2Vocabulary IChristopher Columbus: 1492, Italian who sailed for Spain, official discovery of the new worldColony: A land controlled by another nationHernando Cortez: Spanish conquistador who took over Aztecs; ruthlessConquistador: Spanish adventure seeker in the New World; driven by Gold, Glory and GodFrancisco Pizarro: Spanish conquistador who took over Incas
3Vocabulary II Mestizo: A person of mixed Spanish/Native American blood Encomienda: Spanish land grant in the New World. Natives are to work on it (Plantations)Atlantic Slave Trade: Buying and selling of AfricansTriangular Trade: Europe, Africa and America trade routesMiddle Passage: Africa to Americas voyage for slaves
4Vocabulary IIIColumbian Exchange: Global transfer of plants, animals, diseases and ideas (cultural diffusion) from the Old World to the New WorldCapitalism: Economic system based on private ownership and on investment of money in business ventures in order to make a profitJoint-Stock Company: A business in which investors pool their wealth for a common purpose, then share the profits (less risk)
5Vocabulary IVMercantilism: Nations that increase their wealth/power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and selling more good than they bought (Gold/Silver/FB of Trade)Favorable Balance of Trade: A country that sells more “goods” than it buys
7Spanish Conquests in the Americas Columbus’s Voyage Paves the WayFirst EncountersLanded in the Bahamas in 10/1492Returned to the Caribbean 3 more times, claiming islands for Spain and setting up colonies
8Other Explorers Take to the Seas Pedro Cabral: Claimed Brazil for the Portuguese (1500)Amerigo Vespucci: Explored South America, had the continent named after him (1507)Vasco Balboa: First European to see the Pacific Ocean (1515)Magellan: His crew first to sail around the world ( ) 18 out of 230 men survived
9Spain Builds An American Empire Cortez Conquers the AztecsLanded in Mexico in with 600 men, marched into TenochtitlanSpanish used superior weaponry, Indian allies, and disease to conquer the Aztecs by 1521Pizarro Subdues the IncaMarched 200 men into Peru, used treachery to capture and kill Incan kingCaptured Incan capital without a fight
10Spain’s Pattern of Conquest Spanish settlers known as penninsulares ruled the conquered territoryEncomienda System: Spanish settlers owned land, forced natives to work as slaves farming or miningOpposition to Spanish RuleCatholic priests wanted better treatment for nativesLed to importation of African slavesNatives used work slow-downs and violent rebellions to resist the Spanish, mostly unsuccessful
11Main Ideas What process did Columbus and his followers begin? Why were most of the Spanish explorers drawn to the Americas?Which country was the richest and most powerful in the 16th century and why?
12European Nations Settle North America Chapter 20:2
13European Claims In The New World European Countries and Their ClaimsSpainClaimed and colonized lands from the Southern US (including Florida and American Southwest)Also colonized Central and South America and many Caribbean islands including Puerto Rico and Cuba
14European Claims In The New World EnglandNetherlandsJamestown SettlementClaimed and colonized North America from present day Maine south to GeorgiaAlso claimed some Caribbean islands such as Barbados and JamaicaPilgrims/PuritansClaimed New York CityAruba/Antilles in the CaribbeanNew Netherlands
15European Claims In The New World FranceClaimed Haiti in the Caribbean, as well as present day Canada and the Ohio and Mississippi River Valleys in North AmericaNew FrancePortugalClaimed Brazil
18Colonization and War In The New World Reasons for Colonization: $$$ and Power!!!Prestige of the Mother CountryMarket for finished goodsUsed the colonies for cash crop and raw material productionEuropeans go to WarEngland takes New York from the DutchEngland takes Ohio River and Canada from France in the Seven Years’ War (French and Indian War)English drive the French away from the East coast
19Native American Responds: 2 Types of Rule French and Dutch had a strong relationship with N.A. (Nice)Wanted to TradeMake $$$ not War!!English battled the N.A. over religion/land (Mean)Wanted to own LandViolence/FightingKing Philips War (Metacom) attacks villagers in MassachusettsColonist win (Bloody)
20New Diseases Kill Native Americans Biggest reason for European conquest of the New WorldLabor loss in all the coloniesNeed for new labor!!!Small Pox24,
23Main Idea QuestionsWhat was the basic difference between French and English attitudes about the land they acquired in North America?What was the main result of the French and Indian War?What were some of the results for Native Americans of European colonization of North America?
