3“The Discovery”12 October 1492 – Christopher Columbus reaches the island he names San Salvador (Holy Savior) – he believed he was in India.Inhabitants of the land became “Indians” (today they are usually called Native Americans).
4Why America is called America? Italian explorer from Florence, Amerigo Vespucci described his journeys he made in the 1490s.He suggested the existence of the new land to the east of Europe.
6The Beginnings of English Expansion in Northern America Sir Walter Raleigh |ˈrɑːli| asked Queen Elizabeth to start a colony in the new world.He reached Roanoke Island in 1584.He named the entire region Virginia (from Virgin Queen = Elizabeth I).
8Roanoke Island 1st settlement Complete failure!Most of the people died of hunger and attacks from Indians.
9The Second timeIn 1587, Raleigh sent colonists a second time with wives and children.John White was the colony’s governor.
10The Lost Colony John White returned to England for supplies. He returned to America in August 1590 to find no colonists on Roanoke Island.On one of the trees they find a caption “CROATOAN” (it was the name of an island nearby as well as the name of the Native Americans living in the area.
11The Virginia CompanyIn 1606, King James I gives permission to the Virginia Company of London to try a colony.On May 14, 1607, the settlers began building the first English permanent settlement on the James River in Virginia.Jamestown was named after the King James I.
14John SmithIn 1608, John Smith takes over leadership of the Jamestown colony.Problems: hunger, disease, Indians.January 1608, only 38 of the colonists remained alive.Colony survives because:“No work, no eat”Bargaining for food with the Powhatan Indians.
15Pocahontas Johns Smith fights with Powhatan Indians. He is taken prisonerHe was saved by Pocahontas, a Powhatan Native American.
18Tobacco Englishman John Rolfe in 1614 found a way to harvest tobacco. He also married Pocahontas in 1614 and thus created peace with the Powhatan Native Americans for 8 years.
19Princess Pocahontas Pocahontas, character of popular culture. Brought to England, is baptized and dies young of smallpox a disease she did not know.
20JOHN ROLFE AND POCAHONTAS early 1850s, J. W. Glass Pocohantas
21Government and slavery In 1619, a Dutch ship brings the first Africans to Jamestown – beginning of slavery.In 1619, The Virginia Company of London sends 90 women to Jamestown as wives for the settlers (120 pounds of tobacco for a wife)
22After JamestownJamestown colonists went to live in America because they wanted to get rich. They were sent there by businessmen (Virginia Company).The second important group of colonists came to live in America because they wanted religious freedom.
23Religious conflicts in England James I – conflict with the PuritansPuritans decide to emigrate – first to Holland then to America.Protestant dissenters: the Puritans – influenced by the teachings of John Calvin.Puritans – because they wanted to keep the English Church (and English people) “pure”.They did not recognize bishops, did not want colourful churches and sumptuous masses.
241620: The Pilgrim Fathers16 September 1620, Pilgrims leave England (Plymouth).They are called Pilgrims – because they went there for religious purposes.
31Difficult life of the early colonists Problems similar to the problems of the previous settlers: hunger and diseases.Half of the colonists (50 out of more than 100) die during the first winter.The rest saved by native Americans who helped them and showed new food: corn, pumpkin, turkey.
32Thanksgiving Every third Thursday in November. Thanks to God for good harvest after one year in America, in November 1621.
33The Great MigrationTen years later, in 1630, a second much larger group came to America, around 1000 people.They established Boston.Between , around colonists came to America.In 1661 – Plymouth Colony + Boston Colony = Massachusetts.
34Puritan Values Puritans had a lasting influence on American culture. Very idealistic: (“city on the hill”, “the New Jerusalem”).But not very tolerant: duty of the government to make people obey God’s law, e.g.going to the church compulsorydrinking, adultery and long hair in men punished
35American UtopiaAmerica: model for other nations (doctrine of American exceptionalism).Hard work and self moderation.Education for all children.Self-government.
36Formation of Other Colonies 1626 – Colonists form Holland build New Amsterdam. In 1664 captured by the English and re-named New York.1634 – Maryland, a colony where Catholics could settle.In 1681 William Penn – received a permission to start a colony in America: Pennsylvania.1691 – supporters of Charles II created North Carolina.The last English colony was Georgia – settled in 1733.
