Presentation on theme: "Imagine this scenario… Basically your parents let you do whatevs…You can stay up as late as you want, hang out with whomever you want, you can eat ice."— Presentation transcript:
Imagine this scenario… Basically your parents let you do whatevs…You can stay up as late as you want, hang out with whomever you want, you can eat ice cream for breakfast and pizza for dinner every night! If you don’t want to go to school, NBD. Homework, psha! You also get money whenever you ask for it. Holla! Life is good.
Imagine this scenario… THEN, out of the blue, your parents decide that you: – Will go to bed at 8:00 – Only hang out with your weird cousins who are home-schooled – Eat porridge for breakfast and Brussels sprouts for dinner – And you will take Saturday clarinet lessons, and attend special tutoring all day Sunday… – What would you do?!?
You should be able to analyze how British policies toward her colonies (that rhymes) shifted following the French & Indian War You should be able to analyze and explain the economic policy of mercantilism as it relates to Great Britain and her colonies You should be able to cite and explain the attempts of the British crown to limit colonial territorial and economic expansion
An undocumented, though long-standing, British policy of avoiding strict enforcement of parliamentary laws, meant to keep the American colonies obedient to Great Britain. I think Mummy forgot about us! Yipee! Hmmm…I wonder what happened to those children?!?
"If no restrictions are placed on the colonies, they will flourish…Huzzah” No restrictions = no taxes
British have left the colonies alone British try to enforce laws and taxes after the French and Indian War without the consent of the colonies British do not understand colonists are used to representative government
Colonies have formed own governments Colonist are used to managing their own affairs with their elected representatives “No taxation without representation”
System where England controls colonial trade and taxes – Colonies provided raw materials for Britain – If colonies received imports, the goods had to arrive on British ships – Certain colonial goods were sold only to England, but not to other countries – Colonies were to serve as a market for English manufactured goods
Mercantilism encourages goods leaving the country and discourages goods coming in. Focus on the accumulation of money and gold for the Mother Country Raw goods coming in…manufactured goods going out! Cha-ching!
1690 1700 1710 1720 1730 1740 1750 1760 1770 1780 1790 260 240 220 200 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Nine Years War (started 1689) War of Spanish Succession War of Austrian Succession Seven Years War American War (Revolution)
Explain the policy of “Salutary Neglect”. Explain the European model of Mercantilism. What parties benefit under the system of Mercantilism? What were the Navigation Acts? How did British colonists in North America perceive the Navigation Acts?
You should be able to – Cite and explain the attempts of the British crown to limit colonial territorial and economic expansion – Analyze how British policies toward her colonies shifted following the French & Indian War
Restricted colonial trade, manufacturing and shipping to other countries Goal: to stop colonial trade with other European powers Colonial reaction: “What law?”… – Colonists smuggle in goods because there’s no enforcement of the Acts.
Colonial Identity Colonists still considered themselves British subjects, but begin to identify more with one another Britain was in debt from the war and believed the colonists should help pay – Still disgruntled with the colonists’ response to the French & Indian War…too ambivalent Britain needed to keep troops in America – Protect against French re-colonization – Protect against Indian attacks
Colonial Identity I gotcha tomato…Am I a Brit or an American?
After the war, Native Americans were treated like conquered people by the British in the Ohio Territory and Great Lakes region A loose confederation of Natives begin to attack and destroy British forts. – 2,000 settlers on the frontier killed – End of the war takes place RIGHT HERE! Fort Pitt, Fort Ligonier, Fort Bedford, and Bushy Run,
England wants to avoid Indian trouble (as witnessed by Pontiac’s Rebellion) and henceforth establishes a line of demarcation between the colonies and the Native Indian Reservation… – Imaginary line at the crest of the Appalachian Mts. – Forbade settlers from moving west of the line – Ordered all settlers west of the line “to remove themselves”
Colonial Response – Angered colonists - Colonist felt that England was attempting to control them… – Colonists had to pay for additional soldiers – Many ignored the line and moved west (PA & NY)
There are still about 10,000 British Redcoats in the Colonies Wonder where we’re headed yet?!? Oh…And P.S.
Please read each of the six British Acts Summarize each act in two or three sentences. – Sugar Act, Stamp Act, Quartering Act, Declaratory Acts, Townsend Act, and Tea Act You may work in pairs What you do not complete in class must be completed for homework.
Sugar Act, 1764 Placed duty on molasses and sugar What is a duty? – Colonist protest; smuggle sugar and molasses Harsh punishment of smugglers British: “Colonists should help bear the burden” Colonists: “No taxation without representation!” – Rooted in the Magna Carta Only elected representatives could pass a tax. Colonies were not represented in Parliament
Sugar was taxed so that only rich people were able to afford sugar. Although the sales of sugar fell by a third, the trade was profitable for George III. King GeorgeQueen Charlotte
Stamp Act, 1765 Put a tax on documents such as: wills, marriage papers, insurance papers, contracts, land titles (legal documents), playing cards & dice – Raise money for Britain to support the army Colonists: Again… “No taxation without representation!” – Rooted in the Magna Carta Only elected representatives could pass a tax. Colonies were not represented in Parliament
Patrick Henry Offers A Warning (Patrick Henry) "Caesar had his Brutus, Charles I his Cromwell, and George III... (Henry was interrupted by cries from the opposition)… may profit by their example. If this be treason, make the most of it."
