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The Road to the Revolution.  What drove the colonists to declare independence from Great Britain?

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Presentation on theme: "The Road to the Revolution.  What drove the colonists to declare independence from Great Britain?"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Road to the Revolution

2  What drove the colonists to declare independence from Great Britain?

3  The Colonies and Britain Grow Apart  King George II – British monarch  Issued Proclamation of 1763: British Proclamation that forbade the colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains.  colonists who hoped to speculate or buy western land became angry.  King decided to keep 10,000 soldiers in the colonies to enforce proclamation “ Housing was very expensive.

4  Passed the Quartering Acts- Colonists had to house soldiers.  New laws were used to control and restrict freedom of colonists

5  Had debt from French and Indian War  Also had to pay the soldiers  Taxed colonists for ▪ Frontier defense ▪ Colonial government

6  Sugar Act- (1765) placed a tax on sugar, molasses, and other products shipped to colonies.  Stamp Act- (1766) required all legal and commercial documents to carry an official stamp showing that the tax has been paid.  Such as: wills, contracts, newspapers, diplomas

7  Battle Cry of Colonists “No Taxation without Representation”  Patrick Henry- member of House of Burgesses. He demanded resistance. Some said that this was treason.  Colonist Organize  1765 delegates from 9 colonies formed the Stamp Act Congress.  They drafted a petition to the King protesting the Stamp Act

8  Sons of Liberty: Secret Society that opposed British  Colonists Threaten British Profits  Boycott- Widespread refusal to buy British Goods  Refused to buy British Goods hoped to hurt merchants and merchants would go to Parliament to get Stamp Act repealed.

9  The Boycott worked and the Stamp Act was repealed.  At the same time, the Stamp Act was repealed, Parliament passed the Declaratory Act- It stated that Parliament had supreme authority over colonists.

10  Crispus Attacks- sailor of African American and Native American ancestry who died at the Boston Massacre.  Tension spread throughout colonies over Great Britain.

11  How to control unruly colonists without taxing them.  Declaratory Act- Gave Parliament right to legislate for the colonies  Colonists did not feel threatened by the Declaratory Act  Colonists ignored the act and went on about their normal lives

12  Since the Stamp Act was gone, Britain still needed to raise money.  Charles Townshend – Finance ministers of Great Britain raise revenue in America.

13  1767- Townshend Acts- placed duties on numerous imports to the colonies such as:  Glass  Paper  Paint  Lead  tea

14  Writs of Assistance: search warrants – to enter homes and businesses to search for smuggled or illegal goods  Passes laws without consent of colonists  Colonist Protest  Boston merchants organized boycott “colonies all united”

15  Daughters of Liberty: women who organized against Great Britain. They sewed their own clothes, so they would not have to buy from Britain.  Samuel Adams: Leader of the Sons of Liberty

16  Boston Massacre: Fall of 1768  1000 additional soldiers arrived in Boston under command of General Thomas Gage.  Group of colonists were verbally attacking red coats. The crowd grew and the soldiers feared for their lives. Five people were killed.  Boston colonists were outraged.  Flooded Colonists with Anti-British Propaganda; newspapers, pamphlets, and Political posters.

17  John Adams  Lawyer defended the soldiers in court  He sided with the colonists but believed that everyone was entitled to a fair trial.  He said soldiers acted in self defense.  They were acquitted.

18  1770-repealed Townshend Act- Colonial Boycott worked.  Kept the tea tax- to show colonist still had some rights  Tea increase anger  Colonists were smuggling tea from Holland.  British tea companies lost money in America and tea went unsold and rotted in ports.

19  East India Company: Exclusive right to sell tea to the colonies  Committees of correspondence – Communicate with their neighboring towns and colonial leaders.

20  December 16, 1773  A group of men disguised as Native Americans boarded three tea ships that were docked in Boston Harbor.  They destroyed 342 chests of tea to protest the tea act.  Colonial leaders would pay for tea if Britain repealed Tea Act. Britain ruled out compromise. Pushed Colonists to open rebellion.