41English Colonies: 3 groups New England colonies – mainly Puritans.Middle Colonies (Pennsylvania) – greater religious tolerance and diversity; people not only from England but also Germany, Sweden and Holland.Southern Colonies (Virginia, Carolinas, Georgia) – large plantations with slaves brought from Africa.
42Westward expansionAfter – colonists start to expand to the west of the American continent looking for new land and new opportunitiesThe area where European settlement came to an end and the forest lands of the Amerindians began, was called the frontier (or later the Wild West).“Frontier way of life”: independence, self-reliance, toughness.
43Conflicts with England Costly war with France- new taxes on imports of sugar, coffee, textiles, and other goods.Need to feed the English soldiers.Limits on the expansion to the West.New taxes and regulations.Colonists' fear: government too powerful: “No taxation without representation”
44Events leading up to the revolution The Proclamation of 1763 – England’s King George forbid colonist to settle west of the Appalachian Mountains.The Sugar Act of 1764 – tax on sugar from outside the British Empire.The Stamp Act of 1765 – required colonist to pay for tax stamps on newspapers, and various legal documents. Parliament abolished the Act in 1766.4. The Townshend Acts of placed a duty on imported goods including glass, lead, paint, and paper. Americans responded by not buying British goods.
45Boston Tea PartyOn December 16, 1773, Samuel Adams led young men, disguised as Indians, on a raid of British ships docked in Boston’s harbor.They dumped the cargoes of tea overboard.This was later called the Boston Tea Party.
46The Intolerable Acts of 1774 Britain’s response to the Boston Tea Party.One act closed Boston’s harbor until the colonists paid for the destroyed tea.Another took away nearly all power from Massachusetts’ legislature.Control of the colony was given to the newly appointed British governor, General Thomas Gage.
47The First Continental Congress September 5 – October 26, 1774Attended by representatives from all the colonies except Georgia.They met in Carpenter’s Hall in Philadelphia to protest the Intolerable Acts.Decided to stop trade with Britain unless the Acts were abolished.They also advised colonists to prepare for war.They agree to meet again in May 1775.
48The ForcesBritain had large numbers of well trained soldiers. Their uniforms included bright red jackets: “redcoats”.The colonies did not have a central government, army, or navy.Each colony did have a small citizen army called the militia: ordinary people.
49The American Revolution: 1775 Fighting between British soldiers and the American Patriots began April 19,1775, at Lexington and Concorde, Massachusetts.The war’s last major battle was at Yorktown, Virginia in September and OctoberBritain formally recognized America independence with the signing of the treaty of Paris on September 3, 1783.
50July 4, 1776 Declaration of Independence New Philosophy of human freedom.Inspired by John Locke: natural rights of all humankind.Government based on popular consent.Benjamin Franklin: sent to Paris, makes a deal with France (Feb 8, 1778).
51Declaration of Independence July 4, 1776 Declaration of Independence
55The Treaty of Paris Signed September 3, 1783 The Treaty recognized the independence of the new nation.Established its borders – from the Atlantic Ocean to the Mississippi River; north to Canada; and south to Florida
57Constitutional Convention May Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia.Washington – leaderMarch 1789 – Constitution1791 – 10 Amendments: Bill of Rights – basic personal freedoms.1789 – George Washington – the first president
58BeginningsThe most important document is the Constitution of the United States.Finished in 1787 and officially adopted in 1790.Before that the Articles of Confederation (1781).Here they sign the ConstitutionThe Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia55 delegates from 13 former colonies.
59Constitution: interesting facts The constitution represents “the supreme law of the land”.When state constitutions or laws are in conflict with the federal Constitution – these laws have no force.The oldest in the world still in force (Polish “May” Constitution 1791).Model for constitutions in other countries.Only 27 amendments to date.
60Key principles The separation of powers. Three branches: LegislativeExecutiveJudicialEach one having powers over the other.System of checks and balances (system hamulców i równowagi) .
62The Bill of Rights (10 amendments) Freedom of religion.Freedom to possess guns.No searching without warrant.No private property taken without compensation.Right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury.