Presentation on theme: "Chapter 5 The Spirit of Independence ( )"— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 5 The Spirit of Independence (1763-1776) Section 4 Moving Toward Independence
2Why did the American colonies choose to declare independence? Essential QuestionWhy did the American colonies choose to declare independence?Why did the American colonies chose to declare independence?
3Colonial Leaders Emerge May 10, 1775 at the Second Continental CongressMany were NOT ready to break with BritainMany of the same delegates from the First Continental CongressAlso Ben Franklin- he had represented the colonies in London and helped repeal the actJohn Hancock was also there- Hancock had funded the Sons of LibertyHancock was chosen president of the First Continental Congress32 year old Thomas Jefferson was also there
4Second Continental Congress Began to govern the coloniesAuthorized printing moneySet up a post office with Franklin in chargeCommittees were set up to communicate with Indians and other countriesMost important, Congress created the Continental ArmyWould be more organized than the militiasGeorge Washington was unanimously chosen as the army’s commander
5Continental Congress and Peace The delegates offered Britain one last chance to avoid warCongress sent a petition (formal request) to King George IIICalled the Olive Branch PetitionSaid the colonists wanted peaceAsked the King to protect their rightsGeorge III refused the petitionInstead he prepared for warHired more than 30,000 German troops (Hessians) to fight beside the British
6The Colonies Take Offense The Colonist found out the British were going to invade New YorkThe Americans decided to strike first and attack Montreal (They captured it)The Americans failed to take QuebecWashington reached Boston in 1775 and realized the army lacked discipline, organization, and leadershipWashington began to shape the citizens into an army
7Continental Army March 1776, Washington decided they were ready The army was set in a semicircle around BostonWashington gave the order to bombard the British with cannonsThe redcoats under General Howe withdrew from the cityMarch 17th, Washington led the jubilant troops into BostonThe British sailed to Halifax, Nova Scotia
8Early 1776 Support for absolute independence was growing Thomas Paine published a pamphlet called Common SensePaine called the King “the Royal Brute”Paine said “’Tis time to part”The call for independence became a roar
9Second Continental Congress Second Continental Congress was filled with debateShould the colonies declare themselves an independent nation or stay under British rule?Richard Henry Lee said “all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain is, and ought to be, totally dissolved”
10Debate over Independence Congress debated Lee’s resolutionSome thought the colonies were not ready to form a separate nationOthers argued that war had already begunStill others feared Britain’s power to crush the rebellionCongress decided to draft a Declaration of Independence
11Declaration of Independence Jefferson wroteUsed John Locke’s idea that people were born with certain natural rights includingLife, liberty, and propertyPeople formed governments to protect these rightsAlso that a government that interferes with these rights might be overthrown
12D.O.I. Final TouchesJuly 2nd, 1776 Congress voted on Lee’s resolution for independence12 colonies voted for it (New York later announced support)Jefferson’s draft of the Declaration of Independence was approved with some changes on July 4th, 1776John Hancock was the first to signSigned it so large that King George could read it without his glasses56 delegates signed the paper announcing the Birth of the United StatesCopies of the Declaration of Independence were distributed to the newly declared states
13Parts of the D.O.I Four major sections 1. Preamble (Introduction) 2. Lists the rights colonists believed they should have and the right of people to abolish a government that does not protect these rights3. List of grievances against the King and Parliament4. Announcement of Independence
14Why did the American colonies choose to declare independence? Essential QuestionWhy did the American colonies choose to declare independence?King George ignored the colonists’ Olive Branch petition, in which they tried to avoid war.The Colonists learned the British were planning to invade New York.Thomas Paine published an influential pamphlet, Common Sense, which called for complete independence.Why did the American colonies chose to declare independence?