3Pangea225 million years ago, the single super continent of Pangea began to break apart10 million years ago, North America was shaped by nature
4The Great Ice Age2 million years ago – The Great Ice Age begins35,000 years ago – the oceans were glaciers, and the sea level dropped leaving an isthmus that connected Asia to North America
5The Bering Strait 2 million years ago – The Great Ice Age begins 35,000 years ago – the oceans were glaciers, and the sea level dropped leaving an isthmus that connected Asia to North America
6Early Inhabitants of the Americas The earliest Americans were hunters and gatherers. Domestication of crops led to the beginning of civilizations (corn, beans and squash the “Three Sisters”) Native American cultures were matrilineal in which power and possessions were passed down the female side of the family line. Native Americans did not believe in ownership of the land. They revered the physical world and endowed nature with spiritual properties.
7American Indian Empires in Mesoamerica, the Southwest and the Mississippi River Valley
9MesoamericaMayan (Central America) had a written language, mathematicians made accurate astronomical observations (calendar), and had advanced agricultural practices Aztecs (Mexico) complex civilization, were warrior- like, used human sacrifices, and built impressive cities Incas (Peru) – built suspension bridges, used terrace farming
10Southwestern - PuebloBuilt large towns Extensive canal networks to irrigate fields Cremated the dead
11Mississippi River Valley Creek, Choctaw, Cherokee, Iroquois Agricultural society – Three Sisters (corn, squash and beans) Mound builders
12Indirect Discoverers of the New World During the Crusades the Europeans were exposed to silks, spices and perfumes. These items from the east were very expensive and Europeans were eager to find alternative routes Renaissance “rebirth” in learning; nurtured an ambitious spirit of optimism and adventure
13Europeans Enter Africa 1450 – Europeans reach sub- Saharan Africa with the Portuguese invention of the caravelThe caravel could sail into the windThe Portuguese set up trading posts along the African beaches trading with slaves and gold
14When World’s CollidePossibly 3/5 of the crops cultivated around the world today originated in the Americas.Taino people of Hispaniola went from 1 million to 200 due to diseaseIn centuries following Columbus’s landing in the Americas, as much as 90% of the Indians had died due to the diseases.
15Columbian ExchangeColumbus’s discovery of the new world merged three continentsEurope provided capital and new technologyAfrica furnished the laborThe New World offered raw materialsAmericas to Europe, Africa and AsiaEurope, Africa, and Asia to the AmericasMaizePotatoesSweet potatoesBeansPeanutsSquashPumpkinsPeppersPineappleTomatoesCocoaWheatSugarBananasRiceGrapes (wine)Olive OilDandelionsHorsesPigsCowsGoatsChickensSmallpox
16Spanish Conquistadores In the 1500's, Spain became the dominant exploring and colonizing power. The Spanish conquerors came to the Americas in the service of God as well as in search of gold and glory.Due to the gold found in the New World, the world’s economy was transformed.
17Conquest of AmericaThe islands of the Caribbean served as bases for the Spanish invasion of America.By the 1530s in Mexico and the 1550s in Peru, colonial administrators had replaced the conquistadores.Some of the conquistadores wed Indian women and had children. These offspring were known as mestizos.
18Spanish DominionBy the 1500s the French and English were sending explorers to the New World.1565, the Spanish built a fortress at St. Augustine, Florida to protect the sea-lanes to the Caribbean.The Spanish instituted the Encomienda System. This slave system gave Native Americans to Spanish colonist with the promise that the colonist would Christianize them.
19Pope’s RebellionIn 1680, the Catholic Church’s efforts to suppress the Native’s religious practices led to Pope’s Rebellion The natives burned down churches and killed priests. They rebuilt a kiva, or ceremonial religious chamber, on the ruins of the Spanish plaza at Santa Fe. It took the Spanish half a century to reclaim New Mexico The misdeeds of the Spanish in the New World led to the birth of the “Black Legend.” This concept stated that the conquerors just tortured and killed the Indians, stole their gold, infected them with smallpox, and left little but misery behind.
20Effects of Spanish Colonization The Spanish erected a colossal empire from Florida to California to Tierra del Fuego. The Spanish merged with Native Societies through laws, religion, and language. The Spanish fused with Natives through marriage and incorporated indigenous cultures with their own.
21Natives vs. EuropeansLet’s think about… How the Native Americans reacted to the European conquerors? How the Europeans reacted to the Native Americans? How the world changed because of the interaction between the Europeans, Native Americans and Africans?