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Chapter 20.  Christopher Columbus: 1492, Italian who sailed for Spain, official discovery of the new world  Colony: A land controlled by another nation.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 20.  Christopher Columbus: 1492, Italian who sailed for Spain, official discovery of the new world  Colony: A land controlled by another nation."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 20

2  Christopher Columbus: 1492, Italian who sailed for Spain, official discovery of the new world  Colony: A land controlled by another nation  Hernando Cortez: Spanish conquistador who took over Aztecs; ruthless  Conquistador: Spanish adventure seeker in the New World; driven by Gold, Glory and God  Francisco Pizarro: Spanish conquistador who took over Incas

3  Mestizo: A person of mixed Spanish/Native American blood  Encomienda: Spanish land grant in the New World. Natives are to work on it (Plantations)  Atlantic Slave Trade: Buying and selling of Africans  Triangular Trade: Europe, Africa and America trade routes  Middle Passage: Africa to Americas voyage for slaves

4  Columbian Exchange: Global transfer of plants, animals, diseases and ideas (cultural diffusion) from the Old World to the New World  Capitalism: Economic system based on private ownership and on investment of money in business ventures in order to make a profit  Joint-Stock Company: A business in which investors pool their wealth for a common purpose, then share the profits (less risk)

5  Mercantilism: Nations that increase their wealth/power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and selling more good than they bought (Gold/Silver/FB of Trade)  Favorable Balance of Trade: A country that sells more “goods” than it buys

6 Chapter 20:1

7  Columbus’s Voyage Paves the Way First Encounters  Landed in the Bahamas in 10/1492  Returned to the Caribbean 3 more times, claiming islands for Spain and setting up colonies

8  Other Explorers Take to the Seas Pedro Cabral: Claimed Brazil for the Portuguese (1500) Amerigo Vespucci: Explored South America, had the continent named after him (1507) Vasco Balboa: First European to see the Pacific Ocean (1515) Magellan: His crew first to sail around the world ( ) 18 out of 230 men survived

9  Cortez Conquers the Aztecs Landed in Mexico in 1519 with 600 men, marched into Tenochtitlan Spanish used superior weaponry, Indian allies, and disease to conquer the Aztecs by 1521  Pizarro Subdues the Inca Marched 200 men into Peru, used treachery to capture and kill Incan king Captured Incan capital without a fight

10  Spain’s Pattern of Conquest Spanish settlers known as penninsulares ruled the conquered territory Encomienda System: Spanish settlers owned land, forced natives to work as slaves farming or mining  Opposition to Spanish Rule Catholic priests wanted better treatment for natives Led to importation of African slaves Natives used work slow-downs and violent rebellions to resist the Spanish, mostly unsuccessful

11 1. What process did Columbus and his followers begin? 2. Why were most of the Spanish explorers drawn to the Americas? 3. Which country was the richest and most powerful in the 16 th century and why?

12 Chapter 20:2

13  European Countries and Their Claims  Spain Claimed and colonized lands from the Southern US (including Florida and American Southwest) Also colonized Central and South America and many Caribbean islands including Puerto Rico and Cuba

14 ENGLANDNETHERLANDS  Jamestown Settlement  Claimed and colonized North America from present day Maine south to Georgia  Also claimed some Caribbean islands such as Barbados and Jamaica  Pilgrims/Puritans  Claimed New York City  Aruba/Antilles in the Caribbean  New Netherlands

15  France Claimed Haiti in the Caribbean, as well as present day Canada and the Ohio and Mississippi River Valleys in North America New France  Portugal Claimed Brazil



18  Reasons for Colonization: $$$ and Power!!! Prestige of the Mother Country Market for finished goods Used the colonies for cash crop and raw material production  Europeans go to War England takes New York from the Dutch England takes Ohio River and Canada from France in the Seven Years’ War (French and Indian War)  English drive the French away from the East coast

19  French and Dutch had a strong relationship with N.A. (Nice) Wanted to Trade Make $$$ not War!!  English battled the N.A. over religion/land (Mean) Wanted to own Land Violence/Fighting  King Philips War (Metacom) attacks villagers in Massachusetts Colonist win (Bloody)

20  New Diseases  Biggest reason for European conquest of the New World  Labor loss in all the colonies  Need for new labor!!!  Small Pox 24,


22  Cholera White Pudding?

23 1. What was the basic difference between French and English attitudes about the land they acquired in North America? 2. What was the main result of the French and Indian War? 3. What were some of the results for Native Americans of European colonization of North America?

