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CREATING A NATION UNIT 3. UNIT III STANDARDS SS.8.A.3.1: Explain the consequences of the French and Indian War in British policies for the American Colonies.

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Presentation on theme: "CREATING A NATION UNIT 3. UNIT III STANDARDS SS.8.A.3.1: Explain the consequences of the French and Indian War in British policies for the American Colonies."— Presentation transcript:

1 CREATING A NATION UNIT 3

2 UNIT III STANDARDS SS.8.A.3.1: Explain the consequences of the French and Indian War in British policies for the American Colonies from SS.8.A.3.2: Explain American colonial reaction to British policy from SS.8.A.3.3: Recognize the contributions of the Founding Fathers (John Adams, Sam Adams, Benjamin Franklin, John Hancock, Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, George Mason, George Washington) during American Revolutionary efforts. SS.8.A.3.4: Examine the contributions of influential groups to both the American and British war efforts during the American Revolutionary War and their effects on the outcome of the war. SS.8.A.3.5: Describe the influence of individuals on social and political developments during the Revolutionary era. SS.8.A.3.6: Examine the causes, course, and consequences of the American Revolution. SS.8.A.3.7: Examine the structure, content, and consequences of the Declaration of Independence. SS.8.A.3.8: Examine individuals and groups that affected political and social motivations during the American Revolution.

3 Warm up Activity: 1.Why do you think American rebelled against Great Britain? 2.How do you think William Pitt planned to get his money back from the French and Indian War? 3. OCSR: What was the passage from Africa to the Colonies called? (Transported Slaves) 4.Define: Speculator, Ice Age

4 DAILY QUESTION TO KNOW (ESSENTIAL QUESTION) What is propaganda, give me a modern day example of propaganda. SS.8.A.3.1: Explain the consequences of the French and Indian war in British policies for the American colonies from

5 UNIT 3 VOCABULARY (20PTS) 1.Revenue 2.Boycott 3.Repeal 4.Propaganda 5.Militia 6.Minutemen 7.Loyalists 8.Patriots 9.Preamble 10.Mercenary 11.Benedict Arnold 12.Blockade 13.Inflation 14.Privateer 15.Ratify 16.Desert 17.Thomas Paine 18.General Charles Cornwallis 19.Battle of York Town 20.Daughters of Liberty Word (on back) Definition: This is where you write the definition of the word. USE YOUR OWN WORDS, NOT THE TEXTBOOK DEFINITION. Vocab Poster = 5pts. If you copy the definitions directly from the text book, you will only receive 50% of the points. Use your own words to define. Front of Card

6 Warm up Activity: 1.What does it mean to Boycott something? 2.What is the difference between dessert and desert? 3.OCSR: How old was George Washington when he received his first command? 4.Define: Minuteman, Revenue

7 DAILY QUESTION TO KNOW (ESSENTIAL QUESTION) What do you think the single most important event that led to the American Revolution was? Why? SS.8.A.3.1: Explain the consequences of the French and Indian war in British policies for the American colonies from

8 UNIT III TIMELINE ACTIVITY (30PTS) 1.Treaty of Paris 2.Declaration of Independence*** 3.Boston Massacre*** 4.Stamp Act Protests 5.Boston Tea Party*** 6.France and US form an Alliance 7.British Surrender at Yorktown*** 8.U.S. Constitution Ratified 9.Shay’s Rebellion Using your textbook; 1.Put these events in the right chronological order, 2.Also include a picture symbolizing EACH event. 3.and write 2-3 sentences briefly describing the events marked with ***.

9 UNIT II TIMELINE POSTER HOMEWORK Your homework assignment is to find an event dating from ad NOT ON THE TIMELINE PROJECT and create a poster board event.  Your event should look similar to those on the wall already.  Included must be;  Date, name of event, picture.  Sheet should be approximately ¼ sheet of paper.  Some projects may be put onto the timeline wall.  I encourage you to look for really cool interesting events.

10 Warm up Activity: 1.Why were the British charging the colonist new taxes after the French and Indian war? 2.What was the first battle of the American revolution? 3. OCSR: What was the crop that allowed the colony of Jamestown to survive? 4.Define: Revenue, Boycott

11 EARLY “AMERICA” MAP PROJECT If this project is blank, do not worry about completing it at home.

12 AMERICA THE STORY OF US Episode 1: America the Story of US. This documentary starts with the early colonization's of Jamestown, and Plymouth, then jumps to the tense times in Boston with the Boston Tea Party, the Boston Massacre, and ends with the first battle of the American Revolution.

