Presentation on theme: "The American Revolution. The Colonies Fight for Their Rights Main Idea Tensions between Britain and its American colonies grew as British leaders sought."— Presentation transcript:
The American Revolution
The Colonies Fight for Their Rights Main Idea Tensions between Britain and its American colonies grew as British leaders sought greater control over their North American empire. Reading Objectives Summarize events that fueled colonial discontent Explain how the Stamp Act affected the relationship between Britain and the colonies
Solving Financial Problems The Proclamation Act of 1763 Western settlement is limited because the British do not want another costly war with Native Americans. King George issued the Royal Proclamation of 1763, declaring that colonists could not settle west of the Appalachian Mountains. Customs Reform Prime Minister George Grenville imposes tougher legislation against colonists caught smuggling goods into the colonies.
Warm Up 10/23/11 What do the following images have in common?
You say you want a revolution? What is a revolution? What causes a revolution? a forcible overthrow of a government or social order in favor of a new system.
Exit Ticket for 10/24/11 Based on your activity, which of the before events do you think would be a cause of a revolution?
Warm Up 11/15/11 List some ways in which people protest. Marching Picketing Posters Sit-ins (occupy) Protest songs Petitions/letters Hunger Strike Rioting Boycotting
Major Causes of the American Revolution A. The Proclamation Act of 1763 (119) B. The Sugar Act (120) C. The Stamp Act ( ) D. The Quartering Act (121) E. The Townshend Acts (122) F. The Tea Act (127) G. The Intolerable Acts (128)
CausesEffects The Seven Year’s War left Indian nations east of the Mississippi, and slaves escaping to Spanish Florida without aid. Americans no longer had to face French and Spanish threats. The bonds between Britain and the Colonies weakened. The Proclamation Line of 1763 forbade Americans to settle west of the Appalachian Mountains. This enraged many farmers and land speculators, who wanted access to the land. The Sugar Act of 1764 taxed goods imported into the colonies. Trade is disrupted. The British were able to seize goods without due process. “Taxation without representation is tyranny.” The Stamp Act of 1765 taxed printed materials, such as deeds, newspapers, and playing cards. The colonists reacted with protests. The Stamp Act Congress argued that Parliament had no right to tax them. Nonimportation agreement. The Townshend Acts taxed glass, lead, paint, paper, and tea. John Dickinson calls the colonists to become “firmly bound together.” More boycotts. The Tea Act gave the British East India Company a monopoly over all tea sold in the Colonies. Boston tea party leads to the passage of the Coercive Acts, intended to punish Massachusetts and end colonial challenges.
Create A Protest Poster 1. What is the act? When was it issued? What was the intent? 2. Who would have been most affected? 3. What types of images could be used to represent your protest? Illustrate this on the poster. 4. What did (or would) the colonist demand?
Quartering Act 1. Quartering Act. Issued in 1765 along with the Stamp Act. The intent was to force the colonies to pay for their own defense. 2. Colonists who owned taverns, inns, vacant buildings, and barns would have been most affected. 3. The images used to represent the Quartering Act are: soldiers sleeping in homes as the colonist look on in anger. 4. The colonists would have demanded that the British pay for their own barracks if they intended on occupying the colonies. Overall, the colonists would probably rather not have any soldiers present.
No Quarter! Lobsters must sleep in the sea!
Warm Up 10/26/11 Based on your posters from yesterday: Do you feel that the act you are studying could lead to a revolution? Why or why not?
Warm Up Join, or Die political cartoon created by Ben Franklin. Why did Franklin’s use of the serpent legend make his appeal for unity seem urgent?
In 1754, as French and Native American forces were threatening the colonies, Ben Franklin drew this cartoon urging colonists to stand together. A popular legend at the time said a snake could put itself back together and live if it did so before sunset. Why did Franklin’s use of the serpent legend make his appeal for unity seem urgent? Warm Up 11/1
The Sugar Act Grenville also introduces the American Revenue Act of 1764, better known as the Sugar Act Definition: The act changed the tax rates levied on raw sugar and molasses imported from foreign colonies. It also placed new taxes on silk, wine, coffee, pimento, and indigo. The Sugar Act also allowed British officials to seize goods without due process. Colonists reaction: “Taxation without representation is tyranny,” or “No taxation without representation.”
