Presentation on theme: "The Road to the Revolution. What drove the colonists to declare independence from Great Britain?"— Presentation transcript:
The Road to the Revolution
What drove the colonists to declare independence from Great Britain?
The Colonies and Britain Grow Apart King George II – British monarch Issued Proclamation of 1763: British Proclamation that forbade the colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains. colonists who hoped to speculate or buy western land became angry. King decided to keep 10,000 soldiers in the colonies to enforce proclamation “ Housing was very expensive.
Passed the Quartering Acts- Colonists had to house soldiers. New laws were used to control and restrict freedom of colonists
Had debt from French and Indian War Also had to pay the soldiers Taxed colonists for ▪ Frontier defense ▪ Colonial government
Sugar Act- (1765) placed a tax on sugar, molasses, and other products shipped to colonies. Stamp Act- (1766) required all legal and commercial documents to carry an official stamp showing that the tax has been paid. Such as: wills, contracts, newspapers, diplomas
Battle Cry of Colonists “No Taxation without Representation” Patrick Henry- member of House of Burgesses. He demanded resistance. Some said that this was treason. Colonist Organize 1765 delegates from 9 colonies formed the Stamp Act Congress. They drafted a petition to the King protesting the Stamp Act
Sons of Liberty: Secret Society that opposed British Colonists Threaten British Profits Boycott- Widespread refusal to buy British Goods Refused to buy British Goods hoped to hurt merchants and merchants would go to Parliament to get Stamp Act repealed.
The Boycott worked and the Stamp Act was repealed. At the same time, the Stamp Act was repealed, Parliament passed the Declaratory Act- It stated that Parliament had supreme authority over colonists.
Crispus Attacks- sailor of African American and Native American ancestry who died at the Boston Massacre. Tension spread throughout colonies over Great Britain.
How to control unruly colonists without taxing them. Declaratory Act- Gave Parliament right to legislate for the colonies Colonists did not feel threatened by the Declaratory Act Colonists ignored the act and went on about their normal lives
Since the Stamp Act was gone, Britain still needed to raise money. Charles Townshend – Finance ministers of Great Britain raise revenue in America.
Townshend Acts- placed duties on numerous imports to the colonies such as: Glass Paper Paint Lead tea
Writs of Assistance: search warrants – to enter homes and businesses to search for smuggled or illegal goods Passes laws without consent of colonists Colonist Protest Boston merchants organized boycott “colonies all united”
Daughters of Liberty: women who organized against Great Britain. They sewed their own clothes, so they would not have to buy from Britain. Samuel Adams: Leader of the Sons of Liberty
Boston Massacre: Fall of 1768 1000 additional soldiers arrived in Boston under command of General Thomas Gage. Group of colonists were verbally attacking red coats. The crowd grew and the soldiers feared for their lives. Five people were killed. Boston colonists were outraged. Flooded Colonists with Anti-British Propaganda; newspapers, pamphlets, and Political posters.
John Adams Lawyer defended the soldiers in court He sided with the colonists but believed that everyone was entitled to a fair trial. He said soldiers acted in self defense. They were acquitted.
1770-repealed Townshend Act- Colonial Boycott worked. Kept the tea tax- to show colonist still had some rights Tea increase anger Colonists were smuggling tea from Holland. British tea companies lost money in America and tea went unsold and rotted in ports.
East India Company: Exclusive right to sell tea to the colonies Committees of correspondence – Communicate with their neighboring towns and colonial leaders.
December 16, 1773 A group of men disguised as Native Americans boarded three tea ships that were docked in Boston Harbor. They destroyed 342 chests of tea to protest the tea act. Colonial leaders would pay for tea if Britain repealed Tea Act. Britain ruled out compromise. Pushed Colonists to open rebellion.