13 Warm up Activity: 1.Who was the Prime Minister of Great Britain during the French and Indian War? 2.When was the Declaration of Independence signed? 3. OCSR: Who was the first person to sign the declaration of independence? 4.Define: Revenue, Boycott

14 DAILY QUESTION TO KNOW (ESSENTIAL QUESTION) What does the saying “taxation without representation” mean? Why was this a cause to rally for the colonist to rebel against Great Britain. SS.8.A.3.1: Explain the consequences of the French and Indian war in British policies for the American colonies from

15 TAXATION WITHOUT REPRESENTATION With the French and Indian War leaving a huge financial debt for Great Britain they passed many new taxes and laws for the Colonies. They punished smugglers more harshly. They began to enact a series of new taxes.

16 NEW TAXES 1764 Sugar Act 1765 The Stamp Act 1767 Townshend Acts

17 TAXATION WITHOUT REPRESENTATION With all of the new taxes the colonists were furious. Why would they be mad? They had taxes passed on them without being able to have a voice in the British Parliament. That is Taxation without representation. Being taxed without having a voice in the government. Being taxed by people 3000 miles away from them.

18 THE SUGAR ACT George Greenville the Prime Minister of Britain tried to increase revenue (income) for Great Britain. One way he did this was by passing new taxes. The Sugar Act was designed to stop smuggling. It LOWERED the taxes on molasses (raw form of sugar) in order to stop the colonist from smuggling it. How would this work? If something cost less, you might pay for it, instead of steal it. THE DOWNSIDE : It also allowed officers to seize goods from smugglers without going to court.

19 THE STAMP ACT This act placed a tax on almost ALL printed material. Newspapers, pamphlets, wills, playing cards. Because SO MANY items were taxed it effected nearly every colonist. The Stamp Act was heavily protested. In March 1766 British Parliament gave in to the Colonists demands and repealed (stopped) the Stamp Act.

20 TOWNSHEND ACTS Very soon after the Stamp Act was repealed Parliament passed the Townshend Acts. These new taxes taxed EVERYTHING imported into the colonies. Included everyday items such as glass, tea, paper, lead. All products that the colonies did not produce and were forced to import.

21 COMIC BOOK TAXES… PROJECT (20PTS) Draw a comic depicting peoples reactions as they got each new tax… (make sure the taxes are in the right order.) Include the following Years the taxes were put into effect Each scene should show how a town reacted to ANOTHER tax, OR show the items that were being taxed. Minimum of three scenes. Alternatively, you can create a short story/diary entry to complete this assignment (min 1.5pg) Use your notes to ensure you have the right dates/things being taxed. (There are three separate taxes)

22 Warm up Activity: 1.What three taxes did the British impose on the Colonist as a result of the French and Indian war, who imposed them? 2.Which tax did the colonist protest so heavily that it was revoked? 3. OCSR: What was Lord Baltimore’s plan to ensure they never went hungry in Maryland? 4.Define: Inflation, Militia.

23 DAILY QUESTION TO KNOW (ESSENTIAL QUESTION) How did the events in Boston (Boston Massacre, and Boston Tea Party) contribute to the start of the American Revolution? SS.8.A.3.2: Explain American colonial reaction to British policy from

24 BOSTON MASSACRE Tensions between the Colonist and the British were at an all time high. Protests over taxes were common throughout the colonies. On March 5, 1770 that tension boiled over. The Boston Massacre. Angry townspeople cornered British “Redcoats” and pelted them with rocks, snowballs, and bats. The Redcoats responded and shoot 7 times. Killing 5 colonists.

25 THE BOSTON TEA PARTY Another act was passed in The Tea Act. This act made Tea easily shippable INTO the colonies, how does that factor into the Townshend act? Samuel Adams and the Boston sons of Liberty snuck onto the Dartmouth (ship) December 16 th 1773, disguised as Indians wearing their hair in Mohawks, threw 342 chests of Tea Overboard. (Equivalent to 1,000,000 dollars of today’s money. The King of England said of this event “we must master them or totally leave them alone” What does that mean?

