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Small Revolt- The Republic of Fredonia

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1 Small Revolt- The Republic of Fredonia
The first clash between colonists and Mexican authorities came in 1826. The year before the Mexican government awarded an empresario contract to Haden Edwards to settle 800 families in the Nacogdoches area. When Edwards arrived he discovered many Tejanos and other settlers from U.S. (Anglos) already living on the land. His contract stated that he was to give those settlers rights if they could show him a legal title to the land. Most of the settlers did not have a title to the land. Edwards gave them three options – (1) show a clear title to the land to him (2) you could purchase a title from him (3) you could move away. This angered many of the settlers. Jose Antonio Saucedo, a political chief for Mexico would not allow Edwards to charge these settlers, for any land titles. This angers Haden Edwards and he decides to rebel against Mexico. Haden Edwards and his brother Benjamin Edwards declared their colony independent from Mexico. They made an alliance with Richard Fields, a Cherokee chief and his people in East Texas.

2 Small Revolt- The Republic of Fredonia
December 16, 1826, Edwards led a group of men and took over the Old Stone Fort in Nacogdoches. They created a flag bearing the words “Independence, Liberty, & Justice” and proclaimed the Republic of Fredonia. This was the start of an event known as the Fredonian Rebellion. ‘Fredonia’ The Edwards brothers asked for Stephen F. Austin’s help and from the United States, but they received no assistance. In fact, Stephen F. Austin offered to help the Mexican government put down the Fredonian Revolt with volunteers from his colony. The Mexican army was sent to put down the rebellion. They marched from San Antonio to Nacogdoches in January 1827, the Fredonian Rebellion collapsed. Some were captured but most of those involved crossed the Sabine River into U.S. land to escape the Mexicans.

3 Inspection of Texas- Mier y Teran Investigates
Nacogdoches The Fredonian Revolt was a minor event. Most Anglos and Tejanos did not support Edwards or his rebellion. This event made Mexican officials suspicious of the settlers. Many Mexican officials thought that the Fredonian Revolt was a plan by Americans to take Texas and join the United States. 200 Mexican soldiers were sent to Nacogdoches to prevent anymore uprisings from the settlers. The United States ambassador to Mexico made a proposal, that Mexico should sell Texas to the United States. This event caused Mexico’s suspicions of Anglos wanting Texas to join the U.S. to continue to grow. The Mexican government sent an inspection group to Texas led by Manuel de Mier y Teran. While inspecting Texas, Teran noticed that the Anglo influence was strong. In most settlements, Anglos outnumbered Tejanos 10:1. Manuel de Mier y Teran

4 Inspection of Texas- Mier y Teran Investigates
Teran sent a report back to Mexico City. In his report, he expressed his concern about the American influence in Texas. He made recommendations and stated that if the Mexican government did not act at once, Texas would be “lost forever” to the Anglo settlers. As a result of Teran’s report Mexico will create the infamous- Law of April 6, 1830. Slaveholders in Texas became worried about the new laws that Mexico was passing. In 1829 the president of Mexico issued a decree abolishing slavery on all Mexican lands. Anglo colonists in Texas tried to persuade the Mexican government to exempt Texas from this decree. Although slavery was exempted for a time, most slaveholders were fearful that Mexico would eventually ban slavery in the province of Texas. An abolition of slavery would mean an economic downfall to large, land owning Anglos in Texas.

5 New Laws- Law of April 6, 1830 On April 6, 1830, the Centralist government in Mexico issued a new law based on the reports and recommendations from Manuel Mier y Teran’s inspection of Texas. A Centralist believes all the power should be with the National government and State government power should be limited. Law of April 6, 1830 No Immigration from the U.S. (No more Anglos) Cancelled all unfulfilled empresario contracts. Encouraged Mexican & European immigration No more slaves could be brought into Texas (Mexico) Placed a customs duty (tax) on all goods from the U.S. Established new forts to prevent smuggling & to enforce the new laws Anglo citizens thought that this new law is unfair and discriminating toward whites. Most Anglo prosperity depended slave labor for cash crops, and trade with the United States. Many settlers in Texas had friends and family who wanted to come to Texas, but now would not be allowed. This becomes an early turning point in bad relations with Texas colonists and the Mexican government. Soon, Anglos and the Mexican government were very distrustful of each other.

6 Protests- Settlers Protest Anahuac
The first serious conflict over Mexico’s new law of April 6, 1830 occurred at the port town of Anahuac. A small Mexican garrison (soldiers) were stationed there to control the shipping and enforce the collection of customs duties (taxes) on goods. Colonel (Juan) John Bradburn was the commander of the Mexican garrison at Anahuac. Bradburn fought with Texan colonists living in Anahuac, due to accusations that he stole supplies and refused to give up runaway slaves. The tax collector at Anahuac attempted to collect customs duties on goods from the United States. This angered the Texas merchants. Now, they would have to travel long distances to file paperwork to give permission for imported goods to cross the border into Mexico.

7 Protests- Settlers Protest Anahuac
In May 1832, Juan (John) Bradburn arrested and imprisoned two lawyers- William B. Travis and Patrick Jack for interfering in his efforts to enforce the laws. About 160 Texas settlers from Brazoria and San Felipe marched to Anahuac and demanded Travis’s and Jack’s release. A small skirmish, or fight, takes place between the Mexican garrison and the Texas settlers. Bradburn agreed to release the two prisoners if the Texan colonists would retreat from Anahuac. Some settlers wouldn’t retreat, so Bradburn didn’t release the prisoners and he called for more Mexican troops to Anahuac. After another skirmish with the Mexican garrison, the Texan colonists needed more weapons. While the colonists camped at Turtle Bayou, located in between Liberty and Anahuac, a Texan colonist John Austin went to go get a cannon.

