Impact of European Enlightenment Thomas Hobbes Humans by nature are EVIL WHY? ENGLISH CIVIL WAR Social Contract People are selfish, need strong government Forfeit rights for protection John Locke Humans by nature are GOOD WHY? Glorious Revolution Social Contract People = equal People & Govt. WORK TOGETHER Life, Liberty, Pursuit of Happiness
The Great Awakening Reaction AGAINST Enlightenment movement John Edwards Fury & conviction "God was an angry judge, and humans were sinners!" George Whitefield Actor by training Charismatic & enthusiastic “Old Light” vs. “New Light” Princeton = New Light school First major event that ALL COLONIES COULD SHARE Helped to break down differences between them
An English worker made about £40 versus the colonist who made about £60 for the same job. Colonial merchants made £180.
Important Events: Pre Rev. 1754Albany Congress French & Indian War 1767Townshend Acts 1756War officially declared1770Lord North – Prime Minister Repeal Townshend EXCEPT tea tax Boston Massacre 1760American Phase of War ends George III becomes King 1772Boston Committee of Correspondence formed 1763Treaty of Paris Pontiac’s Uprising Proclamation of 1763 1773Tea Act Boston Tea Party 1764Sugar Act1774Coercive/Intolerable Acts 1765Stamp Act Sons of Liberty Formed 1766Repeal of Stamp Act Declaratory Act
What was wrong with the colonies? No unity as “Americans” “I am a New Yorker, not an American.” Little Class Unity too (Upper, Middle, Lower) What do the colonists need then? Something/someone they can all be mad at together…
Every person (or country) has their breaking point... From 1763………………….…to 1775, tension between “Americans” & the British government escalates, until our breaking point hits!!!!!!
The Stamp Act 1765 Passed by Parliament Colonists needed to buy special STAMPED PAPER for all legal documents License (birth, marriage, death) Newspaper Pamphlets Almanacs Stamp “duties” on playing cards & dice EVERY colonist feels this tax
PROTESTORS of the Stamp Act SONS OF LIBERTY Secret resistance group Shopkeepers, artisans, laborers Samuel Adams – Founder Harvard educated Unsuccessful in business Successful in political activism Mobbed & harassed stamp agents forcing them to resign SUPPOSED to go into act on 11/1/1765 Protestors stopped ALL SALE of stamps from being sold Colonies passed laws stating that only their individual representatives could tax them EX: Virginia’s assembly could tax, NOT Parliament
Stamp Act Congress Held in NYC Protest Stamp Act – “Declaration of Rights and Grievances” Parliament CANNOT tax colonies – colonies NOT represented in Parliament (10 Years ago – Colonists REJECTED Albany Plan) Ben Franklin = I TOLD YOU SO!
Tuesday 10/21 Quiz Wednesday Period 7 Quiz Thursday (Periods 1, 2, 4, 6) Write down HW – due Friday
Intolerable Acts (1774) AKA Coercive Acts Blockade Boston ’ s port until tea was paid for Changes Mass Charter to create a legislature chosen by the Crown Prohibit town meetings Installs General Gage as Governor of Mass
Sept. 1774- First Continental Congress Sept. 1774- First Continental Congress 55 delegates from 12 colonies 55 delegates from 12 colonies Declaration of Rights and Resolves Declaration of Rights and Resolves
“The foundation of English liberties is a right of the people to participate in their legislative council: and as the English colonists are not represented, and… cannot properly be represented in the British Parliament, they are entitled to a free and exclusive power of legislation in their several provincial legislatures, where their right of representation can alone be preserved.” - Declaration of Resolves of the First Continental Congress
“ The New England Colonies are in a state of rebellion, blows must decide. ” “ The New England Colonies are in a state of rebellion, blows must decide. ” -King George III
Committees of Correspondence move into action and call the Congress to order Committees of Correspondence move into action and call the Congress to order Delegates from 12 colonies Delegates from 12 colonies –Establish Militias –Economic Boycotts –Letter of Reconciliation –2 nd Continental Congress First Continental Congress (1774)
Gage troops to Concord for supplies Gage troops to Concord for supplies Colonial minutemen prepare Colonial minutemen prepare Sam Adams and John Hancock flee Sam Adams and John Hancock flee April 19, 1775 Fighting ensues April 19, 1775 Fighting ensues British attacked throughout their trip… return with nothing British attacked throughout their trip… return with nothing Lexington & Concord
Ethan Allen & “ Green mountain Men ” Supplied Colonists with much needed artillery. Fort Ticonderoga, New York May 1775
Breed ’ s & Bunker Hill June 1775 British victory… but at a HUGE cost. 1,100 of 2,400 British killed or wounded Less than 400 Colonists killed “ You can never conquer us… All America will revenge our cause ” - American Patriot
Serves throughout the war Internal division exist between delegates Managed the colonial war effort Decide to recognize a Continental Army w/General George Washington in charge Second Continental Congress (1775)
–Despite disagreement, congress agreed to return to “the former harmony.” –King… rejects it. –Proclamation of Rebellion Olive Branch Petition (July 1775)
Patriots or Loyalist Poster Pick up directions for the poster You will have time today and next class to prepare the poster before you present it to the class. Use your time wisely – you need to complete the poster AND writing component or it will be homework!
For your Quiz… Enlightenment Great Awakening Locke & Hobbes ALL of the acts passed by GB (HW Chart) Sons of Liberty Stamp Act Congress John Adams Boston Massacre Lexington & Concord Olive Branch Petition Political Cartoon Analysis