26 BOSTON EVENT’S You are now responsible for completing the Boston Tea Party interview assignment, and the Boston Massacre propaganda project. Do the INTERVIEW project first. Interview Project is due one week from today.

27 Warm up Activity: 1.What was the Boston Tea Party a reaction to? 2.What did the Sons of liberty dress up as in the Boston Tea Party, why would they do this? 3. OCSR: Why did the New England Colonist consider themselves pilgrims? 4.Define: Ratify, Mercenary.

28 DAILY QUESTION TO KNOW (ESSENTIAL QUESTION) A majority of the Founding Fathers of the constitution contributed to a meeting of the minds, what was this meeting called? What did it accomplish. SS.8.A.3.3: Recognize the contributions of the founding fathers during American Revolutionary efforts.

29 REACTION TO THE TEA PARTY 1774 Parliament passed the Coercive Acts which was intended to punish Boston. It closed down the Boston Harbor until they paid for the spilled Tea. This meant that Boston would get no food, or other supplies that arrived by ship. They were also not allowed to have town meetings. They were in effect losing their rights.

30 A CALL TO ARMS Knowing what was to come all of the Colonies (except Georgia) sent delegates to a meeting in Philadelphia. September 1774, 55 men gathered together to establish a political body to represent AMERICAN interest and challenge British Control. They called the new group The Continental Congress.

31 IMPORTANT DELEGATES John Adams Samuel Adams John Jay Richard Henry Lee Patrick Henry George Washington. John Adams George Washington Samuel Adams

32 DECISIONS OF THE CONGRESS The delegates all had different ideas but were united by a common cause and vision. They drafted a statement of grievances calling to Britain that 13 acts passed since 1763 should be repealed. They also voted to boycott (protest) all British goods and trade. They also decided to arm the colonists.

33 Warm up Activity: 1.Who were (3) of the important delegates at the Constitutional Convention? 2.What were the Coercive Acts ? 3. OCSR : Why did the relations between French+Indians and English+Indians differ? 4.Define: Militia, Minutemen.

34 DAILY QUESTION TO KNOW (ESSENTIAL QUESTION) What was the first battle of the American Revolution? What was this battle over? SS.8.A.3.6: Examine the causes, course, and consequences of the American Revolution.

35 TYPES OF SOLDIERS The colonists did not have a large standing army. Instead they relied on a few different types of soldiers. Militia: groups of citizen soldiers. Normal people armed with guns. Minutemen: men who promised they would fight and be ready within a minute. (basically they lived normally until they were needed). The Colonists were preparing for the battle that everyone knew was coming.

36 BRITAIN’S RESPONSE The British knew what was coming and King George said “blows must decide” who will control the Americas. By April 1775 several thousand redcoats (British Soldiers) were in the Americas.

37 THE FIRST BATTLE LEXINGTON AND CONCORD The redcoats found out that the colonists were keeping their arms in a depot in Concord. April 18, 1775 the redcoats met a force of about 70 minutemen. A shot was fired, then both sides let loose. Eight minutemen lay dead, then they retreated. When the British arrived in Concord they found that the militias weapons had already been moved. As the British rode toward Boston farmers, blacksmiths, saddle makers, etc all hid and shot at the redcoats. By the time they reached Boston 174 had been shot and wounded, and 73 had been killed.

38 BENEDICT ARNOLD Benedict Arnold was a Captain in the Connecticut militia. He switched sides and became a General in the British army. He was known as a traitor. Benedict Arnold Homework

39 BUILDING AN ARMY After Lexington and Concord they sent out calls for people to join the army. 20,000 people joined and for weeks the British and American troops waited to see who would make the next move.

40 THE PATH TO WAR (25PTS) Make a cause and effect chart which depicts reasons why the Colonies went to war with Great Britain. Include… Taxes (Sugar, Townshend, Stamp) Events (Boston tea party, Boston massacre) First Battle (Lexington and Concord) You can do this assignment 1 of 2 ways. WRITE 2-3 Sentences about each major event for cause, and 2-3 sentences for effect. Draw a comic strip that depicts the cause and effect of each event. Write a ½ page summary as well.

41 Warm up Activity: 1.What is the difference between Militia and Minutemen? 2.Who said the quote “Blows must decide who controls the Americas” 3. OCSR: What colony required the farmers the grow at least two acres of corn in addition to their tobacco? 4.Define: Loyalist, Patriots.

