European Settlement: Plymouth Colony (GA: SSUSH 1b, 1e) European Settlement: Plymouth Colony (GA: SSUSH 1b, 1e)
“The Landing of the Pilgrims at Plymouth, Mass., Dec. 22 nd, 1620,” Lithograph, Published by Currier & Ives, c1876.
Calvinism – A Protestant form of Christian theology by John Calvin – Argues for an omnipotent (all-powerful) God – God chooses who goes to “Heaven” and who goes to “Hell” Church of England (Anglicanism) – Created during the Reformation as a “middle-way” between Protestantism and Catholicism Sixteenth-century portrait of John Calvin ( ) by an unknown artist Thomas Cranmer (1489–1556),archbishop of Canterbury and principal author of the first two Books of Common Prayer
Anglicanism + Calvinism + Primitivism = Puritans Primitivism (primitive + ism) – A consequence of the Protestant Reformation – The idea that the earliest (most primitive) form of Christianity is the correct form William Brewster (c. 1560–1643) was a Pilgrim colonist leader and preacher Mural painting from the catacomb of Commodilla, Rome. Bust of Christ, c. 4 th Century.
Pilgrims believed that the Church of England was beyond fixing – The only answer was to leave and start a better form of Christianity – This was not received well by traditional Anglicans – The Pilgrims (then called “Separatists”) traveled to neighboring countries to find a new home and religious freedom They decided the best place to go was the New World – 1620: 102 Pilgrims set sail for Virginia
1620: a group of 102 people (half Separatists) – Negotiated with the Virginia Company to settle in its jurisdiction – Non-Separatists included Captain Myles Standish Instead of landing in Virginia the Pilgrims landed in Southern Massachusetts – Became squatters without legal right to land & specific authority to establish a govt.
Written and signed before the Pilgrims disembarked from the ship. Not a constitution, but an agreement to form a crude govt. and submit to majority rule. Signed by 41 adult males. Led to adult male settlers meeting in assemblies to make laws in town meetings.
Winter of – Unexpectedly hard winter Average England Winter = 35°F Average Plymouth Winter = 18°F The Result… 44 of the 102 died.
Fall of 1621: First “Thanksgiving.” Colony survived with fur [especially beaver], fish, and lumber
Plymouth stayed small and economically unimportant. – In 1691: only 7,000 people in colony – Merged with Massachusetts Bay Colony.
Why was there no Visual or Musical Art created during the early Plymouth Colony?