2Essential QuestionWhat drove the colonists to declare independence from Great Britain?
3Section 1 Tighter British Control The Colonies and Britain Grow ApartKing George II – British monarchIssued Proclamation of 1763: British Proclamation that forbade the colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains.colonists who hoped to speculate or buy western land became angry.King decided to keep 10,000 soldiers in the colonies to enforce proclamation “ Housing was very expensive.
4Passed the Quartering Acts- Colonists had to house soldiers. New laws were used to control and restrict freedom of colonists
5Parliament Taxes the Colonists Had debt from French and Indian WarAlso had to pay the soldiersTaxed colonists forFrontier defenseColonial government
6Sugar Act- (1765) placed a tax on sugar, molasses, and other products shipped to colonies. Stamp Act- (1766) required all legal and commercial documents to carry an official stamp showing that the tax has been paid.Such as: wills, contracts, newspapers, diplomas
7Colonists Defy Parliment Battle Cry of Colonists “No Taxation without Representation”Patrick Henry- member of House of Burgesses. He demanded resistance. Some said that this was treason.Colonist Organize1765 delegates from 9 colonies formed the Stamp Act Congress.They drafted a petition to the King protesting the Stamp Act
8Sons of Liberty: Secret Society that opposed British Colonists Threaten British ProfitsBoycott- Widespread refusal to buy British GoodsRefused to buy British Goods hoped to hurt merchants and merchants would go to Parliament to get Stamp Act repealed.
9The Boycott worked and the Stamp Act was repealed. At the same time, the Stamp Act was repealed, Parliament passed the Declaratory Act- It stated that Parliament had supreme authority over colonists.
10Section 2Crispus Attacks- sailor of African American and Native American ancestry who died at the Boston Massacre.Tension spread throughout colonies over Great Britain.
11Tightening British Control How to control unruly colonists without taxing them.Declaratory Act- Gave Parliament right to legislate for the coloniesColonists did not feel threatened by the Declaratory ActColonists ignored the act and went on about their normal lives
12Since the Stamp Act was gone, Britain still needed to raise money. Charles Townshend – Finance ministers of Great Britain raise revenue in America.
131767- Townshend Acts- placed duties on numerous imports to the colonies such as: GlassPaperPaintLeadtea
14Passes laws without consent of colonists Colonist Protest Writs of Assistance: search warrants – to enter homes and businesses to search for smuggled or illegal goodsPasses laws without consent of colonistsColonist ProtestBoston merchants organized boycott “colonies all united”
15Political Activism Spreads Daughters of Liberty: women who organized against Great Britain. They sewed their own clothes, so they would not have to buy from Britain.Samuel Adams: Leader of the Sons of Liberty
16Boston Massacre Boston Massacre: Fall of 1768 1000 additional soldiers arrived in Boston under command of General Thomas Gage.Group of colonists were verbally attacking red coats. The crowd grew and the soldiers feared for their lives. Five people were killed.Boston colonists were outraged.Flooded Colonists with Anti-British Propaganda; newspapers, pamphlets, and Political posters.
17John Adams Lawyer defended the soldiers in court He sided with the colonists but believed that everyone was entitled to a fair trial.He said soldiers acted in self defense.They were acquitted .
18Economic Interference 1770-repealed Townshend Act- Colonial Boycott worked.Kept the tea tax- to show colonist still had some rightsTea increase angerColonists were smuggling tea from Holland.British tea companies lost money in America and tea went unsold and rotted in ports.
19East India Company: Exclusive right to sell tea to the colonies Committees of correspondence – Communicate with their neighboring towns and colonial leaders.
20The Boston Tea Party December 16, 1773 A group of men disguised as Native Americans boarded three tea ships that were docked in Boston Harbor.They destroyed 342 chests of tea to protest the tea act.Colonial leaders would pay for tea if Britain repealed Tea Act. Britain ruled out compromise. Pushed Colonists to open rebellion.
