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Exploration and Colonization of America

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1 Exploration and Colonization of America 1607-1754
By: Sommer Falgowski, Brett Perkins, Christina Mapa, Colin Roberts, Joe Kleshick, Robbie Aitken, Matt Lee and Kelly Liska

2 Index Politics and Government Social, Cultural, Religious and the Arts
Finance and the Economy International Affairs Literary Elements Works Cited Focus Questions Why Our Era was Special

3 Politics and Government
By: Colin Roberts and Robbie Aitken

4 Berengia Berengia: An area between Alaska and Asia, when this area was frozen it was a connected piece of land.

5 Spanish Exploration Conquistadors: Spanish explorers who seeked to claim land with gold and silver. They first explored the Caribbean region. They went up through Mexico. In 1519, Hernando Cortes led an army into the America mainland. He did this to claim land in the name of Spain. After destroying the Aztec’s capital, Cortes started plans for a new colony “New Spain”. The capital would be Mexico City. Spanish settlers in Americas were mostly men and were known as peninsulares. Marriage between peninsulares and native women were common. Their offspring were called mestizos, people of mixed Spanish and Native American descent. Spanish forced natives to work in systems called Encomiendas. However in 1542, the Spanish monarchy abolished it in efforts to increase fair treatment. In its place Spain adopted the use of African American slaves.

6 Spanish Exploration Another explorer, Juan Ponce de Leon explored what is now Jacksonville. In honor of the Spanish holiday “pascua florida”, Juan Ponce de Leon named the land he found “la Florida”.·  

7 French Exploration French were more interested in spreading the Catholic religion and gaining money rather than settling in America. French claimed the entire Mississippi Valley for France, naming it Louisiana in honor of King Louis XIV. French colonists became fur traders. The French colonists developed friendly relationships with the Native Americans. Native Americans trapped the fur and the French traded goods with them in exchange for the fur.

8 Joint Stock Company Spanish colonies were funded by Spanish ruler but unlike the Spanish colonies the English were funded by joint stock companies. These companies were made up of several investors who pool their wealth to support a colony. If these investors did well then the investors gained more wealth.

9 The Jamestown Settlement
In 1607, thirteen years before the Pilgrims landed in Massachusetts, a group of 104 English men and boys began a settlement on the banks of Virginia’s James River. They were sponsored by the Virginia Company of London, whose stockholders hoped to make a profit from the resources of the New World. The community suffered terrible hardships in its early years, but managed to endure, earning the distinction of being America’s first permanent English colony.

10 Bacon’s Rebellion A rebellion in Virginia against Sir William Berkeley, for lowering the price of tobacco, raising taxes and not being able to defend his own town against Indians.

11 House of Burgesses During the 1610s, the small English colony at Jamestown was essentially a failure. Fearful of losing their investment, the officers of the Virginia Company in London embarked upon a series of reforms designed to attract more people to the troubled settlement. They began by ending the company monopoly on land ownership, believing that the colonists would display greater initiative if they had an ownership position in the venture. Company officials also made justice in Virginia more predictable by adopting English common law as the basis of their system, which replaced the whims of the governor as the final voice on legal matters.

12 Theocracy A form of government in which a god is recognized as the state’s supreme civil ruler. However other variations may appear such as a state in which the state is ruled by divine guidance or a state ruled by officials who are regarded as divinely guided.

13 Royal Colony A colony under direct control of the king, or a governor chosen by the king. Kings would do this to gain financial control over colonies. In later years these colonies would cause distress with settlers, and reforms would be made to the control of power.

14 William Penn William Penn was a Quaker who established a Quaker colony in Pennsylvania. Penn used the money owed to him by King Charles II to trade in for American land. Here, he established a colony run on Quaker principles of equality, cooperation and religious freedom.

15 Ben Franklin ( ) Began to write for his brothers newspaper, The New England Courant, the first newspaper of Boston Ran away from his home and found work as an apprentice printer in Philadelphia In 1729, he bought the Pennsylvania Gazette In 1733, he started publishing the Poor Richards Almanac. Almanacs were printed annually in this era and many people enjoyed his lively writing Franklin helped launch: Library Company in 1731: nations first subscription library (exists today) American Philosophical Society in 1743 (exists today) Pennsylvania Hospital in 1751: helped treat the sick (exists today) Philadelphia’s Union Fire Company Philadelphia Contribution for Insurance Against Loss by Fire (exists today) Had invented the Franklin Stove, but in the 1750’s, he became famous for his kite experiment that verified the nature of electricity and lightning Franklin was elected to the Second Continental Congress and helped to draft the Declaration of Independence and in 1776, he signed it.

16 Colonial Charters European Governments had the right to govern and control the economies of colonies overseas England had colonial charters in America, as well as France and Spain All three of these countries ruled from over sea’s

17 Social, Cultural, Religious, Science, and the Arts
By: Christina Mapa and Kelly Liska

18 Indentured Servants Indentured servants were usually adult whites who were coming to America (usually immigrants) under three classes: the freewillers, people that were forced, captured, enticed to go and convicts.

19 Puritans (City Upon A Hill)
John Winthrop said that the puritans must be like a city upon a hill (for all to acknowledge and wonder) and to build a city a perfect god-governed city.

20 Plymouth Colony Created in 1620 it was the second permanent English colony in North America. Most of its population was made up of Separatists. Although the colony was never very wealthy, the people were happy enough being ignored by the British officials.

21 Massachusetts Bay Colony
Established in September 1630 by John Winthrop and other colonist. This port town of Boston became their capital. It also brought puritan and non-puritan settlers alike flocking. It absorbed the Plymouth Colony in 1691.

22 Salem Witch Trials ( ) A series of trials held for the purpose of exposing and abominating witchcraft. Thousands of people were accused and imprisoned. The punishment for being found guilty of witchcraft was a hanging. Those who refused to confess were killed by being crushed by two heavy rocks. Women who claimed to be pregnant were not hung until after they gave birth. The mass hysteria was brought on mainly by superstition and religious beliefs. The people of this time were either ignorant to the truth or uneducated, leaving the only explanation for extraordinary events as the supernatural work of the Devil and witches. When families where accused of practicing witchcraft, their lands where left untended, resulting in a large amount of abandoned territory. The Salem Witch Trials are important history because the families of the convicted were forced to go on as though nothing had happened. Many had nothing to return to. This effected the economy and a strong sense of distrust spread throughout the country.

23 Anne Hutchinson Led religious discussions stating that every person was enlightened by the holy spirit if they are true believers. This was controversial because she said worshipers needed neither the church nor its ministers. Anne was banished and went to Rhode Island with her followers.

24 Separatists Puritans from England, who did not agree with the Anglican Church and chose to create independent congregations. Known today as pilgrims, they fled from religious prosecution to Holland and then to America. The majority of Colonist was Separatists.

25 Roger Williams Called an extreme separatist for his controversial views. He stated that the settles had no rightful claim to the land unless the settlers purchased it. He also believed in Freedom of Religion.

26 Holy Experiment Penn thought of his colony as a “Holy Experiment” which would be a place without a landowning aristocracy. Every adult male settler was given 50 acres of land and the right to vote. The government had a representative assembly and freedom of religion. Capital city of Philadelphia, “City of Brotherly Love”. Quakers believed that God’s spirit was inside everyone; therefore, any person was allowed to speak during the meetings Quakers were plainly dressed, had no ranks, and embraced pacifism by opposing war and refusing military.

27 Great Awakening ( ) The first great awakening was a spiritual renewal that spread across the American Colonies, mainly New England It began in England (Church of England was a key cause), and was then brought to America Colonists realized they had religious authority rather than the church The great awakening mainly “woke people up” and realized they all wanted freedom from the British Although having the same religious views, all agreed they needed freedom from England

28 Finance and Economy By: Brett Perkins and Sommer Falgowski

29 The Navigation Acts The Navigation Acts were a series of laws that helped create an economic boom for the English and colonies. They were passed by the English Parliament that restricted a colony’s trade to only England. England and the colonists benefited from the Navigation Acts. No country could trade with the colonies unless goods were shipped in English or colonial ships. Ships had to be operated by at least three-quarters colonial or English. Certain products were exported only to England. Almost all goods had to pass through English port.

30 Cash crops In agriculture, a cash crop is a crop which is grown for profit. Cash crops are what gave America success during the Industrial revolution. Cash crops like coffee, wheat, tobacco, corn, and cotton were all exported to European countries and around the world and created a booming economy for the New World.

31 Slavery Slavery was looked upon as indentured servants, similar to those white. In 1685, slave entered a new southern vocabulary. Tobacco planting is much to due with the success of the slave era. Because of tobacco, more hands were needed and therefore more blacks were shipped over (paid in food). Not only blacks were enslaved but millions of Native Americans were also taken from tribes when weak from disease or protection. At one point in the 1730’s, 25% of slaves were native Americans. By the mid seventeen hundreds, slave revolts become a common thing and new laws are put forth. By 1751, Virginia is 40% slaves and the other colonies 20%

32 Head-Right System Granted land to anyone who paid for their own passage to America. Each colonist received 50 acres of land under this system. The system helped wealthy people obtain large land grants when they brought many people with them.

33 International Affairs
By: Matt Lee

34 Dominion of New England
The Dominion of New England was a large colony that expanded from southern Maine to New Jersey. King James II created the Dominion of New England to make the colonial governments more obedient. The Northern colonies were managed under a single ruler in Boston.