25The Atlantic Slave Trade The Evolution of African SlaverySlavery in AfricaBetween 650 and million Africans had been deported by MuslimsLong standing practiceSlaves could gain freedom
26The Desire for African The Desire for Africans Atlantic Slave Trade Europeans needed labor force to replace Native Americans dying of diseaseLead by PortugueseChose Africans for three reasons:1.) Had built up immunity to disease2.) Had experience in farming3.) Was more difficult for them to escape (unfamiliar)Atlantic Slave Trade9.5 million Africans imported
30Slavery Spreads Throughout the Americas Spain and Portugal were the first to import AfricansOver 3.6 million imported to BrazilEnglishTransported 1.7 million slaves to Americas betweenOnly 400,000 sent to U.S. (Population Increased due to births)2 million by 1830African Cooperation and ResistanceAfrican rulers shipped slaves inland to Europeans ports on the coastTraded slaves for gunsSold prisoners of war/rival tribe members
31A Forced Journey The Triangular Trade The Middle Passage Flow of goods, raw materials, and people between Europe, Africa, and the New World (ex. slaves, tobacco, and guns)See class reading sheetThe Middle PassageThis leg of the triangle trade brought Africans to the AmericasAfricans were packed aboard ships and made the journey in terrible conditions
37Differences In Slavery Slavery in the AmericasSlavery became a lifelong conditionchildren of slaves automatically became slavesSlaves resisted through work slow downs and open rebellion, few were successfulFear of Revolts lead to “harsher” punishmentsConsequences of the Atlantic Slave TradeBroke apart many families in AfricaMixing of African CulturesBrought African culture to the New WorldTheir labor allowed the colonies to survive and prosperSong/Dance/Religion stayed alive in the slave quarters
38Main Idea QuestionsWhat effect did the spread of Islam have on slave trade?How did enslaved Africans resist their bondage?Explain the significance of Triangular Trade.How did African slaves contribute to the development of the Americas?
39The Columbian Exchange and Global Trade Chapter 20:4
40A Global Trade Network Rises: Colonization Brings About Big Changes Americas To EuropeEurope, Africa, Asia to AmericasTobaccoPumpkinSquashAvocadoTurkeyPeppersPineappleCocoa beanPeanutPotatoBeansTomatoCornVanillaOnionOlivesCitrus fruitsCoffee beansPeach/pearsSugar caneHoneybeeGrains (wheat, rice, barley, oats)Livestock (Cattle, sheet, pig, horse)Disease (Smallpox, Cholera, Typhus Measles, Diphtheria)
41Global Trade New Economic Systems rise with Global Trade Mercantilism Triangle Trade (see previous notes)MercantilismBelief that a country’s power is dependent on its wealthGoal was for a country to accumulate as much money as possible, especially in the form of bullion (precious metals like gold)Accomplished in two ways1. Gather raw gold and silver from colonies2. Export more goods than you import (favorable balance of trade)
42Global Trade Capitalism Based on private (individual, NOT gov’t Ownership and the investment of resources with the goal of making a profit!!Caused merchants to grow in power – wealth becomes measured by money and not by landNobles decrease in powerRecognize any of these companies??
43Global Economy Joint-Stock Companies People combine their wealth to form a company too expensive for an individual to formCommon people can become part owner by investing, or buying shares in a company (stock)Economic Revolution Changes European SocietyGrowth of merchant classAge of exploration/colonization increased the wealth of European countries
44Main Idea QuestionsWhat are some of the food items that traveled from the Americas to the rest of the world?What are some of the lasting effects of the Columbian Exchange?