Presentation on theme: "Colonies Take Shape Unit 1 Part 3. Immigration 90% of the migrants to the English colonies were from England, many indentured servants (see Part 1 Notes)"— Presentation transcript:
Immigration 90% of the migrants to the English colonies were from England, many indentured servants (see Part 1 Notes) After 1660 English immigration declined. Scottish and Scotch-Irish immigration increased. Germans were 2 nd in numbers to Scotch-Irish in the 1700’s Immigration brought changes to the colonies.
Triangular Trade Three part voyage connecting England, its colonies, and West Africa. Trade formed a triangular shape. (map on page 77) The First Leg: British ships loaded with manufactured goods sailed to Africa and were swapped for enslaved Africans. The Second Leg or:
The Middle Passage Traders carried enslaved Africans to the American colonies. Slaved were then sold for colonial produce. After this, traders would return to their mother country. There was much brutality. Voyage lasted 2 months or more Enslaved Africans were separated from their families and homes. They were branded, placed in shackles, and put into crowded, dark, holds where they could hardly move. Foul air promoted disease. The ill might be thrown overboard to prevent spreading of disease. Some refused to eat, hoping for death. Traders had an interest that the slaves remained healthy, but even so, about 10% did not survive The Middle Passage.
Government In the Colonies Magna Carta – English document that limited the King’s power over his nobles. Limited King’s ability to tax them. Consent of the nobles needed to levy a tax. Parliament – law making body in England (equal to today’s Congress); bicameral or 2 house legislature Habeus Corpus – no one would be held in jail without being charged with a specific crime.
Salutary Neglect Colonies allowed self-rule in return for support in wars against France and Spain.
Mercantilism The purpose of the English Colonies was to build wealth and power of England Mercantilism is a nation building wealth and power by developing It’s industries and exporting manufactured goods in exchange for gold or silver. Imports were minimized to drive merchants from rival empires out of the markets. Colonies fit well within this because they had differing economic strengths. Land was scarce in England/People were abundant so that meant cheap labor Development of industry was favored in England, but agriculture in the colonies. 90% of colonists worked on farms They exported their produce in ships to buy tropical goods from Africa or the Caribbean or manufactured goods from England.
Navigation Acts England sought to control Colonial trade. Implemented more customs duties which are taxes on imported goods. This helped finance the defeat of the Dutch and later the French. Parliament enacted the Navigation Acts – trade laws that said only British ships with British sailors could trade with the English Colonies; also said that tobacco and sugar could only be shipped to the mother country. Strictly regulated importing to the colonies, and increased customs duties on the colonies. They hurt Colonists economically, but meant dramatic growth for England.
New Ideas Enlightenment – a movement headed by thinkers that believed all problems could be solved using human reason. One colonist inspired by the Enlightenment was Benjamin Franklin. He was a successful printer. His quest for knowledge embodied Enlightenment ideals. Franklin a symbol for upward mobility. New religious movement known as The Great Awakening – preachers traveled from town to town giving emotion-packed sermons (beginning of revivals). Jonathan Edwards preached in way that persuaded people to return to church for the good of their souls. The Enlightenment and The Great Awakening led people to question church and state. (This set the tone for the American Revolution)
French & Indian War Fought between Britain & France in 1754 in the colonies. British and colonist fight together French & Native American’s fight together Native Americans use ambush style of fighting George Washington is crushed in his first battle. French fort taken over by British lead by William Pitt (Pittsburg) Proclamation of 1763 – the proclaims that colonists cannot settle beyond the Appalachian Mnts.
Albany Plan of Union Ben Franklin came up with idea of all colonies joining together. Wanted to create a united voice for the colonies and some structure Colonies turned the plan down because they were afraid of losing the freedoms they had Parts of our first unified government can be traced back to this plan.