Presentation on theme: "Revolution and the New Nation: Revolution"— Presentation transcript:
1Revolution and the New Nation: Revolution Unit 2 Power Point 2Revolution and the New Nation: Revolution
2The ideas of the Enlightenment and the perceived unfairness of British policies provoked debate and resistance by the American colonists.
3England & Colonial America Salutary Neglect: English policy of leaving the colonies to develop on their own.The main goal of England: To make money
4Anglo-French rivalry leading to conflict with the colonies The rivalry in North America between Britain and France led to the French and Indian War, in which the French were driven out of Canada and their territories west of the Appalachian Mountains. Over Ohio River ValleyEnglish will abandon policy of salutary neglect and take a more forceful approach in colonies.European Warfare Comes to AmericaRoots of the Seven Years WarStruggle for control of continent between France and England -- discuss area controlled by Britain and FranceEnglish fur traders began to venture into French controlled territory (western Penn, eastern Ohio--known as Ohio country) in 1752French began to build a series of fortifications to protect their fur bearing regionsGeorge Washington and Edward Braddock lead ill-fated missions in 1754 and 1755 against the French outposts, both parties beaten badly by French and Indian forcesBritain declares war in 1756 after learning of Braddock fiascoFighting of the warFrom , a combined British-Colonial force fought against the French and their native alliesDuring this time, the British led forces captured all the major French outpostsBy 1763, France, Spain, and Britain signed the treaty of ParisFrance gave up all claim to its major holdings in North AmericaSpain surrendered claim to FloridaImpact of the war in North AmericaFrance excluded from North AmericaNative American tribes could no longer play the Europeans off against each otherTo prevent Indian uprisings, Britain issued Proclamation of no colonists past the headwaters of the Appalachian Mountains (Atlantic side)Colonists began to look at their situation in a new lightan estimated 1/3 of New England men of military age fought in the war alongside the Britishmost did not like what they sawclass-separated armyharsh disciplinerefusal to respect agreements made with colonials--such as terms of enlistmentmany of these men began to see British as tyrants
6French and Indian War Results… Britain has world empireBritain - huge debt; large area to defendbitter feelings between Britain and coloniesColonists see Brits are not invincibleColonial trade limitedAmericans work together to defeat a common enemy (1st time)Without this war, the American Revolution would not have occurred!
7The F/I War caused Economic, Political, and Social Changes. War increases colonial unity, How?Increased perception that colonies should be IndependentSpanish and Indians weakerFrench GoneColonists believe they can roam free
8New Era Mercantilism fully embraced and enforced Navigation Acts Restrictions on productionNo Currency in America – use gold and silverPrivy council could over rule colonial law
9As a result of the war, Britain took several actions that angered the American colonies and led to the American Revolution. These included-Sugar Act(Revenue Act of 1764)- duty on sugar and other luxuries, leads to stricter enforcement of Navigation Acts, smugglers no longer get trial by jury.-Quartering Act- required colonists to provide food and living quarters for British soldiers.Paying for the warSince the war began in colonies, and fought much for colonists sake, Britain expected colonies to bear significant portion of expenseLord Grenville, appointed prime minister in 1763 by the new King George III (of weak mind), decided to ask Americans to pay more for the upkeep of themselves and the British empireSugar Act and Currency Act (1764)Sugar Act aimed at raising money and stopping widespread smuggling of sugar (in form of molasses)Currency Act outlaws (in effect) the use of colonial paper money, requiring hard money to be used
