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CHAPTER 2: REVOLUTION AND THE EARLY REPUBLIC I. British AND Independent: The Colonies Before the French & Indian War A. Economic Independence: The Poorly.

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Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 2: REVOLUTION AND THE EARLY REPUBLIC I. British AND Independent: The Colonies Before the French & Indian War A. Economic Independence: The Poorly."— Presentation transcript:

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2 CHAPTER 2: REVOLUTION AND THE EARLY REPUBLIC

3 I. British AND Independent: The Colonies Before the French & Indian War A. Economic Independence: The Poorly Enforced Navigation Acts

4 B. Political Independence: Town Meetings, Royal Governors and the Power of the Purse

5 C. Geographic Expansion & the Population Boom YearColonial Population 16251, , , , , ,046, ,485, ,240, ,418,000

6 II. 4 Problems After the French and Indian War

7 1. It united them against a common enemy for the first time. 2. It created a socializing experience for all the colonials who participated. 3. It created bitter feelings towards the British that would only intensify. Effects of the War on the American Colonials

8 1. It increased her colonial empire in the Americas. 2. It greatly enlarged England’s debt. 3. Britain’s contempt for the colonials created bitter feelings. Therefore, England felt that a major reorganization of her American Empire was necessary! Effects of the War on Britain?

9 A. Land: The Proclamation of 1763

10 COLONIAL RESISTANCE AND REBELLION – SECTION 1 The Proclamation of 1763 sought to halt the westward expansion of the colonist, thus the colonist believed the British government did not care about their needs The Proclamation of 1763 sought to halt the westward expansion of the colonist, thus the colonist believed the British government did not care about their needs This was one of many measures passed by the English Parliament that would be strenuously opposed by the American Colonists This was one of many measures passed by the English Parliament that would be strenuously opposed by the American Colonists England’s Parliament and Big Ben

11 NO TAXATION WITHOUT REPRESENTATION Huge debt from the French-Indian War caused the English Parliament to impose a series of taxes on the colonists Huge debt from the French-Indian War caused the English Parliament to impose a series of taxes on the colonists The Sugar Act and the Stamp Act were two such taxes The Sugar Act and the Stamp Act were two such taxes Colonists protest

12 B. Taxes: The Sugar Act, The Stamp Act, and the Townshend Acts

13 THE SUGAR ACT The Sugar Act (1764) placed duties (taxes) on certain imports that had not been taxed before The Sugar Act (1764) placed duties (taxes) on certain imports that had not been taxed before More importantly, it meant colonists accused of violating the Act were tried in Vice-Admiral Courts rather than Colonial Courts More importantly, it meant colonists accused of violating the Act were tried in Vice-Admiral Courts rather than Colonial Courts

14 THE STAMP ACT In March of 1765 Parliament passed the Stamp Act which imposed a tax on documents and printed items such as wills, newspapers, and cards (a stamp would then be placed on the item) In March of 1765 Parliament passed the Stamp Act which imposed a tax on documents and printed items such as wills, newspapers, and cards (a stamp would then be placed on the item)

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16 C. Troops: The Quartering Act and the Boston Massacre

17 D. Political Power: Royal Governors & Admirality Courts

18 RESISTANCE GROWS In May of 1765 Colonists formed a secret resistance group called, Sons of Liberty to protest the laws In May of 1765 Colonists formed a secret resistance group called, Sons of Liberty to protest the laws Merchants agree to boycott British goods until the Acts are repealed Merchants agree to boycott British goods until the Acts are repealed

19 MORE TAXES, MORE PROTESTS More taxes and acts soon followed: Declaratory Act More taxes and acts soon followed: Declaratory Act Townshend Acts Townshend Acts The Townshend Acts taxed goods brought into the colonies from Britain – including lead, paint, glass, paper and TEA

20 Committees of Correspondence Purpose  warn neighboring colonies about incidents with Br.  broaden the resistance movement.

21 TENSION MOUNTS IN MASSACHUSETTS The atmosphere in Boston was extremely tense The atmosphere in Boston was extremely tense The city erupted in bloody clashes and a daring tax protest, all of which pushed the colonists and England closer to war The city erupted in bloody clashes and a daring tax protest, all of which pushed the colonists and England closer to war Boston Massacre was in 1770 when a mob taunted British soldiers – 5 colonists were killed Boston Massacre was in 1770 when a mob taunted British soldiers – 5 colonists were killed BOSTON MASSACRE 1770 BY PAUL REVERE

22 III. From Gripes to Gunshots: The Battle of Lexington and Concord

23 Tea Act (1773) 8 British East India Co.:  Monopoly on Br. tea imports.  Many members of Parl. held shares.  Permitted the Co. to sell tea directly to cols. without col. middlemen (cheaper tea!) 8 North expected the cols. to eagerly choose the cheaper tea.