Samuel Adams He was a little over 40 and had failed miserably in business despite his father giving him a small fortune to try. Instead he focused on political writing and meetings. Boy was he in the right place at the right time! Sam Adams had a plan to battle the Stamp Tax…make sure no one was around to collect the tax when it went into effect in November 1765!
Sons & Daughters of Liberty Groups formed during the Stamp Act to protest British policies Placed lanterns in Liberty Trees and hung stamp collectors in effigy (“The Andrew Oliver Treatment”) Urged merchants to join in the patriotic cause – Many were threatened if they did not support the fight for liberty
Stamp Collectors Andrew Oliver was in charge of stamps in Boston…he was hung in effigy outside of his house with a poem that read: – “What great joy did New England see, Than a man hanging from a tree?”
A depiction of the tarring and feathering of Commissioner of Customs John Malcolm, a Loyalist, by five Patriots on 5 January 1774(1774-01-05) under the Liberty Tree in Boston, Massachusetts. Tea is also being poured into Malcolm's mouth.
The old liberty tree in Boston was the largest of a grove of beautiful elms that stood in Hanover square at the corner of Orange and Essex streets. It received the name of liberty tree, from the association called the Sons of Liberty holding their meetings under it during the summer of 1765. The ground under it was called Liberty Hall. A pole fastened to its trunk rose far above its branching top, and when a red flag was thrown to the breeze, the signal was understood by the people. Here the Sons of Liberty held many notable meetings, and placards and banners were often suspended from the limbs or affixed to the tree. After some time, meetings were held at this tree and following the repeal of the Stamp Act and the Boston Tea Party, the British cut down the tree. Thus, it became a symbol for the colonists.
Stamp Act Congress Colonists: Delegates from 9 colonies signed a petition rejecting the Stamp Act All but NH, VA, NC, and GA – Parliament ignored the petition – Created a sense of unity among the colonies Boycott – The colonists refused to buy any taxed products – Starts in VA, New York, Boston, Philadelphia The Stamp Act was repealed because of the lack business in 1766
This cartoon depicts the repeal of the Stamp Act as a funeral, with Grenville carrying a child's coffin marked "born 1765, died 1766".
Quartering Act, 1765 British: Each colony was directed to provide for the basic needs of soldiers stationed within its borders: – Bedding, cooking utensils, firewood, beer or cider and candles. – Expanded in 1766 colonies must billet soldiers in taverns and unoccupied houses. Colonists: New York refuses to comply; results in the disbanding of their assembly! – Oh snap! I’m hungry. Fix me a sam’ich.
Thomas Whatley on Virtual Representation “The Inhabitants of the Colonies are represented in Parliament: they do not indeed chuse the Members of that Assembly; neither are Nine Tenths of the People of Britain Electors.... and yet are they not represented in Parliament? Is their vast Property subject to Taxes without their Consent? Are they all arbitrarily bound by Laws to which they have not agreed? The Colonies are in exactly the same Situation: All British Subjects are really in the same; none are actually, all are virtually represented in Parliament; for every Member of Parliament sits in the House, not as Representative of his own Constituents, but as one of that august Assembly by which all the Commons of Great Britain are represented.” Oh, quit whining!
Daniel Dulany on Virtual Representation "There is not that intimate and inseparable relation between the electors of Great-Britain, and the inhabitants of the colonies, which must inevitably involve both in the same taxation; on the contrary, not a single actual elector in England, might be immediately affected by a taxation in America, imposed by a statute which would have a general operation and effect, upon the properties of the inhabitants of the colonies. The latter might be oppressed in a thousand shapes, without any sympathy, or exciting any alarm in the former. Moreover, even acts, oppressive and injurious to the colonies in an extreme degree, might become popular in England, from the promise or expectation, that the very measures which depressed the colonies, would give ease to the inhabitants of Great Britain" No taxation without representation!
Townshend Acts 1767 Taxed glass, paper, paint, lead, and tea Purpose: to raise revenue to pay the salaries governors and judges – tightening the reigns! New way to collect tax: – Writs of Assistance – Officers could inspect ships without giving good reason Colonist protested - could not be searched without suspecting a person of a crime (English law) – NYC, Philadelphia and Boston signed Non-importation Agreements – NO IMPORTS from Great Britain No warrant, no way!
Townshend Acts 1767 RESULT: Parliament disbands the Massachusetts Assembly Occupies Boston Harbor…lots of tension! Partial repeal on March 5, 1770 –E–Except for tea –T–The day of the Boston Massacre
Paul Revere’s Etching The troops "formed and marched with insolent parade, drums beating, fifes playing, and colours flying, up King Street. Each soldier having received 16 rounds of powder and ball." Troops of the 29th, unable to secure lodgings in town, pitched tents on the common. The stench from their latrines wafted through the little city on every breeze
Who’s the Boss?!? Stated that Parliament's authority was the same in America as in Britain and asserted Parliament's authority to make binding laws on the American colonies…booyah! – Is this a hint that there’s more to come?!?