42 DAILY QUESTION TO KNOW (ESSENTIAL QUESTION) What is the difference between a loyalist and a patriot? Were the founding fathers loyalists or patriots? SS.8.A.3.3: Recognize the contributions of the founding fathers during American Revolutionary efforts.

43 THE BATTLE OF BUNKER HILL June 16, militia set up defense atop of Bunker Hill. The British decided to take the hill. The British charged up the hill and the Americans were winning… however they were running low on gunpowder (basically bullets). “Don’t fire until you see the whites of their eyes” was a famous quote from this battle. Eventually the Americans ran out of gunpowder and retreated. The British won the battle however lost 1000 men. They now realized this would not be an easy war.

44 PICKING SIDES With a revolution underway the average colonist had to pick sides. Loyalists : Choose to side with the British. They thought that taxes were not reason enough to rebel. They thought the British would win and wanted to be on the winning side. Patriots: were determined to fight the British until they won their independence.

45 MOVING TOWARD INDEPENDENCE The Second Continental Congress began to govern the colonies. It set up the printing of money It created a Continental Army Appointed George Washington as the Armies Commander.

46 IMPORTANT MEMBERS OF THE SECOND CONTINENTAL CONGRESS John and Samuel Adams Patrick Henry Richard Henry Lee George Washington. Benjamin Franklin : one of the most respected men in the colonies. John Hancock: Wealth Merchant who funded many patriot groups. Thomas Jefferson : Brilliant thinker and writer.

47 Warm up Activity: 1.Would you be a loyalist or a Patriot, why? 2.What was an important achievement of the Second Continental Congress? 3. OCSR: How were slaves transported to the Colonies? 4.Define: Thomas Paine, Preamble.

48 DAILY QUESTION TO KNOW (ESSENTIAL QUESTION) Who was responsible for writing the Pamphlet Common Sense ? SS.8.A.3.5: Describe the influence of individuals on social and political developments during the Revolutionary era.

49 LAST CHANCE In July of 1774 in order to avoid going to full scale war the Second Continental Congress sent King George a petition called The Olive Branch Petition. It ensured the king that the colonist only desired peace. It asked the King to protect the colonists rights. King George refused, and sent even more troops to America.

50 COMMON SENSE In 1776 Thomas Paine published a pamphlet called Common Sense. It called for the complete independence from Britain. “Stop squabbling over taxes, and struggle for freedom” Common Sense Handout Common Sense Primary Source Homework

51 DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE Jefferson was chosen to write the Declaration. July 4, 1776 the Declaration of Independence was approved. John Hancock was the first to sign the Declaration.

52 WHAT IF… (10PTS) Take out a piece of binder paper. You will write a 1 page paper about what YOU THINK the world would look like if America never became America. What would have happened if King George and the British won the war? How would America be different? Would we be British? How would it affect the rest of the world?

53 QUIZ REVIEW QUESTIONS (16PTS) 1.What is the primary message of Thomas Paine’s Common Sense? 2.Which meeting of the Continental Congress do you think was the most important, why? 3.Explain the difference between Minutemen and Militia 4.What is the difference between a Loyalist and a Patriot? 5.What was the first battle of the American Revolution? What was this battle over? 6.Describe the concept of “Taxation without representation.” 7.Explain in detail the two events that occurred in Boston that contributed to the beginning of the American Revolution. 8.What taxes played a large role in the beginning of the American Revolution, what war were the colonist being taxed on?

54 Warm up Activity: 1.Who was the first person to sign the Declaration of Independence? 2.Who wrote the pamphlet Common Sense ? 3.FCIM: What is importing, and what is exporting? 4.Define: Preamble, Benedict Arnold.

55 DAILY QUESTION TO KNOW (ESSENTIAL QUESTION) What should you do to prepare for the upcoming Quizzes? SS.8.A.3.7: Examine the structure, content, and consequences of the Declaration of Independence.

