Presentation on theme: "Objective: Students will read and interpret maps to learn about the locations, physical features, and human geography of the regions of North America."— Presentation transcript:
Objective: Students will read and interpret maps to learn about the locations, physical features, and human geography of the regions of North America where important fighting occurred during the American revolution.
Objective: Students will identify the roots of the nation’s blend of civic republicanism, classical liberal principles, and English parliamentary traditions.
Objective: Students will locate the Key Content terms for the chapter. Students will use one of the vocabulary development strategies to define the key content terms.
When is it Necessary for citizens to rebel against their government? British Colonies 1750 British Colonies Who were Patriots (Whigs)? Who were Loyalists (Tories) What is happening in the Illustration that opens this Chapter? How might a Patriot view this scene? How might a Loyalist view it? What could have happened to cause the colonist to become so divided in their feelings about the British?
Before 1763 People can to the American colonies for: Cheap land, Religious freedom, economic opportunities. More importantly because they were left alone to govern themselves. Colonial powers: Elect assemblies Create, collect and spend taxes. Make laws Conflict in the Ohio Valley The French and Indian War
Early British Actions in the Colonies New King George III is a stubborn, take charge king. The Proclamation of 1763 Problem: How to keep Native Americans and colonists from killing each other? Answer: separate them by drawing and line down the crest of the Appalachian Mountains. Colonist called it tyranny- unjust use of power. King didn’t care sent army to enforce.
STAMP ACT – tax on all paper items (newspapers, playing cards, etc) or JAIL
Stamp Act Britain in debt because of war with France. British citizen already pay high taxes. Colonists very little taxes. George Greenville, of England, taxes colonists in America. Stamp Act: Law requiring all colonist to pay tax on all paper used. Colonists said it violated their rights and British citizens. Protested: Boycott, sending messages and violence. Stamp Act was repealed by Parliament.
Britain would use the money to pay of the large debt from the French and Indian War. Who started the French and Indian War? Who gained land from the French and Indian War? Who pays high taxes, Colonists or People in Great Britain?
Colonists ANGRY NO TAXATION WITHOUT REPRESENTATION
Committee of Correspondence – share ideas about ways to challenge Britain BOYCOTT British goods!!!! STOP buying them!!!!!
The Sons of Liberty – secret societies that used VIOLENCE to frighten tax collectors
England is ANGRY – how dare colonists challenge authority The Declatory Act – only England makes the rules NOT the colonists
The Quartering Act Americans noticed another law passed by Parliament in 1765. Called the Quartering Act, this law ordered colonial assemblies to provide British troops with quarters, or housing. The colonists were also told to furnish the soldiers with “candles, firing, bedding, cooking utensils, salt, vinegar, and... beer or cider.” Providing for the soldiers cost money. Colonists asked why they should pay to keep troops in their colony. After all, they said, the soldiers just took up space and did nothing. In 1767, the New York assembly decided not to approve any funds for “salt, vinegar and liquor” for the troops. The British government reacted by refusing to let the assembly meet until it agreed to obey the Quartering Act. Once again, tempers began to rise on both sides of the Atlantic.
The Townshend Act Charles Townshend believed that the colonists’ bad behavior made it even more important to retain an army in the British colonies. retain In 1767 Parliament to pass the Townshend Acts. The new laws placed a duty, or tax, on certain goods the colonies imported from Great Britain. These goods included such popular items as glass, paint, paper, and tea.
A Boycott of British Goods Colonists said that the Townshend Act was unacceptable. Sam Adams was a gifted at stirring up protest through his speeches and writings. He help lead the boycott of British goods. Women were very important to the success of the boycott.
Repeal of the Townshend Acts A new leader named Lord North became head of the British government. British merchants were losing because of the boycott. Early in 1770, North persuaded Parliament to repeal all of the Townshend duties. Except for one—the tax on tea.
The Boston Massacre A massacre is the killing of defenseless people. Patriots called this incident the Boston Massacre. What really happened was a small riot. Boston Patriots were the worst troublemakers in the colonies. Trouble had been brewing in Boston for months before the riot. Bostonians resented the British soldiers. Called them “lobsterbacks” Troops were forbidden to fire on citizens. Knowing this only made Bostonians bolder in their attacks.
Mob Violence Breaks Out On March 5, 1770, a noisy mob began throwing rocks and ice balls at troops guarding the Boston Customs House. As the mob pressed forward, someone knocked a soldier to the ground. The troops panicked and opened fire. Two bullets struck Crispus Attucks, a black man was the first to die, but not the last.