The Stamp Act Crisis Definition: The Stamp Act of 1765 required stamps to be placed on most printed materials, including newspapers, pamphlets, posters, wills, mortgages, deeds, licenses, and even diplomas, dices, and playing cards. This was the first direct tax Britain had ever placed on the colonists. Reaction A flood of editorials, pamphlets, speeches, and resolutions against the tax swept through the colonies. Organization of the Sons of Liberty and the Stamp Act Congress. Issued the Declaration of Rights and Grievances.
The Stamp Act Crisis Colonists reaction: A movement began to boycott all British goods. Merchants sign a nonimportation agreement. Protests forced Parliament to repeal the act in 1766.
The Townshend Acts Financial problems in Britain continued to worsen. One of the Townshend Acts was the Revenue Act of Definition: This act put new customs duties on glass, lead, paper, paint, and tea imported into the colonies. (This was very similar to the Sugar Act) Legalized the use of Writs of Assistance, or general search warrants that enabled customs officials to enter any location to look for evidence of smuggling.
The Townshend Acts Reaction Virginia’s House of Burgesses passed the Virginia Resolves, stating that only the House had the right to tax Virginians. The Daughters of Liberty form, and women began spinning their own cloth, called “homespun.”
Boston Massacre In fall of 1768, as violence against customs officers in Boston increased, Britain dispatched roughly 1,000 troops to the city to maintain order. Definition: After being harassed by colonists, British troops fired into a crowd in Boston, killing three, and wounding six. (two more died later) Reaction: Newspapers portrayed the British as tyrants. Almost all of the the Townshend Acts were repealed.
Warm Up 11/2/11 Would you risk your life for an idea? If so, what idea and why?
Warm Up 11/3/ Based on your reading of The Declaration of Independence (p. 134): 3. List the three basic natural rights listed in the DOI. 2. List two of the most important points in the Declaration of Natural Rights. 1. Explain one way in which the DOI had an impact on the colonists.
The War for Independence Main Idea: After a war lasting several years, the colonists finally won their independence from Great Britain. Objectives: Analyze the strategies used to win the War for Independence Explain the differences between the Continental Army and the British Army
The Revolution Begins Full scale rebellion underway in Massachusetts Militias began to train, formation of minutemen units Americans that backed British became known as loyalists. Americans who believed the British to be tyrants became patriots.
April 19, 1775 – The “shot heard ‘round the world” fired at Lexington. The British were ordered to arrest the Massachusetts Provincial Congress – the newly formed MA government. June 15, 1775 – The Second Continental Congress elected George Washington as the commander in chief of the new army. June 17, 1775 – The British attack the colonists at the Battle of Bunker Hill. The Americans gain confidence but lose the city of Boston.
In July 1775 – The Continental Congress sent a document known as the Olive Branch Petition to King George III. They wanted to settle peacefully, he refused to read it. January 1776, Thomas Paine published Common Sense, a persuasive pamphlet that stating King George was a tyrant and independence was necessary. July 4, 1776 – The Continental Congress issues the Declaration of Independence.
The Opposing Sides Colonial AdvantagesBritish Advantages Fighting on home ground Good decisions by generals Fighting for their rights and freedom French alliance: loans, navy, troops Well-trained, well-supplied army and navy Wealth of resources Strong central government
The Opposing Sides Colonial DisadvantagesBritish Disadvantages Untrained soldiers; small army Food and ammunition shortages Weak and divided central government Fighting in unfamiliar, hostile territory Fighting far away from Britain and resources Troops indifferent; halfhearted support at home
Warm Up 11/7/11 Why do you think Thomas Jefferson, who was a slaveholder, wanted to include a paragraph condemning slavery in the Declaration of Independence? Read the “What if...” section in American Vision: P. 132.
The British Red Coats The British were well-trained and well- disciplined. They were the most elite fighting force in the world
The Continental Army The colonists lacked training and financial support. Supplies were usually low, and many soldiers deserted throughout the war. A “rabble in arms.”
War Techniques Local colonial militias were poorly trained, but were hard to defeat. They practiced guerilla warfare, a hit-and-run style of fighting.