10-the Proclamation of 1763, which prohibited settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains, a region that was costly for the British to protect.-new taxes on legal documents (the “Stamp Act”), tea, and sugar, to pay costs incurred during the French and Indian War and for British troops to protect colonists.Leads to the formation of the Sons and Daughters of Liberty & Stamp Act Congress to protest the act.Resistance to imperial edictsThe Stamp Act of 1765Required tax stamps on most printed materials--newspapers, pamphlets, wills, deeds, playing cards, licenses for different occupations, notes for loansTax had to be paid in specieReaction to the Stamp ActJames Otis, Jr.Virginia House of BurgessesMobocracySons of Liberty (formed 1765)formed to organize resistance to Stamp Actmade up of urban elite--lawyers, merchants, and tradesmenformed first in NYC, but had branches in other towns and cities along coastStamp Act Congress (1765)intercolonial congress met in NYC in Octoberpurpose was to write a unified statement of protest--couched in conservative terms so as not to offend ParliamentNonimportation pact--informal agreements not to import British goods--enforced by threats and violence if neededRepeal of the Stamp Act, passage of Declaratory Act (1766)RepealChange in British government--Lord Rockingham replaces Grenville as P.M.--signals change in positionStamp Act repealedPassage of Declaratory Acttied to repeal of Stamp Actdecreed that Parliament had the authority to tax and legislate British colonies in North America in whatever manner or circumstances it chosedidn't receive much attentionTownshend Acts (1767)William Pitt replaces RockinghamCharles Townshend appointed to head the Exchequer (British treasury department)Townshend decides more monies needed from the colonies (debt from Seven Years War still outstanding)Gets Parliament to pass new revenue act named after himPuts duties on trade goods--glass, paper, cloth, and teaDuties were levied on goods from Britain, not other countries--differ from the Navigation ActsDuties meant to be used to pay salaries of royal officials in the colonies--formerly, colonial legislatures had paid these salariesCreated American Board of Customs--to sit in Boston, Philadelphia, and Charleston
11Taxes and Acts Cause a War Colonial Reaction: “Stamp Act Congress”9 colonies“No Taxation w/o representation verse “Virtual Representation”External/Internal TaxesSend list of grievances to KingParliament repeals actDeclaratory ActStarts Boycotts – people make own products
12The Boston Massacre took place when British troops fired on anti-British demonstrators. March 1770 ---5 colonists killed, used as propaganda to incite anti-British feelings.Boston a hotbed of troubleMassachusetts Assembly issued a circular letter to be sent to all colonial legislaturesCalled for a united front and a joint petition from all the colonies be sent to Parliament in protestHillsborough, the British secretary of state for America ordered the Mass. governor to recall the letter, also ordered other royal governors to prevent their legislatures from discussing itMass. assembly defied the order, along with a number of other colonial legislatures, which were disbanded by the royal governorsThis created a strong atmosphere of distrust and hostility toward royal governorsBoston Sons of Liberty lead public protests against Townshend Acts, designed to garner widespread support for resistancePublic rituals, pamphlets, and posters were designed to get as many people involved as possibleDaughters of Liberty formed in some colonies to show their support of resistanceusually led by women from prominent familiesmaking homespun, eating American fooddrinking coffee and herbal tea, not teaCall to boycott all British goodsat least 1/4 of all British exports go to coloniesdivision among colonistsartisans and manufacturers support boycottmerchants oppose boycott, trading good for themLord North, new prime minister in 1770, gets Parliament to repeal Townshend Act taxes, except for tea--provision to pay royal officials from Britain remains in effectBoston Massacre (1770)British station two regiments of troops in BostonTroops compete with laborers for jobs (when off-duty)Troops very intrusive--searches, etc.March 2, workers attack troops--no serious harmMarch 5, workers pelt troops in front of customs house with snowballs, troops fire (despite orders), kill fiveJohn Adams and Josiah Quincy, Jr. defend troops, showing their respect for law to both sides--defendants acquitted or receive mild punishment