35 Roanoke Roanoke was a colony founded in the late 15th century that was ill prepared to face the cruelties of the new world. They depended on local Indians for food and shelters by kidnapping and bullying them, although this was a great mistake. When the colony ran out of supplies, 15 men were left behind. 3 years later upon return to Roanoke, the men were missing and never heard from again. Mysteriously the only thing left was the word croatan carved on a post.

36 Pequot War In 1637 in Connecticut, the Pequot nation decided to take a stand against the colonists. About 90 colonists and hundreds of other native tribes attacked a Pequot fort and almost wiped out the tribe.

37 Salutary Neglect (1607 to 1763) Long-term British policy of preventing American voices to be heard through representation. This was in place to ensure the obedience of American colonies to Great Britain. The English didn’t involve themselves in the local rulings of the new colonies and in return for that independence, the Americans supported Britain. This policy changed after the Seven Year’s War when Great Britain increased control against the wishes of the colonies. Ex demanding taxes and enforcing trade restrictions. This event was significant because it proved that the new American colonies could strive to survive over time.

38 Mercantilism Mercantilism is the theory that all countries compete to obtain the most gold and silver. The ultimate goal is self-sufficiency. The British interest in colonies was inspired by Mercantilism. According to Mercantilism, any wealth flowing from the colonies to another country would cost the home country. Mercantilism made countries restrict their trade to create a more favorable balance of goods to the country.

39 Triangular Trade The Triangular Trade involved the trading of slaves, crops and manufactured goods between three regions: West Africa, Caribbean and American. Some complications arose such as maximizing the storage of slaves, disease, and arriving ‘in season’. Slaves were taken from Africa and sold in the Caribbean or the Americas. This was an important event in history because it increased the number of workers for the plantations and varied crops typically grown in America. Ex molasses

40 Middle Passage The Middle Passage was a cycle of trade, starting from Europe and ending with the Americas. Ships departed Europe and went to Africa to trade goods for captured slaves. The slaves were then transported and sold for raw materials, which were sent back to Europe where it all started. The significance of the Middle Passage was hugely economical. For the countries involved in the trade, needed materials were earned and used to improve their stability.

41 Literary Elements By: Joe Kleschick

42 Jonathan Edwards (1703-1758) Jonathan was a pastor in Massachusetts
Known to be the greatest philosopher Enrolled at Yale at 13 for his unusual intelligence In the mid thirties, the great awakening swept through New England His sermons were so powerful, they left people speechless. About 10% of New England was converted Edwards made everyone’s perspective of God bigger and better. They hoped in sharing God’s glory and no longer feared death

43 Anne Bradstreet (1612-1672) Considered to be the first American poet
Married to Simon Bradstreet, who was a son to a Puritan minister They came to American in 1630 She spent much time writing about her husband while he was traveling as well as reading to and teaching her children One of her books, "The Tenth Muse Lately Sprung Up in America, By a Gentlewoman of Those Parts", was published in 1650 by her brother in law

44 Phillis Wheatley • Phillis Wheatley was a slave turned poet in the late 17th century. • She was taught to write by the daughter of her owners • Back then women were not published, especially blacks • Phillis' popularity as a poet both in the United States and England ultimately brought her freedom from slavery on October 18, 1773.  • She presented her poetry to General Washington in 1776 and was a strong supporter of independence during the Revolutionary War.  • First African American to publish a book

45 John Smith An adventurer who was a member of the Virginia Company. The Virginia Company was a group of merchants who were interested in founding an English colony. With Smith’s help this small English colony survived.

46 Color of the Wind Lyrics
You think I'm an ignorant savage And you've been so many places I guess it must be so But still I cannot see If the savage one is me How can there be so much that you don't know? You don't know ... You think you own whatever land you land on The Earth is just a dead thing you can claim But I know every rock and tree and creature Has a life, has a spirit, has a name You think the only people who are people Are the people who look and think like you But if you walk the footsteps of a stranger You'll learn things you never knew you never knew Have you ever heard the wolf cry to the blue corn moon Or asked the grinning bobcat why he grinned? Can you sing with all the voices of the mountains? Can you paint with all the colors of the wind? Come run the hidden pine trails of the forest Come taste the sunsweet berries of the Earth Come roll in all the riches all around you And for once, never wonder what they're worth The rainstorm and the river are my brothers The heron and the otter are my friends And we are all connected to each other In a circle, in a hoop that never ends How high will the sycamore grow? If you cut it down, then you'll never know And you'll never hear the wolf cry to the blue corn moon For whether we are white or copper skinned We need to sing with all the voices of the mountains We need to paint with all the colors of the wind You can own the Earth and still All you'll own is Earth until You can paint with all the colors of the wind

47 Focus Questions How was the founding of America the result of three great Cultures/People colliding? Spain, France and Britain collided when America was founded. Each country wanted to be the most powerful, so colonizing America was their answer. Spain looked to find gold and silver in the New World. France hoped to spread the Catholic religion and gain money from fur trading. The English sent many colonists there to settle and build a colony in the New World. It was a race to colonize, and as they each came to settle, they brought pieces of their culture to America and influenced who settled there and their way of life.