Massacre or Self Defense Samuel Adams saw this event as a perfect opportunity to whip up anti- British feeling. Paul Revere, a local silversmith, engrave a picture of it. Revere’s engraving shows soldiers firing at peaceful, unarmed citizens. Prints of Revere’s engraving were distributed throughout the colonies. Patriots saw the Boston Massacre as proof that the British should remove all of their troops from the colonies. Loyalists saw the tragedy as proof that troops were needed more than ever, if only to control Patriot hotheads. One hero came out of this sad event. He was a Boston lawyer named John Adams. Like his cousin Samuel, John Adams was a Patriot. But he also believed that every person, even the British soldiers, had the right to a fair trial. Adams agreed to defend the soldiers, even though he knew that his action would cost him friends and clients. At the murder trial, Adams argued that the troops had acted in self-defense. The jury found six of the soldiers not guilty. Two of them were found guilty only of manslaughter, or causing death without meaning to.
Massacre or Self Defense One hero came out of this sad event. He was a Boston lawyer named John Adams a Patriot. He believed that every person, even the British soldiers, had the right to a fair trial. Adams agreed to defend the soldiers, even though he knew that his action would cost him friends and clients. At the murder trial, Adams argued that the troops had acted in self-defense. The jury found six of the soldiers not guilty. Two of them were found guilty only of manslaughter, or causing death without meaning to.
British soldiers looked upon as the enemies Boston Massacre - A fight breaks out between colonists and British soldiers and British soldiers shoot and kill American colonists
propaganda –info giving only on one side of an argument How could Americans use this event as Propaganda?
British troops put on trial Troops acted out of self defense 2 soldiers convicted of killing and were branded on hand
Boston Massacre did not spark new protests against British rule. Patriots drink Dutch tea that had been smuggled into the colonies without paying duties. In 1773, Tea Act prompted more protests. One of them was the incident that became known as the Boston Tea Party.
The Tea Act The Tea Act was Lord North’s attempt to rescue the British East India Company. It lowered the cost of tea sold by the British East India Company. Taxed British tea became cheaper than smuggled Dutch tea. Gives British East India Company a monopoly, or complete control, over tea sales in the colonies Nervous merchants wondered what would happen to their businesses if other goods were also restricted. restricted
Tea Act - England ends all taxes except tax on tea because it is in such high demand
Colonists do not like this act because they fear that British tea companies will put us out of business
Tea Ships Arrive Angry protesters kept them from unloading their cargoes. The royal governor blocks the exit from Boston Harbor until the three tea ships are unloaded. On December 16, 1773, the Sons of Liberty decided to unload the tea, but not in the way the governor had in mind. 50 men dressed as Mohawk Indians boarded the three ships. About 90,000 pounds of tea were dumped into the sea that night. News of the Boston Tea Party excited Patriots throughout the colonies..
Sons of Liberty : “Tea ships in Boston harbor to leave ASAP” BOSTON TEA PARTY - Colonists dressed as American Indians attack ships and dump 342 chests of tea in harbor
King George believes the issue was no longer about taxes. It was about Great Britain’s control over the colonies. “We must master them totally or leave them to themselves.” King George III Great Britain’s anger led Parliament to pass a new series of laws in 1774. These laws were so harsh that many colonists called them intolerable, or unacceptable. Throughout the colonies, they became known as the Intolerable Acts.
Parliament Punishes Massachusetts Designed to punish for the Boston Tea Party. 1. Closed the Boston Harbor until tea was paid for. 2. Massachusetts is now under British control and colonist can not meeting in town meetings. 3. British soldiers accused of murder would be tried in England. 4. More troops are sent over. The Colonies Begin to Unite
Britain outraged!!!! They pass the Intolerable Acts: 1. Boston Harbor CLOSED until pay for tea 2. Massachusetts firmly under the British control. Dismissed the colonial assembly and put General Thomas Gage in charge.
3. British officials accused of crimes sent to Britain for trial. Why??? 4. QUARTERING ACT – colonists must house and feed British soldiers.
British hoped that this would teach the colonies a lesson It only made colonists angrier Colonists come together to create a solution
The First Continental Congress In September 1774, 56 delegates from 12 colonies met in Philadelphia’s Pennsylvania State House They decided they would: Continue to boycott Colonial militias needed to prepare to fight Created and sent the Declaration of Rights Agreed to meet in May 1775 The Colonies Form Militias Colonies continued to boycott but if it didn’t work each city and town prepared to fight by forming militias. In New England the volunteer militia men called themselves minutemen.
King George III ignores colonies decides and wants to strike a blow to the colonist. Orders General Gage to be ready to strike that blow. The First Blow at Lexington In April 1775 British general Thomas Gage decided to take away the minutemen’s weapons and ammunition. On the evening of April 18, 1775, spies brought serious news to Paul Revere and William Dawes. British troops were heading toward Concord On the morning of April 19, fewer than 70 minutemen gathered at the Lexington village green, near Concord. “Shot Heard Round the World”
The Second Blow at Concord The British continued towards Concord where they searched for gunpowder and weapons. None were found! Minutemen from all around came to help. As the British marched back to Boston the minutemen fired from behind trees and walls. British were surprised because they expected the colonists to break and run. By the time the British reached Boston, they had suffered 74 dead and more than 200 casualties. Colonists suffered 49 dead and 41 wounded.