14The beginning of the American Revolution Resistance to British rule in the colonies mounted, leading to war:The Boston Tea Party occurred, 1773.The First Continental Congress was called, to which all of the colonies except Georgia sent representatives—the first time most of the colonies had acted together. No desire for independence-How should we react to these attacks on our liberties?Committees of Correspondencefirst formed in Boston in late 1772led by Samuel and John Adams (distant cousins)urged collective action and sought to get consensus of all citizens, not just urbanitesBoston group drew up a list of grievances that placed emphasis on American rights, with loyalty to Britain secondarysupport widespread from towns and villagesTea and Coercive ActsTea Act (1773)Parliament passes Tea Act primarily to save the British East India Company from going bankruptBEIC only authorized agent to sell tea in colonies, with portion of duties going to themIn Boston, people protest to royal governor, Thomas Hutchinson, but he refuses to do anythingBoston Tea Party (Dec. 1773)Meeting of 1/3 (5000) of Boston's population asks Hutchinson again to send tea back, he refusesthat evening, 60 men disguised as Mohawks dump tea in harbor (10,000 Brit. Pounds worth)When North learns of Tea Party, passes Coercive Acts--closes port of Boston, limits trade, changes colonial charter, increases power of Gov. HutchinsonQuebec Acts Catholics more freedom in Quebec, also many lands in the Old Northwest ceded to QuebecColonists now convinced of plotFirst Continental Congress (Sept. 1774)Met in Philadelphia--55 delegates representing mostly the elite factions of all 13 coloniesMany were radicals, but some conservative leaders--such as Joseph Galloway (leading merchant from Philadelphia) also participatedCongress rejected both radical and conservative proposals, settling on the Declaration of Rights and Grievances as a compromisedeclaration stated that colonists would obey "bona fide" acts of Parliamentwho decided whether the acts were bona fide?The Congress also created the Continental Association, to boycott British goods and also to not export goods to Britain or West IndiesOther offshoots of the Congress were the new provinical legislatures (conventions) and Committees of Observation
16Intolerable ActsCoercive Acts- 1) closed the port of Boston, no trade until tea was paid for. 2) reduced power of Mass. Legislature. 3) royal officials accused of crimes would be tried in England. 4) expanded the Quartering Act to private homes.Quebec Act-established Roman Catholicism as official religion of Quebec, set up gov’t without representative assembly, and extended Quebec’s boundary to Ohio River
17Colonial Reaction 1st Continental Congress 1774 All colonies except Georgia sent representatives, colonies act together first timeList of grievances “Declaration of Rights”Rejected
18The American Revolution (1775-1783) “These are the times that try men’s souls. The summer soldier and the sunshine patriot will in this crisis shrink from the service of their country; but he that stands it now deserves the love and thanks of man and woman.” Paine The American Crisis
19The Regulars Are Coming . . . Paul Revere & William Dawes make their midnight ride to warn the Minutemen of approaching British soldiers.
20Start of WarWar began when the “Minutemen” in Massachusetts fought a brief skirmish with British troops at Lexington and Concord.Lexington and ConcordIn April 1775, Thomas Gage (commanding British troops in Boston) received letter from the British secretary of state for America, Lord DartmouthDartmouth saw resistance leaders as unruly mob who would put up little fight if challengedOrdered Gage to arrest the main leaders--do so swiftly and silentlyApril 18--Gage prepares to march his troops to Concord to caputre weapons cache (Paul Revere and William Dawes get on their horses)April 19On way to Concord, British are confronted by American militia on Lexington square--Brits fire several volleysBritish continue on to Concord--which they later regrettedBy nightfall of May 20, close to 20,000 colonial militia had gathered around Boston--although most left soon after for plantingSiege of BostonGuns from Ticonderoga--Benedict ArnoldJune 17, Breed's HillBritish send 2,200 regulars against American forces on Breed's HillAmericans repulse redcoats twice, but were beaten back on the thirdRedcoats lost 1,000 casualties, Colonials 400Boston remains under seige
21“By the rude bridge that arched the flood, Their flag to April’s breeze unfurled, Here once the embattled farmers stood, And fired the shot heard round the world”
22Edge of War Colonies: 2.5 million citizens England: Weak gov’t & navy Little money or weaponsColonial jealousyStrong leadersDefensive warFranceEngland:7.5 million citizensStrong navyLarge, well equipped armyLoyalistsWeak military leadersDistanceFrance