48 Why was the colonization of the East Coast of North America mostly a British phenomenon?
During early exploration times, the Spanish Armada ruled the seas. They started exploring in the south in Mexico. From there, the Spaniards worked their way up into Southwestern, and Southeastern America. However by this time, Britain’s naval forces overpowered the Spanish Armada. Allowing Britain to explore, and colonize America without worry of being attacked. While Spain was exploring the south, the French were exploring and setting up colonies in the Mississippi Valley. This left the east coast of America the closest and easiest part of the new world to explore and colonize for the British.

49 How did the colonial regions differ regarding their reasons for settlement, relations with the first Americans, culture and the development of their communities? Each colonial region had different reasons for settling where they did and had different relationships with the settlers that were there before them. Colonists in the south settled there because the ideal warm temperatures were perfect for farming year round, so it was economically beneficial to all new settlers. The Native Americans that had previously lived there had already been living a peaceful life, but the colonists would not compromise and kicked the Native Americans off their land. In the North, people went there to escape religious persecution, and live the life like the Puritans. Aside from the religious aspect, New England was manufacturing goods and trading items with the Europeans so the economy was striving. Since the colonists were new to the land, they took this as an opportunity and learned from the Natives so they could prosper. The Mid- Atlantic region was a new land and when people came there to settle they were satisfied with what was there because there was easy access to ports and fishing.

50 Identify any unusual situations or particular uniqueness that was reflected in the various regions during the Colonial Period? During the Colonial Period, an unusual event happened in Virginia at Roanoke Island. English settlers came to this Island to settle, but realized they did not have enough supplies to survive. So the captain went back to England, but was not able to get back to Roanoke until three years later due to England’s war with Spain. When he returned, the whole colony had disappeared. There are theories that the English settlers joined the Native Americans on the Island, or that they had been killed off, but no one knows for sure what happened to the colony on Roanoke Island. Another unusual event took place in Salem, Massachusetts. A group of Salem girls accused a West Indian slave woman, Tituba, of witchcraft. More and more townspeople were accused of being witches. Those accused of being witches blamed others of being “witches” to save themselves. These false accusations caused hysteria in Salem. Many others were said to have dealt with witchcraft as well, and the whole scandal led to many being hanged or stoned.

51 Why did colonials begin to move toward more interest in independence?
The colonists were moving towards independence because they were not happy with the British rule. After the French and Indian War, the British government stationed 10,000 troops in America to control the Native Americans and French. However, the colonists thought this army may turn against them. Also, the cost of troops in America was expensive on the British budget. Britain borrowed large amounts of money that nearly doubled its national debt weakening the colonies too. In addition, British policies angered colonists. The colonists were being unfairly taxed and had to follow laws from the British Parliament. One such law was the Sugar Act. The Sugar Act limited the colonist’s trade and forced colonists to go to vice-admiralty courts rather than colonial courts. Also, governors were sent from England to enforce the Parliament’s laws, leaving the colonists with no options or freedom. The colonists did not object to British rule because they still considered themselves British. However, being in a new land with new people. They realized that they must separate from the British and rule themselves

52 What was special about the Exploration & Colonial Era?
The Exploration & Colonial Era ( ) was the beginning of a whole New World. The discovery of the New World started a race to colonize this unique land. Conquistadors from Spain, fur traders from France and colonists from England flocked to America to establish their own colony. These colonies were unique and interesting in their own way. “New Spain” set up by the Spanish was a vast land with Mexico City as its capital. Here, they built churches and homes while trying to find gold and silver. The French claimed the Mississippi Valley as their colony. In their land, the French hoped to obtain fur from the Native Americans and gain wealth. Also, they looked to convert Native Americans to follow their Catholic religion. The English set up many colonies along the east coast. Joint Stock Companies invested money into colonies that were successful. People settled to start a new life. For example, William Penn came to America to establish a colony based on the Quaker religion that would be open to all religions. Another culture, the Native Americans, was affected during this era. Europeans came and claimed land that Native Americans belong to no one. They were given diseases and faced many troubles with the Europeans. Lastly, Africans were taken to the New World and used as slaves. Therefore, this era was a time filled with people from many different lands coming to use and settle a new land creating a whole New World.

53 Works Cited

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