24 Chapter 20:3

25  The Evolution of African Slavery  Slavery in Africa Between 650 and million Africans had been deported by Muslims Long standing practice Slaves could gain freedom

26  The Desire for Africans Europeans needed labor force to replace Native Americans dying of disease Lead by Portuguese Chose Africans for three reasons:  1.) Had built up immunity to disease  2.) Had experience in farming  3.) Was more difficult for them to escape (unfamiliar)  Atlantic Slave Trade 9.5 million Africans imported




30  Spain and Portugal were the first to import Africans  Over 3.6 million imported to Brazil  English Transported 1.7 million slaves to Americas between Only 400,000 sent to U.S. (Population Increased due to births) 2 million by 1830  African Cooperation and Resistance  African rulers shipped slaves inland to Europeans ports on the coast  Traded slaves for guns  Sold prisoners of war/rival tribe members

31  The Triangular Trade  Flow of goods, raw materials, and people between Europe, Africa, and the New World (ex. slaves, tobacco, and guns)  See class reading sheet  The Middle Passage  This leg of the triangle trade brought Africans to the Americas  Africans were packed aboard ships and made the journey in terrible conditions





36 EUROPEAFRICA  Beads  Cloth  Hardware  Rum  Salt  weapons  Slaves  Gold  Ivory Molasses Rum Cotton Tobacco Flower Lumber Furs Natural Resources AMERICAS

37  Slavery in the Americas Slavery became a lifelong condition  children of slaves automatically became slaves Slaves resisted through work slow downs and open rebellion, few were successful  Fear of Revolts lead to “harsher” punishments  Consequences of the Atlantic Slave Trade Broke apart many families in Africa  Mixing of African Cultures Brought African culture to the New World Their labor allowed the colonies to survive and prosper  Song/Dance/Religion stayed alive in the slave quarters

38 1. What effect did the spread of Islam have on slave trade? 1. How did enslaved Africans resist their bondage? 1. Explain the significance of Triangular Trade. 1. How did African slaves contribute to the development of the Americas?

39 Chapter 20:4

40 AMERICAS TO EUROPE EUROPE, AFRICA, ASIA TO AMERICAS 1. Tobacco 2. Pumpkin 3. Squash 4. Avocado 5. Turkey 6. Peppers 7. Pineapple 8. Cocoa bean 9. Peanut 10. Potato 11. Beans 12. Tomato 13. Corn 14. Vanilla 1. Onion 2. Olives 3. Citrus fruits 4. Coffee beans 5. Peach/pears 6. Sugar cane 7. Honeybee 8. Grains (wheat, rice, barley, oats) 9. Livestock (Cattle, sheet, pig, horse) 10. Disease (Smallpox, Cholera, Typhus Measles, Diphtheria)

41  New Economic Systems rise with Global Trade Triangle Trade (see previous notes)  Mercantilism  Belief that a country’s power is dependent on its wealth  Goal was for a country to accumulate as much money as possible, especially in the form of bullion (precious metals like gold)  Accomplished in two ways  1. Gather raw gold and silver from colonies  2. Export more goods than you import (favorable balance of trade)

42  Capitalism Based on private (individual, NOT gov’t Ownership and the investment of resources with the goal of making a profit!! Caused merchants to grow in power – wealth becomes measured by money and not by land Nobles decrease in power Recognize any of these companies??

43  Joint-Stock Companies People combine their wealth to form a company too expensive for an individual to form Common people can become part owner by investing, or buying shares in a company (stock)  Economic Revolution Changes European Society Growth of merchant class Age of exploration/colonization increased the wealth of European countries

44 1. What are some of the food items that traveled from the Americas to the rest of the world? 2. What are some of the lasting effects of the Columbian Exchange?

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