Presentation on theme: "American Independence. Declaration of Independence by Thomas Jefferson “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal” = all."— Presentation transcript:
Declaration of Independence by Thomas Jefferson “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal” = all humans should have same rights& opportunities “they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights” = God gave all people permanent rights “Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness” = John Locke’s natural rights: to live, be free & to seek afulfilling life
Key points of Dec of Independence “to secure these rights, Governments are instituted” = governments were created to protect people’s rights “deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed” = people give govt. permission to have powers to govern
Key points of Dec of Independence “Whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alteror to abolish it” = people have right to overthrow a government that abuses power “and to institute new Government.” = people are to replace it w. a government that DOES protect their rights.
Colonial Government Parliament governed American colonies, but in practice colonists had their own colonial legislatures Caucasian, land-owning males elected their representatives to the legislatures.
FRANCE VS BRITAIN :Cause of Independence French North America = Canada & Louisiana Territory, vast trading area, sparsely populated England’s 13 colonies = densely populated. British colonists wanted to settle west, but French forts prevented.
Seven Years War/ French and Indian War ) Britain & France fought control N. American continent. Britain’s P M William Pitt used British navy to defeat weaker French fleet. British forces defeated French near Quebec, Canada. 1763 Treaty of Paris granted Canada & French land east of the Mississippi to Britain. British Empire was largest in world but in Debt (Tax the Colonist)
British Taxes Parliament imposed 1765 Stamp Act on colonies (repealed a year later due to protest.) Parliament placed tariffs on non-British made goods, American smuggling & British searches ofAmerican homes w/o warrants. Declaratory Act = Parliament stated that Parliament alone had right to tax and make decisions for colonies. undermined colonial govt’s authority, colonists outraged, “No taxation without representation!”
Colonist React to Taxes Boston Massacre resulted in 5 deaths, but huge anti-British propaganda campaign (Paul Revere.) 1773 Tea Act gave British East India Co. a monopoly on tea market and decreased colonist profits. Thomas Jefferson encouraged communication amongst colonies Boston Tea Party = Samuel Adams & other patriots dressed as Indians, boarded ship & dumped British tea.
Kings reaction King George III ordered Parliament to pass Coercive Acts (Intolerable Acts) to punish MA. & end colonialrebellion No trial by jury, forcing people to “quarter” British troops, etc.)
1774 First Continental Congress in Philadelphia “I am not a Virginian, but an American” Patrick Henry Congress called : repeal Intolerable Acts boycott of British goods form colonial militias, sent a Declaration of Rights & Grievances to king, but still claimed loyalty to the “Crown.”
Colonist Fight British April, 1775 British troops sent to seize arms & supplies of militias. Lexington & Concord, first time fighting broke out between British & American forces, “the shot heard round the world!”
May, 1775 Second Continental Congress Gen. George Washington organize Continental Army Olive Branch Petition. Of peace King refused. Sent 30,000 German troops instead! Jan, 1776 Thomas Paine’s pamphlet “Common Sense” widely circulated = demanded American independence
Independence July 4, 1776 Declaration of Independence proclaimed & colonies celebrated. American Revolution had begun. Big gamble: signers signed their own death warrant! Patriots vs. world’s best military force & richest nation.
Patriot advantages fighting on home turf, fighting for freedom Early success of guerilla tactics support from France (Lafayette) & Spain Help Colonist because enemy was Britain Both sides thought war would be short, but it lasted 7 years!
Saratoga October 1777 British made two attempts to break through American defenses, but failed. British withdrew to Saratoga, where they were surrounded by American troops. The British had to surrender on October 13, 1777. One quarter of the British forces in North America thus surrendered, Major turning point and victory for Colonist
Valley Forge-winter 1777-1778 British Army secure in Philadelphia The American army settled into winter quarters at Valley Forge. winter of hardship and suffering for the troops. It was also a winter of training, in which the American troops were taught how to be professional soldiers.
York Town May 1781 General Cornwallis and British forces began preparing a naval base in York Town General Washington moved south and, together with French ground and naval forces, surrounded the British army Assault forced British to surrender This victory ended the war and guaranteed independence
Americans gain independence Gen. Cornwallis surrendered to Americans & French at Yorktown in 1781. 1783 Treaty of Paris recognized U.S. independence & expansion west to the Mississippi (doubled in size!)