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Pre-Revolutionary America 1607 – 1763

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1 Pre-Revolutionary America 1607 – 1763
Chapter 3: US History: Beginnings to 1877 Chapter 4: Creating America

2 SWBATs Students will be able to:
Locate 13 colonies and other major land features of Eastern Coast of North America. Describe the distinctive economy of each colonial region (New England, Middle, South). Describe how taxation is related to representation in government using colonial history. Describe results of the French and Indian War. Students should write these PROMINENTLY into their notes. Tell students that at the beginning of every unit there will be SWBATs. They MUST write these down at the very beginning of each Unit’s notesheets. They must also be prepared to place their finger on their copy of the unit’s SWBATs at any moment that I say or especially when an observer like a principal walks into the room. Drill them on this. Have a student stand at the class and lecture on anything. You go to door and step outside. Wait a moment, then open the door and walk in. Students should all place their fingers on the SWBATs. You act like a principal and pick any student and ask, “What are you studying today? Why are you doing this activity?”

3 Colonialism: Why build British Colonies in America?
________________________ Also, many came for _______ ________ and to avoid _____________ in Europe Benefit to the Mother Country: England/Great Britain ________ Economy: When a country _______ goods and __________ goods = $$$ Many complex factors. In brief and oversimplified: The Economic Theory of the day was Mercantilism. There is a limited amount of gold in the world. Each country is to get as big a pile of gold as possible. To get gold is to mean another country can’t have it. Industrialism is the technological trend. Factories and cities are growing, particularly in England. Factories need labor to work in them and customers to buy their products. Factory workers need food to eat and the factory needs raw materials to create finished products. Colonies become a provider of foodstuffs for the factory workers and providers of raw materials for the factories. The colonists become buyers of the finished product. Thus the shipping back and forth between the Mother country and the colonies. In the end, all this is summed up by “Make Mother Rich!” In our case, make England / Great Britain rich by providing cheap raw materials and buying finished products. It isn’t about the colonies welfare, it is about the Mother Country getting wealthier. So why America? Easy trade route for England and the Spanish never succeeded north of Florida. The Native American population had been wiped out by European diseases brought over by explorers. It has been estimated that prior to Columbus in there were 100 million Native Americans through North and South America. By 1607, there were only 10 million leaving lots of open space for European settlement with less native resistance to European encroachment. Simply put, North America was “ripe for the pickin’!”

4 Map of the original Thirteen Colonies
With a partner identify the colonies, major bodies of water, and major cities Color sections: New England Middle Southern Text Book: p. 89 p. R3 – R5

5 Essay: Cultures in Conflict – Native Americans and the English Colonists
3 to 5 paragraph essay on the interactions between English colonists and Native Americans See Handout: Assignment Due Meet in Tech Lab Thursday through Monday

6 Southern Colonies Jamestown, Virginia founded in 1607
Failure due to _____________ _________________________ _________________________ Eventually Southern Colonies take hold because __________ is planted as a successful _________________________ Southern Colonies were characterized by ____________: tobacco and later Cotton ____________ Jamestown – founded 1607 Troubles – Starving Time – initial settlers attempted get rich quick, weren’t prepared for disease and distance from European civilization. Remember Disney’s “Pocahantas” ? Dig dig dig for gold so you can be rich and buy things. But what happens when there is no gold? Success 1612 Sir Walter Raleigh plants tobacco and saves the colonies! Ironic isn’t it? How tobacco saved the economy thus saved lives? South was characterized by Cash Crops – crops grown to be sold to make money to buy other necessities. Cash crops could be foodstuffs if the intention is to sell them for cash. Other crops like cotton, tobacco, indigo are specifically cash crops since they cannot even be eaten. Plantation culture Main crops = Tobacco and Rice System of slavery grew to meet the demand for field labor. We will discuss more about how this came about a little later. Although slavery is legal throughout the 17th century British Empire to include the colonies, the southern American colonies towards the end of the 17th century will grow particularly dependent on the perceived need for slave labor

7 Slavery Definition: A social relationship in which one person has _______________ over the life, fortune, and liberty of another. Slavery was part of a system called ______________. Trade across the Atlantic ocean was characterized by the movement of slaves, sugar, cotton, tobacco, iron, rum, manufactured goods and textiles. Four continents were involved: The Americas, Europe (Great Britain), and Africa

8 Northern Colonies, New England
Puritan Religion: the original religious pilgrims from Europe dominated ____________________ ____________________ Shipping was important– lots of ______________ and _______________! World trade: Imports and Exports, ________________________________________ Culturally dominated by Puritan Religion Economically involved in world trade and shipping although trade connections were primarily to Great Britain. Exports Whaling for Oil Fish, sold fresh and dried mostly caught along Canadian coastline Wood for shipbuilding an important item for world trade and naval military dominance Imports Sugar, molasses from the Caribbean islands Finished products from British factories Slaves from Africa, Why Africa? To be discussed later

9 Middle Colonies Diverse – large amount of _____________ from Europe
Pennsylvania – Penn’s woods. _________ settled the region of Pennsylvania under guidance of William Penn Known as the “Breadbasket” of the colonies – with focus on growing ________ crops: wheat, grains for trade to other colonies _____________was also important! Characterized by Diversity in immigrants, religion, business Founded by William Penn with strong Quaker principles allowing for tolerance and encouraging “getting along” with one another. Called the “Breadbasket” of the colonies in that the growing season was longer than New England so that that wheat and other grains had greater harvests. Grew enough wheat to ship and trade with other colonies and England. Main area of iron mines making it unique as a mining area among the American colonies

10 Exit Ticket: What is distinctive economically about each of the colonial regions?
New England Middle Southern First have students try to answer without referring to their previous notes. Then let students look up answers in their notes. Then ask students to compare their answers with a neighbor. Then solicit answers from the class.

