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Oseas Romero APUSH Stafford High School Graphs and Maps used with Permission from Pearson Education.

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Presentation on theme: "Oseas Romero APUSH Stafford High School Graphs and Maps used with Permission from Pearson Education."— Presentation transcript:

1 Oseas Romero APUSH Stafford High School Graphs and Maps used with Permission from Pearson Education

2  —colonial population rose from 250,000 to over two million  Growth through natural increase  Large influx of non-English Europeans  Backcountry—800 miles along Appalachian Range from western Penn to western Georgia  Frontier complex  Mixture of Europeans, Native Americans, and Africans

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4  Largest non-English group  % of population  Scots fled England for Ireland, then Scots-Irish came to North America  Concentrated on Penn frontier  Quick to challenge authority  Paxton Boys led revolt  Frustrated over not being able to get land

5  First waves similar to Quakers  6% of population  Mostly Protestant  Lived quiet lives  Tried to preserve German customs  English speakers would hate this fact

6  Transportation Act of 1718 allowed judges to send convicted felons to American colonies  50,000 convicts to America  Dangerous criminals  Most committed minor crimes against property  Life difficult for these convicts  British loved system, colonist hated it

7  Disease and European-settled agricultural practices made it difficult for Native Americans to live in their native lands  Led to many skirmishes and battles  Forced many to move into trans-Appalachian region or middle ground  No colonial power had been established here yet  Natives would form new nations here  Dependence on colonist commerce broke down tradition based tribes

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9  Ranged from Florida to California  Multicultural, interdependent society of Spaniards and Native Americans  Slow growth of Spanish population  Mostly males in borderland  Spanish would exploit Native American Labor  In turn Native Americans would resist  Pueblo Revolt in 1680  Reestablish control in 1692  Frontier not attractive to colonist

10  America in 18 th century is agricultural based  5% of population live in cities  Boston, Newport, New York, Philadelphia, and Charlestown are biggest cities  Geared towards commerce  Emulated English culture, fashion, and architecture  Became more elegant over time

11  Intellectual movement swept Europe and spread in America  Age of Reason  Enlightenment’s basic assumptions :  Optimistic view of human nature  God set up the universe and human society to operate by mechanistic natural laws  Those laws can be found through reason

12  Mixed reception in America  Americans defended church but embraced search for practical ways of improving life

13  Long-term period of economic and population growth  England added to existing base of mercantilist rules  Colonial manufacture or trade of timber, sugar, hats, and iron restricted  Regulations not enforced  Trade primarily was mainly with England and West Indies

14  English mass-production of consumer goods stimulated rise in colonial imports  Americans built up large debts to English merchants to finance increased imports  Trade between colonies increased  Intercostal trade  Great Wagon Road in the backcountry  Eroded regional and local identities  Allowed Americans to begin the process of knowing each other

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16  Spontaneous, evangelical revivals  People began to rethink basic assumptions about church and state, institutions and society  Women  Movement occurred among different denominations in difference places at different times  New England 1730s Virginia in the 1750’s and 1760s  Jonathan Edwards sparked movement  God is omnipotent  Ministers have gone soft

17  Itinerant ministers followed the example of George Whitefield  Preached to thousands during revivals. Great promoter and entrepreneur  New Light vs. Old Light  New schools of thought  Princeton, Dartmouth, Brown, and Rutgers  Fostered an American faith  African Methodist Episcopal Church  Promoted democratic, evangelical union  America could lead  Fostered a sense of American Unity

18  Colonist attempt to emulate British political institutions  Effort to discover American identity slowly taking shape  British Constitution universally admired  Not a written document, but a system of government based on statutes, court decisions, and common law  King  House of Lords  House of Commons  Guarantee liberties

19  Royal Governors: mid-level, ambitious bureaucrats  More power than the king in England  Veto legislation  Dismiss judges  Command provincial military  Governor’s councils lost influence  Middle-class democracies  Higher percentage of population had suffrage, but most did not vote  Women and non whites excluded  Power to expel officials

20  Obligation to preserve colonial liberties  Assemblies controlled colony’s finances  No incentive for assembly to cooperate with governors  Governors relied on elites for help  Exercised extreme vigilance against privileged power  Will lead to a foundation for a new larger cultural identity

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22  New France primary economic activity is fur trading  Excellent at it  Expand out  Detroit founded in 1701 by Antonie Cadillac  Meant to deter the English  Both empires would clash over territory  Ohio Valley would be the prize  Ft. Duquesne

23  Britain’s conflicts with rivals like France over the colonies  Security threats from these conflicts forces colonist into more military and political cooperation  British colonies overwhelmingly militarily superior to New France, but were ineffective

24  Wars fought for control of the Mississippi River Valley  France extended its presence from Canada into Louisiana  British saw French expansion as encirclement  Native Americans tried to hold middle ground  Iroquois favored Britain  Algonquians favored French

25  Albany Congress, 1754  Benjamin Franklin’s idea of central colonial government  Elected representatives decide on matters of defense, western expansion, and relations with Native Americans  Could levy taxes to support its operations

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27  Albany Plan failed; was disliked by English and Americans  Colonial assemblies were protective of their right to tax  Parliament saw as undermining its power over colonies  1755—General Edward Braddock leads force to drive French from Ohio Valley

28  1756—England declared war on France  Prime Minister William Pitt shifts strategy to focus on North America  1758, French cut off from resupply  Fort Duquesne abandoned, Quebec captured, last French forces surrendered, 1760  Peace of Paris 1763: France lost  British got all of North America east of the Mississippi  Spanish added Louisiana to their empire

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31  Expanded horizons of colonist  America is not alone in the world  Created a new trained officer corps that knows British strategy and weakness  George Washington  British will begin to see and feel that the colonist are ungrateful and not willing to bear their fair share of the financial burden  Colonist begin to feel as junior or secondary citizens to British  They saw themselves as equals  Albany Plan, while a failure, showed that the colonies could work together

32  The British were not bulletproof  Braddock’s loss at Ft. Duquesne  Brits lose trust in colonist  Some traded with enemy ports in the West Indies  Native Americans in siding with French recognized their weakened position  Knew colonist would want to expand  London issues the Proclamation Line of 1763  No settlers past the Appalachian Mountains  Americans defied the proclamation and trouble began to brew amongst British and colonist

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