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Lesson 1: Hard Times in Virginia Social Studies 5 th Grade Mr. Vida.

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1 Lesson 1: Hard Times in Virginia Social Studies 5 th Grade Mr. Vida

2 Where was the 1 st English colony in what is now, the United States of America.

3 Preview: England founded Jamestown, the first permanent English settlement in North America in 1607 Places: Roanoke Island Virginia Jamestown People: Queen Elizabeth Walter Raleigh John White Francis Drake King James I John Smith Chief Powhatan Pocahontas John Rolfe Vocabulary: charter stock cash crop Indentured servant House of Burgesses

4 Subtitle

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6 England watched as their rival Spain established vast new colonies in the Americas In the late 1500’s, England began establishing colonies also Roanoke was England’s 1 st attempt

7 Queen of England What were some of the reasons why she wanted to colonize North America?

8 The hope was to find Gold... OR Hoped that it was rich in natural resources

9 Queen Elizabeth’s close advisor Offered to organize the 1 st colony himself Early 1580’s ~ he was a soldier who explored N. America Knew the Roanoke Islands

10 1 st colonist landed in 1585 Faced a difficult winter; trouble finding food 1586 ~ The starving English returned home

11 Raleigh did not want to give up 1587 ~ White led 100+ men, women, & children to Roanoke Island Also struggled. When he returned to England for more supplies after they ran out, war with Spain was raging

12 Because of war, no ships could be spared August, 1590 ~ White again landed at Roanoke Island, but everyone was gone! The only clue White found was the word “CROATOAN” carved into a tree

13 The settlers, who arrived in 1587, disappeared in 1590, leaving behind only two clues: the words “CROATOAN" carved into a fort's gatepost and "Cro" etched into a tree.

14 What do you think happened?

15 Croatoan was the name of an American Indian group that lived near Roanoke Island

16 What do you think happened? Croatoan was the name of an American Indian group that lived near Roanoke Island NO ONE KNOWS… But… May have been captured by Spanish soldiers, died in battles with Indians, or while starving, may have moved south to live with Croatoan people and have been assimilated

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18 Why did Spain attack England?

19 Angry about England’s attempts to colonize N. America English sea captains raiding Spanish ships carrying gold & silver to Spain from N. America

20 Francis Drake ~1577, began a historic trip around the world In 1580, he returned to England, loaded with captured Spanish gold England: HERO ~ Spain: “Master Thief 1588 ~ King Phillip of Spain decided to attack England

21 King Phillip led the Spanish Armada (Huge fleet of war ships. Armada means fleet in Spanish) 130 ships carrying 30,000 soldiers & sailors.

22 More War Ships More Support Vessels Stronger ground force Preemptive strike with burning ships Tight English Channel Stormy, foreign coast Smaller, more faster ships More powerful guns

23 Cannonballs and storms off of rocky coasts “sank” the Spanish Armada 60 out of 130 ships made it back to Spain This was a major victory for England They now were a major military power & one of the most powerful nations Now attention is turned back to America

24 King James I of England ~ gave permission to a company for a charter to set up a colony 1606 ~ merchants formed the Virginia Company of London Charter ~ A document that permitted colonist to settle on land claimed by their ruler The Virginia company raised money by selling stock Shares in company that pays money if company is successful

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26 Jamestown ~ The 2 nd colony founded by England Thought to be a good spot, but it was swampy, full of disease- carrying mosquitoes. River water was not healthy to drink Many settlers became sick and many died By the end of the 1 st year, only 38 sellers were still alive Colonist were to busy looking for gold to support themselves John Smith~ one of the original settlers, after that 1 st year. He was elected leader of the colony Issued order, “He who will not work, shall not eat”

27 Under Smiths leadership, they planted crops, fished the river, dug wells, and built houses Chief Powhatan ~ Chief of Powhatan people; Smith traded with him. Corn from this kept helped keep the colonist alive For a time, relations were peaceful & the Chiefs daughter, Pocahontas visited Jamestown

28 Like corn and tomatoes, tobacco plant is native is native to the Americas Early 1600’s, it was becoming popular in England and Europe John Rolfe ~ raised a crop of tobacco in Virginias rich soil He would marry Pocahontas in 1614, helping to maintain peace Tobacco became Virginia’s 1 st cash crop (crop grown for profit)

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30 England King James did not approve of tobacco He called smoking “Harmful to the nose, harmful to the brain, dangerous to the lungs.” His opposition did not stop Virginians from growing it 1000’s of English indentured servants came to Jamestown Indentured servant ~ agreed to work for someone for a certain length of time in exchange for the cost of an ocean voyage to N. America

31 Many indentured servants died from disease, overwork, and mistreatment from their masters 1619, another group came to Jamestown. A Dutch ship brought Africans who were sold as servants and later released to start their own plantations Africans brought to Virginia would later be enslaved

32 The Virginia Company of London continued to attract settlers to their colony Declared settlers of Virginia should have “such a form of government… as may be to the greatest benefit and comfort of the people.” House of Burgesses ~ In July 30, 1619 the 1 st law- making assembly in an English colony met This helped establish the tradition of self-government in the colonies

33 1. Fill in the diagram for question #1 comparing and contrasting these details about Roanoke and Jamestown: Why did some English leaders want to build colonies in North America How did John Smith help the Jamestown colony How did tobacco help Jamestown grow

34 Organized by Walter Raleigh Led by John White People disappeared Organized by Virginia Company John Smith became leader Tobacco helped colony survive English wanted to find gold and other resources 1.1.

35 2. Why did England want to begin a colony on North American eastern shore?

36 To find gold and other natural resources; to keep Spain from claiming all of North America

37 2. How did England defeat the Spanish Armada in 1588?

38 It’s small, quick ships had powerful guns

39 4. Why did Jamestown almost fall? How was it able to survive?

40 The colonist were too busy looking for gold to support themselves: John Smith became the colon’s leader and made the colonist work toward survival 4. Why did Jamestown almost fall? How was it able to survive?

41 5. Do you think the House of Burgesses was the best type of government for the Jamestown colony? Why or why not?

42 Possible Answer: Yes, because members were chosen to represent each district of Jamestown

43  Colonist on Roanoke Island struggled. John White returned to England for more supplies after they ran out, but war with Spain was raging. Upon arriving, the colony was deserted. What were possible reasons for this? QUESTION : ANSWER : :

44  (1) May have been captured by Spanish soldiers  (2) May have died in battles with Indians  (3) May have, while starving, moved south to live with Croatoan people and have been assimilated  Colonist on Roanoke Island struggled. John White returned to England for more supplies after they ran out, but war with Spain was raging. Upon arriving, the colony was deserted. What were possible reasons for this? QUESTION : ANSWER: :

45 What were three reasons why England wanted to colonize North America?


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