The ideas of the Enlightenment and the perceived unfairness of British policies provoked debate and resistance by the American colonists.
Salutary Neglect: English policy of leaving the colonies to develop on their own. The main goal of England: To make money
The rivalry in North America between Britain and France led to the French and Indian War, in which the French were driven out of Canada and their territories west of the Appalachian Mountains. Over Ohio River Valley English will abandon policy of salutary neglect and take a more forceful approach in colonies.
Results… › Britain has world empire › Britain - huge debt; large area to defend › bitter feelings between Britain and colonies › Colonists see Brits are not invincible › Colonial trade limited › Americans work together to defeat a common enemy (1 st time) Without this war, the American Revolution would not have occurred!
War increases colonial unity, How? Increased perception that colonies should be Independent › Spanish and Indians weaker › French Gone Colonists believe they can roam free
Mercantilism fully embraced and enforced › Navigation Acts › Restrictions on production › No Currency in America – use gold and silver › Privy council could over rule colonial law
As a result of the war, Britain took several actions that angered the American colonies and led to the American Revolution. These included -Sugar Act(Revenue Act of 1764)- duty on sugar and other luxuries, leads to stricter enforcement of Navigation Acts, smugglers no longer get trial by jury. -Quartering Act- required colonists to provide food and living quarters for British soldiers.
-the Proclamation of 1763, which prohibited settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains, a region that was costly for the British to protect. -new taxes on legal documents (the “Stamp Act”), tea, and sugar, to pay costs incurred during the French and Indian War and for British troops to protect colonists. Leads to the formation of the Sons and Daughters of Liberty & Stamp Act Congress to protest the act.
Colonial Reaction: “Stamp Act Congress” › 9 colonies › “No Taxation w/o representation verse “Virtual Representation” › External/Internal Taxes › Send list of grievances to King Parliament repeals act Declaratory Act Starts Boycotts – people make own products
The Boston Massacre took place when British troops fired on anti-British demonstrators. March 1770 ---5 colonists killed, used as propaganda to incite anti-British feelings.
Resistance to British rule in the colonies mounted, leading to war: The Boston Tea Party occurred, 1773. The First Continental Congress was called, to which all of the colonies except Georgia sent representatives—the first time most of the colonies had acted together. No desire for independence-How should we react to these attacks on our liberties?
Coercive Acts- 1) closed the port of Boston, no trade until tea was paid for. 2) reduced power of Mass. Legislature. 3) royal officials accused of crimes would be tried in England. 4) expanded the Quartering Act to private homes. Quebec Act-established Roman Catholicism as official religion of Quebec, set up gov’t without representative assembly, and extended Quebec’s boundary to Ohio River
1 st Continental Congress 1774 › All colonies except Georgia sent representatives, colonies act together first time › List of grievances “Declaration of Rights” Rejected
“These are the times that try men’s souls. The summer soldier and the sunshine patriot will in this crisis shrink from the service of their country; but he that stands it now deserves the love and thanks of man and woman.” Paine The American Crisis
The Regulars Are Coming... Paul Revere & William Dawes make their midnight ride to warn the Minutemen of approaching British soldiers.
War began when the “Minutemen” in Massachusetts fought a brief skirmish with British troops at Lexington and Concord. Start of War
Colonies: 2.5 million citizens Weak gov’t & navy Little money or weapons Colonial jealousy Strong leaders Defensive war France England: 7.5 million citizens Strong navy Large, well equipped army Loyalists Weak military leaders Distance France
Colonist TypeDescriptionExamples Patriots Complete independence Confiscate loyalist property Paine, Henry, John and Sam Adams, Washington, New England Presbyterians and Congregationalist Loyalists (Tories) Believed that taxation of the colonies was justified to pay for British troops to protect American settlers from Indian attacks, Many leave during and after the war William Franklin (Ben’s son) Southerners, Anglican Church members Neutrals The many colonists who tried to stay as uninvolved in the war as possible Westerners
Philadelphia, May 1775– -George Washington appointed head of colonial army, Benedict Arnold sent to invade Canada, Navy & Marine Corps organized. -Olive Branch Petition sent to King George, July 1775, last ditch effort at peace, pledged loyalty and asked king to protect their rights.
Famous Statment made by Partick Henry, a patriot, was... "...Give me Liberty or give me Death"
Bunker Hill-June 1775- Americans inflict heavy casualties, retreat because they run out of ammunition. Common Sense- Jan. 1776 Declaration of Independence- July 4 th 1776 Saratoga- victory is turning point of war- France now joins the colonists Yorktown-1781- last major battle of the revolution, French army & navy help defeat the British in Virginia- Cornwallis surrenders Treaty of Paris 1783 ends war
Cornwallis’ Surrender at Yorktown: Painted by John Trumbull, 1797 “The World Turned Upside Down!”
The American rebels won their independence because the British government grew tired of the struggle soon after the French agreed to help the Americans.
Diplomatic -Benjamin Franklin negotiated a Treaty of Alliance with France--1778. -The war did not have popular support in Great Britain.
Military -George Washington, general of the American army, avoided any situation that threatened the destruction of his army, and his leadership kept the army together when defeat seemed inevitable. -Americans benefited from the presence of the French army and navy at the Battle of Yorktown, which ended the war with an American victory.
RRecognize US independence GGives all land east of Mississippi and South of the Great Lakes to Florida ›W›Why so much? ›G›Good deal for US – Brits pulling US from French
What differences existed among Americans concerning separation from Great Britain? What factors contributed to the victory of the American rebels?