8 Statements from the Colonists- Turtle Bayou Resolutions
While waiting for John Austin to return with a cannon, the rest of the Texas colonists wrote down formal statements, called resolutions, that have come to be known as the Turtle Bayou Resolutions. June 13, 1832 Turtle Bayou Resolutions Texan colonists declared their loyalty to Mexico Denied that the actions at Anahuac were not a rebellion against Mexico’s authority in Texas Expressed their support for Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna Santa Anna was leading a revolt in Mexico against the Centralist’s Mexican President Anastasio Bustamante. Bustamante was unpopular with colonists because he was not following the Mexican Constitution of Santa Anna promised to support the Mexican Constitution of 1824, if he became the new president of Mexico. Final result at Anahuac: Colonel Bradburn was removed from command by another Mexican officer. Travis and Jack were released from prison. Mexican soldiers left Anahuac to fight for Santa Anna in Mexico City.

9 More Fighting- Clash at Velasco
On June 26, 1832 a skirmish between Texan colonists and the Mexican army occurred at Velasco, Texas. John Austin and a group of Texan colonists loaded a cannon onto a ship they picked up in Brazoria. A Mexican commander Colonel Domingo de Ugartechea wouldn’t let them pass at the Brazos River, this resulted in Texans and Mexican soldiers fighting. Fighting at the Battle of Velasco was bitter and men were killed on both sides. When the Mexican soldiers ran out of ammunition, Colonel Ugartechea and the Mexican garrison surrendered. After the victory, Texan colonist John Austin sailed on to Anahuac with the cannon. When he arrived he discovered that William B. Travis and Patrick Jack had already been released from prison.

10 Colonists Assemble- Conventions of 1832 & 1833
Texan colonists wanted to discuss changes they wanted. Fifty-eight delegates from different parts of Texas met at San Felipe on October 1, 1832 as part of the Convention of Stephen F. Austin was elected president, or leader of the convention. Dear Santa Anna Please make these changes Texas should be a separate Mexican state from Coahuila Anglo immigration be allowed from the U.S. again Exemption from import taxes Better education facilities More protection from Indians Land titles to settlers living in East Texas -Best Regards Texas settlers For various reasons, these resolutions were not delivered to Santa Anna in Mexico City.

11 Colonists Assemble- Conventions of 1832 & 1833
A few months later, another group Texan colonists called for another convention at San Felipe on April 1, Among the new delegates at the convention was Sam Houston, representing Nacogdoches. Sam Houston The Convention of 1833 adopted resolutions like those from the Convention of The Convention of 1833 also prepared a new Texas constitution, as a separate Mexican state from Coahuila. Mexican province of Coahuila y Texas Stephen F. Austin, Dr. James B. Miller, and Erasmo Seguin were chosen to carry the resolutions to Mexico City. Miller and Seguin did not make the trip, so Stephen F. Austin went to Mexico City alone.

12 Austin Goes to Mexico City- Austin’s Mission is Stalled
April 1833, Stephen F. Austin left San Felipe and began the long trip to Mexico City. After 3 months, he made it to the Mexican capital. When he arrived, Santa Anna was out of town. The Mexican government was not organized. A cholera epidemic raged in Mexico City, thousands were dying from the deadly bacteria. Austin waited until October and learned Spanish. While he waited, Austin wrote a letter to authorities in San Antonio, describing all of Mexico’s problems and encouraged Texans to form their own government in the Texas colonies.

13 Austin is Imprisoned and Released
By November 1833, Santa Anna returned to the capital and met with Austin. Although Santa Anna agreed to some reforms, he would not grant Texas a separate statehood from Coahuila. Mexican province of Coahuila y Texas Changes -Santa Anna was willing to repeal, or do away with, the law restricting Anglo immigration (Law of April 6, 1830). -Agreed to improve the court and postal system in Texas.

14 Austin is Imprisoned and Released
In January 1834, Austin was traveling back to Texas, on his way he stopped at Saltillo, the capital of Coahuila y Texas. Mexican officials searched his belongings and found the letter he wrote while he was waiting in Mexico City. Stephen F. Austin was arrested and taken to prison in Mexico City, where he will remain for an entire year. Many Texan officials wrote began to write letters asking for the release of Stephen F. Austin. On Christmas day in 1834, Austin was released on bail and had to remain in Mexico City. On July 11, 1835, Austin was given his complete freedom and allowed to travel back to Texas.

15 Texans Call for a Consultation
Growing tensions between Texan colonists and the Mexican army continued after Stephen F. Austin’s release from prison. On October 15, 1835 a convention is called to discuss the matters of Texas. This convention was called at the town of Washington-on-the-Brazos. This meeting is known as the Consultation. Washington-on-the-Brazos There were mixed reactions during the Consultation. One group of colonists, known as the Peace Party, wanted peaceful relations with Mexico, and feared this meeting would cause trouble. Another group of colonists, known as the War Party favored the Consultations. Most members of the War Party were upset that the Mexican government stopped issuing contracts for lands in Texas. Leaders like William B. Travis favored an immediate declaration of independence from Mexico, even if it meant war with Mexico.

16 Texans Call for a Consultation
Stephen F. Austin approved of the Consultation because he was convinced that Santa Anna was becoming a dictator, or a ruler with absolute power. Austin urged the Texas people to unite together against Mexico. “War is our only recourse. There is no other remedy. We must defend our rights, ourselves, and our country by force of arms.” -Stephen F. Austin

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