56 UNIT III VOCABULARY BINGO!!! Create a bingo chart similar to the one below. You may need to use words multiple times. You can’t use any word more than twice. Place them in a random order!!! 1.Revenue 2.Boycott 3.Repeal 4.Propagand a 5.Militia 6.Minutemen 7.Loyalists 8.Patriots 9.Preamble 10.Mercenary 11.Benedict Arnold 12.Blockade 13.Privateer 14.Ratify 15.Desert 16.Thomas Paine 17.General Charles Cornwallis 18.Battle of York Town 19.Daughters of liberty 20.Inflation

57 Warm up Activity: 1.Who wrote the Declaration of Independence? 2.What was the Olive Branch Petition? 3.OCSR: Why were slaves required in the South? 4.Define: Militia, The Battle of Yorktown

58 DAILY QUESTION TO KNOW (ESSENTIAL QUESTION) What DID you do to prepare for the quizzes today? SS.8.A.3.7: Examine the structure, content, and consequences of the Declaration of Independence.

59 GOOD LUCK VOCAB QUIZ/QUIZ

60 Warm up Activity: 1.What is the Olive Branch Petition ? 2.WHEN was the Declaration of Independence written? 3. OCSR: Why did Smugglers begin to illegally sell their goods? 4.Define: Preamble, Inflation.

61 DAILY QUESTION TO KNOW (ESSENTIAL QUESTION) What is the Preamble of the Declaration of Independence? SS.8.A.3.7: Examine the structure, content, and consequences of the Declaration of Independence.

62 DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE The Declaration has three major sections. Preamble (introduction) Declaration of Natural Rights List of Grievances

63 PREAMBLE When in the course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the laws of nature and of natures god entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.

64 DECLARATION OF NATURAL RIGHTS We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness. That to secure these rights, Governments are institution among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. Prudence indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be change for light and transiet causes; and accordingly all experience hate shown, that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, that to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to reducte them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future security.

65 Such has been the patient sufferance of these colonies; and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former systems of government. The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute tyranny over these states. To prove this, let facts be submitted to a candid world. He has refused his assent to laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the public good. He has forbidden his governors to pass laws of immediate and pressing importance, unless suspended in their operation till his assent should be obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend to them. He has refused to pass other laws for the accommodation of large districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right of representation in the legislature, a right inestimable to them and formidable to tyrants only. He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from the depository of their public records, for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his measures. He has dissolved representative houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly firmness his invasions on the rights of the people.

66 He has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to cause others to be elected; whereby the legislative powers, incapable of annihilation, have returned to the people at large for their exercise; the state remaining in the meantime exposed to all the dangers of invasion from without, and convulsions within. He has endeavored to prevent the population of these states; for that purpose obstructing the laws for naturalization of foreigners; refusing to pass others to encourage their migration hither, and raising the conditions of new appropriations of lands. He has obstructed the administration of justice, by refusing his assent to laws for establishing judiciary powers. He has made judges dependent on his will alone, for the tenure of their offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries. He has erected a multitude of new offices, and sent hither swarms of officers to harass our people, and eat out their substance. He has kept among us, in times of peace, standing armies without the consent of our legislature. He has affected to render the military independent of and superior to civil power. He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our constitution, and unacknowledged by our laws; giving his assent to their acts of pretended legislation: For quartering large bodies of armed troops among us: For protecting them, by mock trial, from punishment for any murders which they should commit on the inhabitants of these states:

67 For cutting off our trade with all parts of the world: For imposing taxes on us without our consent: For depriving us in many cases, of the benefits of trial by jury: For transporting us beyond seas to be tried for pretended offenses: For abolishing the free system of English laws in a neighboring province, establishing therein an arbitrary government, and enlarging its boundaries so as to render it at once an example and fit instrument for introducing the same absolute rule in these colonies: For taking away our charters, abolishing our most valuable laws, and altering fundamentally the forms of our governments: For suspending our own legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever. He has abdicated government here, by declaring us out of his protection and waging war against us. He has plundered our seas, ravaged our coasts, burned our towns, and destroyed the lives of our people. He is at this time transporting large armies of foreign mercenaries to complete the works of death, desolation and tyranny, already begun with circumstances of cruelty and perfidy scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the head of a civilized nation.

68 He has constrained our fellow citizens taken captive on the high seas to bear arms against their country, to become the executioners of their friends and brethren, or to fall themselves by their hands. He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavored to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian savages, whose known rule of warfare, is undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes and conditions. In every stage of these oppressions we have petitioned for redress in the most humble terms: our repeated petitions have been answered only by repeated injury. A prince, whose character is thus marked by every act which may define a tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of a free people. Nor have we been wanting in attention to our British brethren. We have warned them from time to time of attempts by their legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and settlement here. We have appealed to their native justice and magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the ties of our common kindred to disavow these usurpations, which, would inevitably interrupt our connections and correspondence. They too have been deaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity. We must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity, which denounces our separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind, enemies in war, in peace friends.