24 BOSTON TEA PARTY 1773

25 BRITS RESPOND TO TEA VANDALS After 18,000 pounds of tea was dumped by colonists into Boston Harbor, King George III was infuriated After 18,000 pounds of tea was dumped by colonists into Boston Harbor, King George III was infuriated Parliament responded by passing the Intolerable Acts; which included the closing of the Harbor, the Quartering Act, Martial law in Boston Parliament responded by passing the Intolerable Acts; which included the closing of the Harbor, the Quartering Act, Martial law in Boston

26 The Coercive or Intolerable Acts (1774) Lord North 1. Port Bill 2. Government Act 4. Administration of Justice Act 3. New Quartering Act

27 The Quebec Act (1774)

28 New Restraints & Burdens on Americans Limits on Legislative Action Curbs on Territorial Expansion Burdens on Colonial Trade Imposition of New Taxes 1763Proclamation Line of 1763 Peacetime use of navy & new customs officials to enforce Navigation Acts 1764Currency Act limits legislatures ability to issue paper $ Vice-admiralty courts strengthened for Sugar Act Sugar Act imposes taxes for revenue (modified 1766)

29 New Restraints & Burdens on Americans Limits on Legislative Action Curbs on Territorial Expansion Burdens on Colonial Trade Imposition of New Taxes 1765Quartering Act requires assemblies to provide facilities for royal troops Stamp Act imposes internal taxes on various items (repealed 1766)

30 New Restraints & Burdens on Americans Limits on Legislative Action Curbs on Territorial Expansion Burdens on Colonial Trade Imposition of New Taxes 1766(Declaratory Act proclaims Parliament’s Right to legislate For colonies in all cases whatsoever 1767Royal instructions limit size of colonial assemblies Vice-admiralty courts strengthened for Townshend duties Townshend duties imposed on some( imported goods in order to pay colonial officials (repealed 1770 except tea)

31 New Restraints & Burdens on Americans Limits on Legislative Action Curbs on Territorial Expansion Burdens on Colonial Trade Imposition of New Taxes 1773Tea Act reduces duty and prompts Boston Tea Party 1774Mass. Gov. Act limits town meetings, changes legislature, & violates Mass. charter Quebec Act enlarges Quebec at expense of colonies with claims in Ohio River Valley Boston Port Act closes harbor until East India Co.’s tea is paid for Quartering Act declares that troops could be lodged in virtually any uninhabited building in Boston

32 THE ROAD TO REVOLUTION Colonists start to organize and communicate Colonists start to organize and communicate First Continental Congress met in 1774 and drew up rights First Continental Congress met in 1774 and drew up rights Military preparation began Military preparation began England reacts by ordering troops to seize weapons England reacts by ordering troops to seize weapons ATTENDEES INCLUDED SAMUEL ADAMS, PATRICK HENRY, AND GEORGE WASHINGTON FIRST CONTINENTAL CONGRESS PHILLY

33 First Continental Congress (1774) 55 delegates from 12 colonies Agenda  How to respond to the Coercive Acts & the Quebec Act? 1 vote per colony represented.

34 LEXINGTON AND CONCORD With Paul Revere’s announcement, the Colonists and the British began fighting in April of 1775 With Paul Revere’s announcement, the Colonists and the British began fighting in April of 1775 The first battle of the American Revolution lasted only 15 minutes, but its impact has lasted for over 200 years The first battle of the American Revolution lasted only 15 minutes, but its impact has lasted for over 200 years

35 C. Uncertainty About Independence ( )

36 SECOND CONTINENTAL CONGRESS May 1775, Colonial leaders met for a Second Continental Congress May 1775, Colonial leaders met for a Second Continental Congress Some called for Independence, some for reconciliation Some called for Independence, some for reconciliation Finally, the Congress agreed to appoint George Washington as head of the Continental Army Finally, the Congress agreed to appoint George Washington as head of the Continental Army Patrick Henry addresses Congress