Captain Parker – Militia – Force of armed civilians pledged to defend their community. 1/3 of militia were minutemen: colonists ready to fight within minutes of notice. Intolerable Acts King George III- was upset by the Boston Tea Party Master them or treat them like aliens – Choose to Master. 1774 Parliament passed laws to punish Massachusetts Colony
Also called the Intolerable Acts This was a direct attack on the colonies 1. closed the port of Boston until the tea was paid for 2. banned town meetings 3. replaced elected council with an appointed one 4. increased Governor’s power over the colonists 5. protected British officials accused of crimes being tried by colonists
Allowed British officers to house troops in private dwellings Appointed Gage governor of Massachusetts Intolerable Acts: other colonies helped support of Massachusetts.
Met in Philly (1774) Voted to ban all trade with Britain until intolerable acts was repealed Started training troops Not ready for independence but wanted to keep rights. Didn’t repeal intolerable acts- Just made More restrictions Sent more troops to colonies
Forced unelected official to resign. Provincial Congress with power to collect taxes and raise money for own army. John Hancock: Committee of Safety- Call of Militia. Patrick Henry: Give me Liberty, or give me death. Thought fight would be short with Britain-show of Force. British Parliament would change policies.
Spies Samuel Adams: Had information network of British activities. General Gage- Had information about militia storing supplies and ammunition in Concord. In 1775 – Gage ordered troops to arrest Samuel Adams and John Hancock and destroy supplies Sons of Liberty were ready sent Paul Revere (The Midnight Ride) and William Dawes
Harbor of Charleston : One lantern by land Two by water. In the Old North Church In Lexington Joined by Dr. Samuel Prescott continued when British patrol stopped Dawes and Revere 700 British troops were in Lexington Capitan john Parker – 70 militia men waiting Nearly 4000 minutemen and milita men arrived and peppered retreating redcoats
Lexington and Concord -1 st battle Ralph Waldo Emerson- “Shot heard around The World” Americans have to choose sides and back up political beliefs Loyalists- Tory- supported British Patriots- Rebels- supported Americans
Declaring Independence Margaret Gage- has suspicion she let the secret out of the bag for the colonist. She was torn between England and America
British Troops retreated to Boston – over 15,000 militiamen surround Boston Boston was under seige – encircled by military forces determined to force the British to surrender.
Boston was not easily attacked because they were surrounded by water. They wanted to capture British fort to north. Fort Ticonderoga – on Lake Champlain Ethan Allen- led a band backwoods fighters called Green Mountain Boys Captured the Fort – Large Artillary or Cannon Agreed on Continental Army- George Washington – Commanding General
Second Continental Congress- meet in Philadelphia This was America’s government during war Agreed on Continental Army- George Washington –Commanding General.
Charleston – Militiamen positioned on Bunker Hill and Breeds Hill General William Howe British 2,200 soldiers Colonial William Prescott- As British climbed the Breeds Hill “Don’t fire until you see the whites of their eyes” Forced the militia off the hill Redcoats won Battle of Bunker Hill 1,000 killed or wounded
Sent the petition to London- wanted Harmony between colonies and England. (Most people were against ) Rejected the King England navy blocked the ports Hire German soldiers to fight Washington knew under trained and poorly equiped
Washington – Gain supplies and train troops Bold Plan Invade Quebec- Hoped to draw Canadians into the patriots cause one of the leaders Benedict Arnold – officer played a role Fort Ticonderoga Americans were defeated after several months
British lay trapped in town – Boston crossed the Bay thousands of America troops waited on the Hills Cannons were being hauled from Fort Ticonderoga Positioned the cannons on Dorchester Heights over looking Boston Withdrew Troops General Howe (British General) over 7,000 loaded on ships would never return.
Pamphlet called “Common Sense” Thomas Paine (Political Radical) Convinced Americans it is time to fight for independence. Declaration of Independence- Ben Franklin John Adams Roger Sherman Robert Livingston Thomas Jefferson- Composed the declaration
Excellent Writer From Virginia Had to have Virginia Support for Independence to go through July 4, 1776 – Declaration adopted – John Hancock- President of Congress