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AMERICAN GOVERNMENT. Each colony controlled separately by the Privy Council and the Board of Trade in London. Colonists became used to self-government.

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Presentation on theme: "AMERICAN GOVERNMENT. Each colony controlled separately by the Privy Council and the Board of Trade in London. Colonists became used to self-government."— Presentation transcript:


2 Each colony controlled separately by the Privy Council and the Board of Trade in London. Colonists became used to self-government because England was 3,000 miles away across the Atlantic Ocean (a 2-month sail) Colonial legislatures found the power of the purse very effective Governors were controlled because the legislature wouldn’t pay them if they didn’t follow legislative plans

3 By mid-1700s, the relationship between colonies and England was similar to a federal system 1760—George III becomes king. Restrictive trade acts expanded and new taxes were imposed. Colonist expressed strong opposition “taxation without representation”

4 Colonists would need to learn to work together if they were to break from Great Britain EARLY ATTEMPTS 1643—New England Confederation Massachusetts Bay, Plymouth, New Haven, Connecticut CONFEDERATION—joining of several groups for a common purpose

5 League of friendship against Native Americans Eventually the danger from Native Americans passed and friction among the settlements grew. Confederation dissolved in 1684 1696—William Penn offered an elaborate plan for intercolonial cooperation but it received little attention and was forgotten

6 THE ALBANY PLAN 1754—British Board of Trade called a meeting of seven of the northern colonies at Albany, NY CT, MD, MA, NH, NY, PA, RI Main purpose: discuss problems of colonial trade and the danger of attacks by French and Native Americans Ben Franklin proposes the Albany Plan of Union

7 --formation of an annual congress of DELEGATES (representatives) from the 13 colonies. --congress could raise military, navy, make war and peace with Native Americans, regulate trade, tax, and collect customs duties Franklin’s plan was ahead of its time Delegates at the meeting agreed but it was rejected by the colonies and the Crown

8 THE STAMP ACT CONGRESS Parliament had passed the Stamp Act of 1765 Law required use of tax stamps on all legal documents, certain business agreements, and on newspapers October 1765—Nine colonies (all but GA, NH, NC, VA) sent delegates to NY Delegates prepared a strong protest called The Declaration of Rights and Grievances

9 First time a significant number of the colonies had joined to oppose the British Government Parliament repealed the Stamp Act but passed other laws that the colonists opposed Mob violence erupted at many ports and a BOYCOTT was supported on British goods March 5, 1770—British troops fired on a hostile crowd killing 5—The Boston Massacre Organized resistance was carried out by COMMITTEES OF CORESPONDENCE

10 Provided a network of cooperation and an exchange of ideas Protests multiplied December 16, 1773—Boston Tea Party Men, disguised as Native Americans, boarded 3 cargo ships in Boston harbor then dumped the cargo into the sea

11 Spring 1774—Parliament passed another set of laws to punish colonists for trouble in Boston— The Intolerable Acts Sept. 5, 1774—Representatives from all colonies except GA met in Philadelphia Samuel Adams, John Adams, Roger Sherman, John Jay, Richard Henry Lee, Patrick Henry, etc. For nearly 2 months—discussions about the worsening situation

12 They also debated plans for action. Declaration of Rights (protesting colonial policies) sent to King George III Delegates urged colonies to refuse all trade with England until the taxes and trade regulations were REPEALED Meeting adjourned October 26, 1774 with a call for another meeting in May 1775 All colonies, including GA, gave support to the actions of the First Continental Congress

13 Winter 1774-75—British refused to compromise Reaction to the Declaration of Rights was with even stricter and more repressive measures May 10, 1775—Delegates again meet in Philadelphia Revolution had begun “Shot Heard ‘Round the World”—April 19, 1775 @ Lexington & Concord, NH

14 REPRESENTATIVES All colonies sent delegates (many from before) Newcomers—Benjamin Franklin, John Hancock Hancock was chosen President of the Congress First action was to create a continental army George Washington chosen as commander-in- chief Thomas Jefferson replaced Washington in the VA delegation

15 The Second Continental Congress served as the government of the United States for 5 years— July 4, 1776 to March 1, 1781 During this time the Congress did several things: --fought a war --raised armies and a navy --borrowed funds --bought supplies --created a monetary system --made treaties with foreign powers

16 The unicameral congress exercised both legislative and executive powers Legislative—each colony had 1 vote Executive—handled by committees of delegates

17 Richard Henry Lee (VA) proposed independence on June 7, 1776 (p. 38) Committee of 5 named to prepare a proclamation of independence Franklin, J. Adams, Sherman, Livingston, Jefferson Many delegates has serious doubts about a complete break from England

18 July 2, 1776—delegates agree to Lee’s resolution July 4, 1776—delegates adopt the Declaration of Independence proclaiming a new nation Independence was announced in the first paragraph The rest of the document speaks to “the repeated injuries and usurpations” that led colonies to revolt (text from the Declaration p. 38)

19 Jan. 1776—NH adopted a constitution to replace its royal charter 3 months later SC followed May 10, 1776—Congress urged each colony to adopt “governments…that would best give their constituents happiness and safety” DRAFTING STATE CONSTITUTIONS MA set a lasting example of constitution-writing

20 1780—MA passed a constitution and submitted it to the voters for ratification The oldest of the present-day State constitutions and the oldest written constitution in the world today COMMON FEATURES --POPULAR SOVEREIGNTY (government can exist only with the consent of the governed)

21 --limited government --civil rights and liberties --separation of powers --checks and balances (table p. 39) Documents were usually brief New State governors weren’t given much real power Most authority was granted to the legislature

22 Elective terms were short-one or two years Right to vote limited to adult white males who met rigid qualifications including property ownership THE END

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