The Northern Campaign The British General William Howe had a two-part strategy Military He began a massive buildup of troops in New York City Diplomatic He offered the Continental Congress a pardon in exchange for loyalty Summer 1776 – The British capture New York City October 1776 – General Washington races to defend Philadelphia
The Northern Campaign December 25, 1776 – Washington leads 2,400 men across the nearly frozen Delaware River. The army attacked and killed or captured 1,000 Hessians at Trenton.
Washington Crossing the Delaware by Emanuel Gottlieb Leutze
Valley Forge The good: Marquis de Lafayette and Baron Friedrich von Steuben help Washington improve discipline and boost morale. The bad: Harsh conditions forced men to abandon camp The ugly: Food and clothing was scarce; 2,500 men died from starvation and disease.
The March to Valley Forge by William B.T. Trego
Turning Point: Saratoga October 1777 – British General Burgoyne made a mistake by attempting to move his troops from Quebec to Philadelphia. American troops defending New York stopped him at Saratoga. The victory improved morale and convinced France to commit troops to the American cause. February 6, 1778 – France recognized the United States as an independent nation.
The War for Independence Read The War in the West, The War at Sea, and The Southern Campaign pp Answer the Reading Check questions that follow each section
The War in the West, at Sea, and in the South What was the effect of the war on the western frontier of the United States? What was the American strategy for attacking the British at sea? Why was the Battle of King’s Mountain a turning point of the war in the South? The colonists defeated the British, Iroquois, and Cherokee, allowing them to take control of the West. The Americans allowed private ship owners to attack British merchant ships. This disrupted British trade, seriously hurting Britain’s economy. Southern farmers, outraged by British brutality, found a reason to enter the war.
The War in the West, at Sea, and in the South A. In the West- The colonists defeated the British as well as Iroquois and Cherokee Indians, allowing them to take control of the West by B. At Sea – The Americans allowed private ship owners to attack British merchant ships. This disrupted British trade, seriously hurting Britain’s economy. C. In the South a. The Americans were defeated in 1778 at Savannah, GA, and in 1780 at Charles Town, SC. At Charles Town, nearly 5,500 American troops were taken prisoner, the greatest defeat in the war. b. Southern farmers, outraged by British brutality destroyed the British army in the South on October 7, This is known as the Battle of King’s Mountain.
The War is Won With more French troops on their way to America, the British knew they had very little time left to win the war. The British attacked Virginia and faced very little resistance until June Outnumbered and too far inland, the British military was forced to surrender at Yorktown, on October 19, September 3, 1783 – The final settlement, the Treaty of Paris was signed. Britain recognized the United States as a new nation Britain gave Florida back to Spain France received colonies in Africa and the Caribbean
Warm Up 11/9/11 Why was the victory at Saratoga considered a turning point in the war? (Use your notes from Monday.)
Change in Society: 11/9/11 Using chapter 4, section 4, pp , complete the following GO: List the positions of Women, African Americans, and Loyalists in American society after the Revolution Group Position in American Society New Political Ideas Voting Rights/Religion Women Loyalists African Americans A New Culture Emerges
Group Position in American Society New Political Ideas “Checks and balances.”; Established a republic; Bills of rights (more civil rights). Voting Rights/Religion Expanded voting rights to white men who pay taxes; Ends state funding for churches (Separation of church and state). States allow for religious freedom. Women Loyalists Gain a greater access to education; Easily obtain a divorce. About 100,000 fled the U.S.; Shunned by former friends; Property is seized by the government. African AmericansMoved to major cities for better jobs; still restricted to vote; Slavery ends in some Northern states; New social opportunities (open their own churches). Emancipation becomes a major issue. A New Culture Emerges A rise in patriotic symbols (like the American flag); new common folk stories; The art of Peale.
American Revolution Choice Board Deliver a news report on ten main events of the period. Write a five paragraph diary of a Revolutionary War soldier. Deliver a persuasive speech that discusses the contradiction between freedom for the colonies and slavery for African Americans. Create a chapter test with a ten question matching section, ten question multiple choice, and five question short answer section. Draw a ten panel storyboard/comic strip of one important event of the American Revolution. Write and act out a television talk show. Interview three important people from the Revolutionary period. Make a children’s book that explains the Revolutionary War Era. 10 pages, 10 pictures.