21  Captain Parker – Militia – Force of armed civilians pledged to defend their community.  1/3 of militia were minutemen: colonists ready to fight within minutes of notice.  Intolerable Acts  King George III- was upset by the Boston Tea Party  Master them or treat them like aliens – Choose to Master.  1774 Parliament passed laws to punish Massachusetts Colony

22  Also called the Intolerable Acts  This was a direct attack on the colonies  1. closed the port of Boston until the tea was paid for  2. banned town meetings  3. replaced elected council with an appointed one  4. increased Governor’s power over the colonists  5. protected British officials accused of crimes being tried by colonists

23  Allowed British officers to house troops in private dwellings  Appointed Gage governor of Massachusetts  Intolerable Acts: other colonies helped support of Massachusetts.

24  Met in Philly (1774)  Voted to ban all trade with Britain until intolerable acts was repealed  Started training troops  Not ready for independence but wanted to keep rights.  Didn’t repeal intolerable acts- Just made  More restrictions  Sent more troops to colonies

25  Forced unelected official to resign.  Provincial Congress with power to collect taxes and raise money for own army.  John Hancock: Committee of Safety- Call of Militia.  Patrick Henry: Give me Liberty, or give me death.  Thought fight would be short with Britain-show of Force. British Parliament would change policies.

26  Spies  Samuel Adams: Had information network of British activities.  General Gage- Had information about militia storing supplies and ammunition in Concord.  In 1775 – Gage ordered troops to arrest Samuel Adams and John Hancock and destroy supplies  Sons of Liberty were ready sent Paul Revere (The Midnight Ride) and William Dawes

27  Harbor of Charleston : One lantern by land  Two by water. In the Old North Church  In Lexington Joined by Dr. Samuel Prescott continued when British patrol stopped Dawes and Revere  700 British troops were in Lexington  Capitan john Parker – 70 militia men waiting  Nearly 4000 minutemen and milita men arrived and peppered retreating redcoats

28  Lexington and Concord -1 st battle  Ralph Waldo Emerson- “Shot heard around The World”  Americans have to choose sides and back up political beliefs  Loyalists- Tory- supported British  Patriots- Rebels- supported Americans

29  Declaring Independence  Margaret Gage- has suspicion she let the secret out of the bag for the colonist.  She was torn between England and America

30  British Troops retreated to Boston – over 15,000 militiamen surround Boston  Boston was under seige – encircled by military forces determined to force the British to surrender.

31  Boston was not easily attacked because they were surrounded by water.  They wanted to capture British fort to north.  Fort Ticonderoga – on Lake Champlain  Ethan Allen- led a band backwoods fighters called Green Mountain Boys  Captured the Fort – Large Artillary or Cannon  Agreed on Continental Army- George Washington – Commanding General

32  Second Continental Congress- meet in Philadelphia  This was America’s government during war  Agreed on Continental Army- George Washington –Commanding General.

33  Charleston – Militiamen positioned on Bunker Hill and Breeds Hill  General William Howe British 2,200 soldiers  Colonial William Prescott- As British climbed the Breeds Hill  “Don’t fire until you see the whites of their eyes”  Forced the militia off the hill  Redcoats won Battle of Bunker Hill 1,000 killed or wounded

34  Sent the petition to London- wanted Harmony between colonies and England. (Most people were against ) Rejected the King  England navy blocked the ports  Hire German soldiers to fight  Washington knew under trained and poorly equiped

35  Washington – Gain supplies and train troops  Bold Plan  Invade Quebec- Hoped to draw Canadians into the patriots cause one of the leaders Benedict Arnold – officer played a role Fort Ticonderoga  Americans were defeated after several months

36  British lay trapped in town – Boston crossed the Bay thousands of America troops waited on the Hills  Cannons were being hauled from Fort Ticonderoga  Positioned the cannons on Dorchester Heights over looking Boston  Withdrew Troops  General Howe (British General) over 7,000 loaded on ships would never return.

37  Pamphlet called “Common Sense” Thomas Paine (Political Radical) Convinced Americans it is time to fight for independence.  Declaration of Independence-  Ben Franklin  John Adams  Roger Sherman  Robert Livingston  Thomas Jefferson- Composed the declaration

38  Excellent Writer  From Virginia  Had to have Virginia Support for Independence to go through  July 4, 1776 – Declaration adopted – John Hancock- President of Congress

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