69 RESOLUTION OF INDEPENDENCE BY THE UNITED STATES We, therefore, the representatives of the United States of America, in General Congress, assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the name, and by the authority of the good people of these colonies, solemnly publish and declare, that these united colonies are, and of right ought to be free and independent states; that they are absolved from all allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the state of Great Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved; and that as free and independent states, they have full power to levy war, conclude peace, contract alliances, establish commerce, and to do all other acts and things which independent states may of right do. And for the support of this declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of Divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our lives, our fortunes and our sacred honor.

70 PEOPLE WHO SIGNED THE DECLARATION New Hampshire: Josiah Bartlett, William Whipple, Matthew Thornton Massachusetts: John Hancock, Samuel Adams, John Adams, Robert Treat Paine, Elbridge Gerry Rhode Island: Stephen Hopkins, William Ellery Connecticut: Roger Sherman, Samuel Huntington, William Williams, Oliver Wolcott New York: William Floyd, Philip Livingston, Francis Lewis, Lewis Morris New Jersey: Richard Stockton, John Witherspoon, Francis Hopkinson, John Hart, Abraham Clark Pennsylvania: Robert Morris, Benjamin Rush, Benjamin Franklin, John Morton, George Clymer, James Smith, George Taylor, James Wilson, George Ross Delaware: Caesar Rodney, George Read, Thomas McKean Maryland: Samuel Chase, William Paca, Thomas Stone, Charles Carroll of Carrollton Virginia: George Wythe, Richard Henry Lee, Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Harrison, Thomas Nelson, Jr., Francis Lightfoot Lee, Carter Braxton North Carolina: William Hooper, Joseph Hewes, John Penn South Carolina: Edward Rutledge, Thomas Heyward, Jr., Thomas Lynch, Jr., Arthur Middleton Georgia: Button Gwinnett, Lyman Hall, George Walton

71 Warm up Activity: 1.Who was the first person to sign the Declaration of Independence? 2.What is the Preamble ? 3. OCSR: When was the Magna Carta written? 4.Define: Loyalist, Patriots

72 DAILY QUESTION TO KNOW (ESSENTIAL QUESTION) What document did the colonist create that ENSURED there would be a war? SS.8.A.3.6: Examine the causes, course, and consequences of the American Revolution.

73 THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION The American Revolution lasted from America declared its independence in 1776, war was unavoidable. Both sides thought the war would be short. English thought they would crush the rebellion. Patriots thought the British would give up. After losing a few battles.

74 MILITARY FORCES British Strongest Navy in the world. Experienced well trained army. Wealth of a worldwide empire. Population of 8million. American – No navy. – No regular army. – No military experience. – Weapons and ammo in short supply. – Population of 2.5million. – Some colonials didn’t support the revolution. Loyalists, or neutrals.

75 LOYALISTS Loyalists : Those who remained loyal to Britain and opposed the war for independence. Also called Tories. 1/5 Americans were loyalists. (Speculated maybe as many as 1/3.) They supported the British for many reasons. 1. They supported whoever they thought would win. 2. They belonged to the church of England. 3. Scared they would lose their jobs. “Neighbor was against neighbor, father against son and son against father. He that would not thrust his own blade through his brother’s heart was called an infamous villain.”

76 AFRICAN AMERICAN LOYALISTS Many African American slaves were loyalists. Why? The British offered the enslaved people freedom if they fought on their side. A lot of these freed slaves ended up in Canada or Sierra Leone, Africa.

77 Warm up Activity: 1.Who had the more established army, the British or the Colonists? 2.What were three main reasons people remained loyalists? 3. OCSR : Who did Pocahontas really end up married to? And what happened to her. 4.Define: General Cornwallis, Battle of Bunker Hill.

78 DAILY QUESTION TO KNOW (ESSENTIAL QUESTION) Why was the defeat of Britain at The Battle of Saratoga significant? SS.8.A.3.6: Examine the causes, course, and consequences of the American Revolution.

