Revolution
41Bolivar’s efforts in independence often had mixed results Bolivar’s efforts in independence often had mixed results. Regions would at time join his revolution only to switch back to being loyal to Spain.Bolivar would ultimately be successful do to his use of guerilla warfare.The combined hit and run style of fighting frustrated the armies of Spain, who were at a great disadvantage as they did not know the land as well as the natives.
42Bolivar would have an international army consisting of South Americans, Creoles, British, Irish, mullatos, and a native group of cattle herders known as llaneros.Bolivar’s army would cross the Andes mountains to launch a surprise attack on the Spanish in Colombia, and secure independence for New Granada in 1822
43Asia- Meiji JapanJapan was brought out of isolation by the United States in 1853The warships and military technology of the US showed many in Japan just how behind they were in the worldThough Japanese isolationism kept the country stable, it also left them weak against an advanced world.
44The Shogun faced extreme pressure for allowing “barbarians” to force their way into Japan In 1867 an uprising against the Shogun turned into a full out rebellionThe uprising was exceedingly successful because the rebels had learned how to make “modern” weapons
45It was the Meiji who started the process of modernizing Japan In 1868 the Meiji Emperor officially came to power in Japan by ending the Shogun’s ruleIt was the Meiji who started the process of modernizing JapanThey would model Japan after the West bySetting up a representative governmentAbolishing the feudal systemIntroducing Western TechnologyImproving EducationModernizing their Economy
46Taiping RebellionIn 1644 the Manchus gained the Mandate of Heaven and founded the Qing DynastyThey engaged in foreign trade through the city of Guangzhou, which led to the opium trade with BritainThe Qing Dynasty knew that opium was bad for their people and attempted to stop the drug from entering their countryThis conflict would start the Opium Wars
47The British Navy would overpower the Chinese, and in the peace treaties the British would gain access to multiple trading ports around China.Soon other European powers demanded more trade, and China would be divided up into Spheres of InfluenceMany Chinese disapproved of how the Qing handled the situation
48An uprising against the Qing and the foreign powers started in southern China, and is known as the Taiping RebellionThe Rebellion was loosely based on Christian teachings as the leader Hong Xiuquan believed he was Jesus’ half brother, or God’s Chinese SonXiuquan called for the distribution of land to peasants, and equality between the sexes
49The Taiping rebellion would gain popularity among the peasants, and Xiuquan would lead an army North The Army would capture numerous cities, including Nanjing, and were extremely fierce in battleThey would for a short time found the Taiping Heavenly KingdomThe Manchus were only able to defeat Xiuquan with the military aid of the Europeans, but it still took decades & thousands were killedThis rebellion would inspire future anti-foreign rebellions in China, the most famous being the Boxer Rebellion