21Section 3 The Road to Lexington and Concord Captain Parker – Militia – Force of armed civilians pledged to defend their community.1/3 of militia were minutemen: colonists ready to fight within minutes of notice.Intolerable ActsKing George III- was upset by the Boston Tea PartyMaster them or treat them like aliens – Choose to Master.1774 Parliament passed laws to punish Massachusetts Colony
22Coercive Acts Also called the Intolerable Acts This was a direct attack on the colonies1. closed the port of Boston until the tea was paid for2. banned town meetings3. replaced elected council with an appointed one4. increased Governor’s power over the colonists5. protected British officials accused of crimes being tried by colonists
23Allowed British officers to house troops in private dwellings Appointed Gage governor of MassachusettsIntolerable Acts: other colonies helped support of Massachusetts.
24First Continental Congress Met in Philly (1774)Voted to ban all trade with Britain until intolerable acts was repealedStarted training troopsNot ready for independence but wanted to keep rights.Didn’t repeal intolerable acts- Just madeMore restrictionsSent more troops to colonies
25Forced unelected official to resign. Provincial Congress with power to collect taxes and raise money for own army.John Hancock: Committee of Safety- Call of Militia.Patrick Henry: Give me Liberty, or give me death.Thought fight would be short with Britain-show of Force. British Parliament would change policies.
26Revolution Begins Spies Samuel Adams: Had information network of British activities.General Gage- Had information about militia storing supplies and ammunition in Concord.In 1775 – Gage ordered troops to arrest Samuel Adams and John Hancock and destroy suppliesSons of Liberty were ready sent Paul Revere (The Midnight Ride) and William Dawes
27Harbor of Charleston : One lantern by land Two by water. In the Old North ChurchIn Lexington Joined by Dr. Samuel Prescott continued when British patrol stopped Dawes and Revere700 British troops were in LexingtonCapitan john Parker – 70 militia men waitingNearly 4000 minutemen and milita men arrived and peppered retreating redcoats
28Lexington and Concord -1st battle Ralph Waldo Emerson- “Shot heard around The World”Americans have to choose sides and back up political beliefsLoyalists- Tory- supported BritishPatriots- Rebels- supported Americans
29Section 4 Declaring Independence Margaret Gage- has suspicion she let the secret out of the bag for the colonist.She was torn between England and America
30The Siege of BostonBritish Troops retreated to Boston – over 15,000 militiamen surround BostonBoston was under seige – encircled by military forces determined to force the British to surrender.
31The Continental Army is Formed Boston was not easily attacked because they were surrounded by water.They wanted to capture British fort to north.Fort Ticonderoga – on Lake ChamplainEthan Allen- led a band backwoods fighters called Green Mountain BoysCaptured the Fort – Large Artillary or CannonAgreed on Continental Army- George Washington – Commanding General
32Second Continental Congress- meet in Philadelphia This was America’s government during warAgreed on Continental Army- George Washington –Commanding General.
33Battle of Bunker HillCharleston – Militiamen positioned on Bunker Hill and Breeds HillGeneral William Howe British 2,200 soldiersColonial William Prescott- As British climbed the Breeds Hill“Don’t fire until you see the whites of their eyes”Forced the militia off the hillRedcoats won Battle of Bunker Hill 1,000 killed or wounded
34The Olive Branch Petition Sent the petition to London- wanted Harmony between colonies and England. (Most people were against ) Rejected the KingEngland navy blocked the portsHire German soldiers to fightWashington knew under trained and poorly equiped
35Washington Arrives Washington – Gain supplies and train troops Bold PlanInvade Quebec- Hoped to draw Canadians into the patriots cause one of the leaders Benedict Arnold – officer played a role Fort TiconderogaAmericans were defeated after several months
36British lay trapped in town – Boston crossed the Bay thousands of America troops waited on the Hills Cannons were being hauled from Fort TiconderogaPositioned the cannons on Dorchester Heights over looking BostonWithdrew TroopsGeneral Howe (British General) over 7,000 loaded on ships would never return.
37Declaration of Independence- Pamphlet called “Common Sense” Thomas Paine (Political Radical) Convinced Americans it is time to fight for independence.Declaration of Independence-Ben FranklinJohn AdamsRoger ShermanRobert LivingstonThomas Jefferson- Composed the declaration
38Thomas Jefferson Excellent Writer From Virginia Had to have Virginia Support for Independence to go throughJuly 4, 1776 – Declaration adopted – John Hancock- President of Congress