79 PATRIOT ADVANTAGES What were some advantages the patriots had over the redcoats? Fighting on their own ground. (Easier to defend than conquer) British had to ship soldiers and supplies across the ocean. British mercenaries fought for money, while Patriots fought for freedom. Americans had George Washington, a great military leader.

80 AMERICANS NEEDED SOLDIERS As the war continued American soldiers began to leave the army (they enlisted for only 1 year) or they ran away from the army. Soldiers were desperately needed. African Americans were now allowed to serve and fight on the side of the Americans. They fought for money, or to gain their freedom.

81 AMERICA’S FLAG The continental congress designed America’s first flag. 13 stripes alternating between red and white 13 stars white in a blue field representing a new constellation. Red = courage White = purity of ideals Blue = strength and Unity of the States.

82 WAR WAGES ON… The British and American armies traded many victories and defeats… The Americans gained an important victory at the Battle of Saratoga. The defeated British (5,700) surrendered while a Patriot band played “Yankee Doodle”

83 FLAG PROJECT (15PTS) Create your own CUSTOM FLAG. On the back of the paper write what your flag represents, 1.What do the colors stand for? 2.What is your country called? 3.What type of government would your country have? WRITE THESE IN FULL SENTENCES!!!

84 Warm up Activity: 1.What do the stripes/colors represent on the flag? 2.What do the stars represent on the flag? 3. OCSR : In the colonies who were the only people who could vote? 4.Define: General Charles Cornwallis, Battle of York Town.

85 DAILY QUESTION TO KNOW (ESSENTIAL QUESTION) What is the significance of the Battle of York Town? SS.8.A.3.6: Examine the causes, course, and consequences of the American Revolution.

86 AMERICA THE STORY OF US Part 2: America the Story of US: Rebels

87 SARATOGA’S AFTER EFFECTS… October 1777 after the Battle of Saratoga American spirits were at an all time high. Saratoga was a turning point in the war. In February 1778 the French declared their support and formed an alliance with the Americans. They sent money, equipment, troops to aid the Patriots. Benjamin Franklin was largely responsible for this. He spent over a year in France gaining support for the Americans. Cause of French-American Alliance Longstanding hostility between Britain and France. Conflict between Britain and France during French and Indian War. Victory at Saratoga boosts French confidence in Patriots. Effects of French-American Alliance. France lends money to the Continental Congress France sends soldiers and ships to help American forces. Americans win independence.

88 THE WAR AT SEA The British had the worlds most powerful navy. Americans were blockaded by the British. The Continental Congress approved privateers, basically pirate ships to go and fight the British and they could keep whatever goods they took.

89 AMERICAN INDEPENDENCE The Battle of Yorktown General Washington had utilized the French’s aid to trap General Cornwallis (England). Cornwallis was outnumbered by American troops, as well as cut of by the French in the sea. He was trapped. When British supplies began to run low it happened…. October General Cornwallis Surrendered. He didn’t surrender himself, he sent up “the little drummer boy” Cornwallis Battle of Yorktown handout (15pts)

90 INDEPENDENCE Yorktown was not the “final battle” in the American Revolution, however it signified the end of the war as it convinced the British that the war was too costly to pursue.

91 Warm up Activity: 1.Did the fighting 100% stop after The Battle of Yorktown? 2.Who helped the Colonist defeat General Cornwallis? 3. OCSR: What was the importance of having Masters and Apprentices in colonial times? 4.Define: General Charles Cornwallis, Battle of York Town.

92 DAILY QUESTION TO KNOW (ESSENTIAL QUESTION) What did the Treaty of Paris do? SS.8.A.3.8: Examine individuals and groups that affected political and social motivations during the American Revolution.

93 TREATY OF PARIS England and America now had to work out a treaty. America sent its delegates Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, John Jay. The Treaty of Paris was signed September 3, Great Britain recognized the United States as an independent Nation.

94 WHY AMERICA WON They were fighting on their home field. The British had to rely on shipping troops and supplies. As soon as the British ships were stopped (privateers and the French) they lost their support. Help from foreign nations. Loans from France (money, troops, weapons, ships). Spanish attacks on the French in Louisiana. “Peoples movement” The war wasn’t about countries or battles. It was about peoples determination to be free.

95 UNIT 3 TEST REVIEW QUESTIONS

96 UNIT 3 JEOPARDY Medium Hard

97 UNIT III EXAM


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