233 Groups of Colonist Colonist Type Description Examples Patriots Complete independence Confiscate loyalist propertyPaine, Henry, John and Sam Adams, Washington, New England Presbyterians and CongregationalistLoyalists (Tories)Believed that taxation of the colonies was justified to pay for British troops to protect American settlers from Indian attacks, Many leave during and after the warWilliam Franklin (Ben’s son) Southerners, Anglican Church membersNeutralsThe many colonists who tried to stay as uninvolved in the war as possibleWesterners
24Military Strategies Attrition [the Brits had a long supply line]. The AmericansThe BritishAttrition [the Brits had a long supply line].Guerilla tactics [fight an insurgent war you don’t have to win a battle, just wear the British down]Make an alliance with one of Britain’s enemies.Break the colonies in half by getting between the No. & the So.Blockade the ports to prevent the flow of goods and supplies from an ally.“Divide and Conquer” use the Loyalists.British strategyControl citiesDefeat enemy armies and win clear cut military victoryTreated the Revolution as another European warBritish needed to win the "hearts and minds" of the colonists and get them to return to the fold
25Remember--Locke's Description of Government Government is a “Social Contract”"All original power resides in the people.”For protection, the People obey the lawsCreates "ordered liberty.“Government can be over thrown if they violate peoples rightsLocke’s ideas impact the entire world
262nd Continental Congress Philadelphia, May 1775–-George Washington appointed head of colonial army, Benedict Arnold sent to invade Canada, Navy & Marine Corps organized.-Olive Branch Petition sent to King George, July 1775, last ditch effort at peace, pledged loyalty and asked king to protect their rights.Governing the WarThe Second Continental Congressconvened in Philadelphia in May 76agreed to finance the war effort--printing $2 million paper money (discuss problems with this)appointed Washington as general and commander-in-chief of the Continental Army (same time as battle of Breed's Hill)Emphasize this is not a national governmentAttempt at compromise--July 5 and 6Olive branch petition--professed continued loyalty to Geo III, begged him for reconciliationDeclaration of the Causes and Necessity of Taking Up Arms--explained why colonists thought they were merely defending their rights rather than submit to slaveryGeorge III still outraged, army was to treat colonists as "open and avowed enemies"
27Famous Statment made by Partick Henry, a patriot, was... "...Give me Liberty or give me Death"Henry, in a speech to the Virginia House of Burgesses in 1775, states… “Gentlemen may cry, Peace, Peace-- but there is no peace. The war is actually begun! The next gale that sweeps from the north will bring to our ears the clash of resounding arms! Our brethren are already in the field! Why stand we here idle? What is it that gentlemen wish? What would they have? Is life so dear, or peace so sweet, as to be purchased at the price of chains and slavery? Forbid it, Almighty God! I know not what course others may take; but as for me, give me liberty or give me death!”
28Major Battles Valley Forge 1777 Saratoga Oct. 1777 Major US VictoryFranklin negotiated a Treaty of Alliance with France
29BattlesBunker Hill-June Americans inflict heavy casualties, retreat because they run out of ammunition.Common Sense- Jan. 1776Declaration of Independence- July 4th 1776Saratoga- victory is turning point of war- France now joins the colonistsYorktown last major battle of the revolution, French army & navy help defeat the British in Virginia- Cornwallis surrendersTreaty of Paris 1783 ends war
30Cornwallis’ Surrender at Yorktown: “The World Turned Upside Down!”Painted by John Trumbull, 1797
31The American rebels won their independence because the British government grew tired of the struggle soon after the French agreed to help the Americans.
32Factors leading to colonial victory Diplomatic-Benjamin Franklin negotiated a Treaty of Alliance with France-The war did not have popular support in Great Britain.
33Military-George Washington, general of the American army, avoided any situation that threatened the destruction of his army, and his leadership kept the army together when defeat seemed inevitable.-Americans benefited from the presence of the French army and navy at the Battle of Yorktown, which ended the war with an American victory.
34Treaty 1783 Recognize US independence Gives all land east of Mississippi and South of the Great Lakes to FloridaWhy so much?Good deal for US – Brits pulling US from French
35Can we answer these questions? What differences existed among Americans concerning separation from Great Britain?What factors contributed to the victory of the American rebels?