37 A last attempt at a solution with England… Colonists wanted redress, not independence Colonists wanted redress, not independence July 1775—Olive Branch Petition July 1775—Olive Branch Petition After American victory at Bunker Hill, King George refuses After American victory at Bunker Hill, King George refuses Declares colonies in rebellionDeclares colonies in rebellion Begins to hire more foreign troops to help— (Ex. German Hessians)Begins to hire more foreign troops to help— (Ex. German Hessians)

38 OLIVE BRANCH PETITION By July 1775, the Second Continental Congress was readying for war, though still hoping for peace By July 1775, the Second Continental Congress was readying for war, though still hoping for peace Most delegates deeply loyal to King George III Most delegates deeply loyal to King George III July 8 – Olive Branch Petition sent to King who flatly refused it July 8 – Olive Branch Petition sent to King who flatly refused it

39 BATTLE OF BUNKER HILL British General Thomas Gage decided on an attack on Breed’s Hill (near Boston) British General Thomas Gage decided on an attack on Breed’s Hill (near Boston) Deadliest battle of war as over 1,000 redcoats and 450 colonists died Deadliest battle of war as over 1,000 redcoats and 450 colonists died Battle misnamed Bunker Hill (Breed’s Hill would have been more accurate) Battle misnamed Bunker Hill (Breed’s Hill would have been more accurate) June 1775 Battle of Bunker Hill

40 Canada and the move to full scale revolution Colonists invaded Canada to win another ally Colonists invaded Canada to win another ally Now undisguised offensive warfare! Now undisguised offensive warfare! Invasion fails, but fighting continues. Invasion fails, but fighting continues. Still most colonists didn’t show a desire for independence. Still most colonists didn’t show a desire for independence.

41 INDEPENDENCE MINDED Public opinion shifted toward Independence Public opinion shifted toward Independence Why? Enlightenment ideas (John Locke’s Social Contract, and Thomas Paine’s Common Sense) Why? Enlightenment ideas (John Locke’s Social Contract, and Thomas Paine’s Common Sense) HUGE BEST SELLER, “COMMON SENSE” 1776

42 Hesitation for Independence Ingrained loyalty to empire Ingrained loyalty to empire Colonial unity still not fully developed Colonial unity still not fully developed Open rebellion still dangerous Open rebellion still dangerous Army officers still toasting—”God save the king”! Army officers still toasting—”God save the king”!

43 What changed? Saw harsh British acts during warfare Saw harsh British acts during warfare Hiring of Hessians Hiring of Hessians Most importantly—Thomas Paine’s Common Sense Most importantly—Thomas Paine’s Common Sense

44 Thomas Paine’s Common Sense 1776—one of the most influential pamphlets ever written. 1776—one of the most influential pamphlets ever written. Best-seller, read all over colonies. Best-seller, read all over colonies. Said that fighting against the British without the goal of independence against common sense. Said that fighting against the British without the goal of independence against common sense.

45 Common Sense as Propaganda “Should we neglect the present favorable and inviting period, and independence be hereafter effected by any other means, we must charge the consequence to ourselves, or to those rather whose narrow and prejudiced souls are habitually opposing the measure, without either inquiring or reflecting. There are reasons to be given in support of independence which men should rather privately think of, than be publicly told of. We ought not now to be debating whether we shall be independent or not, but anxious to accomplish it on a firm, secure, and honorable basis, and uneasy rather that it is not yet began upon. Every day convinces us of its necessity.” “Should we neglect the present favorable and inviting period, and independence be hereafter effected by any other means, we must charge the consequence to ourselves, or to those rather whose narrow and prejudiced souls are habitually opposing the measure, without either inquiring or reflecting. There are reasons to be given in support of independence which men should rather privately think of, than be publicly told of. We ought not now to be debating whether we shall be independent or not, but anxious to accomplish it on a firm, secure, and honorable basis, and uneasy rather that it is not yet began upon. Every day convinces us of its necessity.”

46 A Radical Idea! Not just independence, but creation of REPUBLIC Not just independence, but creation of REPUBLIC Power from the peoplePower from the people Roots from Greece and RomeRoots from Greece and Rome Already in practice in colonies—esp. New England town meetingAlready in practice in colonies—esp. New England town meeting Civic virtueCivic virtue Conflicts over what republicanism really meantConflicts over what republicanism really meant

47 The Need for a Declaration July 2 nd 1776—Richard Henry Lee to Continental Congress— July 2 nd 1776—Richard Henry Lee to Continental Congress— “These United Colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent states.”“These United Colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent states.” Still needed formal explanation Still needed formal explanation Something to rally people around cause Something to rally people around cause

48 Jefferson’s Declaration of Independence July 4, 1776 July 4, 1776 “Explanation of Independence” “Explanation of Independence” Natural Rights Natural Rights List of complaints against George III List of complaints against George III “World’s greatest editorial” “World’s greatest editorial”

49 DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE On July 4, 1776, the Continental Congress voted unanimously that the American Colonies were free and they adopted the Declaration of Independence On July 4, 1776, the Continental Congress voted unanimously that the American Colonies were free and they adopted the Declaration of Independence The Colonists had declared their independence– they would now have to fight for it The Colonists had declared their independence– they would now have to fight for it JEFFERSON, ADAMS, & FRANKLIN

50 Impact of Declaration Patriots now rebels, instant unity Patriots now rebels, instant unity Could more easily ask foreign countries for help Could more easily ask foreign countries for help Source of inspiration for other revolutionary movements Source of inspiration for other revolutionary movements

51 “A War Within A War” Not only fighting British soldiers, but also loyalists in America. Not only fighting British soldiers, but also loyalists in America. Loyalists=Tories Loyalists=Tories Patriots=Whigs Patriots=Whigs Need to win the hearts and minds of the colonial population—PATRIOTS BETTER AT THIS! Need to win the hearts and minds of the colonial population—PATRIOTS BETTER AT THIS!

52 Who were the Loyalists? Only 16% of population Only 16% of population People of education, wealth and culture People of education, wealth and culture People who worked for crown or part of Anglican church. People who worked for crown or part of Anglican church. More in older generation More in older generation Were some who weren’t rich—especially British veterans, recent immigrants Were some who weren’t rich—especially British veterans, recent immigrants AFRICAN AMERICANS AFRICAN AMERICANS

53 The Loyalist Exodus Not much brutality before Declaration Not much brutality before Declaration After, Loyalists seen as traitors. After, Loyalists seen as traitors. Many harassed, imprisoned, some hanged Many harassed, imprisoned, some hanged 80,000 driven out or fled—land confiscated for Patriot cause. 80,000 driven out or fled—land confiscated for Patriot cause. Many went to fight for British, or served as spies. Many went to fight for British, or served as spies.

54 THE WAR FOR INDEPENDENCE – SECTION 2 Colonists divided between Loyalists and Patriots Colonists divided between Loyalists and Patriots New York City early site of battles New York City early site of battles Colonial troops retreat, then surprise British troops at Saratoga Colonial troops retreat, then surprise British troops at Saratoga

55 What strengths and weaknesses did the colonists’ posses during the revolution? - Strengths 1) Familiarity of home ground 2) Leadership of George Washington 3) Inspiring cause – Independence - Weaknesses 1) Soldiers untrained and undisciplined 2) Shortage of food and ammunition 3) Inferior navy 4) No central government to enforce policies

56 What strengths and weaknesses did the British posses during the revolution? - Strengths 1) Strong, well-trained army and navy 2) Strong central government with money 3) Support of colonial loyalists and Natives - Weaknesses 1) Large distance 2) Unfamiliar with terrain 3) Weak military leaders

57 WINNING THE WAR With French military leader Marquis de Lafayette’s help, Colonial troops became effective fighters With French military leader Marquis de Lafayette’s help, Colonial troops became effective fighters May 1780, British troops successfully take Charles Town, S.C. May 1780, British troops successfully take Charles Town, S.C. However, it was the last major victory for the British as General Cornwallis finally surrendered at Yorkstown, Va. on October 18, 1781 However, it was the last major victory for the British as General Cornwallis finally surrendered at Yorkstown, Va. on October 18, 1781 The Americans victory shocked the world The Americans victory shocked the world Cornwallis surrenders

58 TREATY OF PARIS Peace talks began in Paris in 1782 Peace talks began in Paris in 1782 American negotiating team included John Jay, John Adams, and Ben Franklin American negotiating team included John Jay, John Adams, and Ben Franklin Treaty signed in September of 1783 and officially recognized the independence of the United States and set boundaries Treaty signed in September of 1783 and officially recognized the independence of the United States and set boundaries


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