11 Roots of Representative Government in England
Representative Government: a small group of selected officials who represent the needs of the many _______ ________written in 1215 It created a ___________ = a style of Representative Government Outcome: Less power to the _________ (king), governing power moved downward to the nobles (people). The idea that the common man has a voice and that individuals have value other than their potential use by the “KING” or sovereign or the state is a strong idea in Western Philosophy, particularly as developed by the British. Admittedly selfishly, English nobles banded together to check the power of the king giving themselves representation in what became the House of Lords in England. Later, tradesmen in the growing cities, became powerful enough to demand representation in the House of Commons. In the end, the wealth of the nation came out of the growing middle class in the cities so over time the King and the House of Lords had to make concessions trading greater rights for $$$ and the House of Commons became the place for the Prime Minister and is currently in Great Britain where the power of government resides. The American colonies developed having this history of growing representation in government.

12 Roots of Representative Government in America
Each colony had its own government and leaders Royal State ___________ were selected by the King Some had locally elected ___________ to advise the governors Main issue = _____________ Taxes were collected by King’s Tax Collectors to pay for ___________________________________________________________________________ Jamestown settled in 1607, elects first House of Burgesses Jamestown was initially founded as a business venture but as people stayed and decided to make a life in America, they began to think about government. Colonies were headed by a Governor, often appointed by the King although that differed in different colonies. In Jamestown, just 13 years after its founding, the locals called for and elected members to their version of the British House of Commons and called it the House of Burgesses. They became the voice of the local people to the Governor who represented the King and British Empire. The House of Burgesses represented local interests. Royal Governors set precedent of working with local assemblies without always conferring back to England. The main issue they discusses was taxes. Government needs to raise money to pay for soldiers, roads, improvements to ports and harbors and even the Governor’s salary. This established a very strong precedent of “taxation with representation” and limited power of government officials. Nowhere in the world was there more common people representation to government than in America. Admittedly, most elected officials were wealthy and they tended to represent themselves first, but hey, it’s a start!

13 Late 1600s in New England NE colonial charters were cancelled by the King 1685: ____________ attempted more control Tensions between ______________ and local residents grew The King cancels Charter of NE colonies. This was their “Bill of Rights” and other legal guarantees. It placed their property rights in question greatly upsetting the local residents. King James 1685 attempted more control, mostly through regulation of taxing and trading controls through the “Navigation Acts.” During times of great turmoil, the Governor of New England disbanded local assemblies upsetting years of precedence and perceived “rights” by the locals. So, the colonists refused to pay taxes. All this is a century before the American Revolution. This is also the time of the Salem Witch Trials. It has been considered that the disruption of rights and overall tension contributed to the hysteria of the Witch hunts. When/if you view the Salem Witch Trial video, remind students of this timing.

14 The Glorious Revolution (in England)
King James was overthrown Protestants offered throne to William & Mary British create a ________________ in order to guarantee individual rights New England colonists claimed full British Rights King James attempted to pack Parliament w/pro-Catholics, Protestants rebelled, defeated him, and placed William and Mary on the throne. William and Mary agreed to a British Bill of Rights, including: Could not cancel rights w/o Parliament’s consent One Right: Representation for taxation. In NE, colonists believe they have all the rights of British citizens in GB. This will have great impact in the next century when the then king attempts to tax the colonists.

15 Shared Power in the Colonies
Council Governor Monarch Assembly King appoints ______________ Governor runs the __________ Locally Elected ___________ advise the governor, but the governor makes all final decisions King appoints Governors. Governors had: Final approval of laws Oversees Trade $$ (trade being an “international” issue) He appoints a Council for himself, usually wealthy and powerful locals, who advise and act as a local High Court He has the power to dismiss the locally elected assembly if he feels they are too acting against the best interests of the kingdom Locally Elected Assemblies Made local laws, to include ! TAXes ! Paid Governor’s salary These two powers were their greatest bargaining chips when dealing with the governor

16 In Virginia: a classic “have-nots” vs. the “haves”
Bacon’s Rebellion In Virginia: a classic “have-nots” vs. the “haves” Citizens like Nathaniel Bacon were upset over lack of __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Bacon, a former _____________ ________, led a revolt. His group attacked friendly Native Americans and attacked and burned the city of ____________ Result: System of indentured servants was replaced by a greater reliance on slavery to run plantations in the South Indentured Servant: someone who is paid to do a contracted amount of labor before gaining their freedom Have the students do the handout, first individually then after a time, let them work with another student. Distribute the Green Textbooks in my cabinet referring to the chapter and section indicated. In the end, the most important consequence of Bacon’s Rebellion is that the wealthy land-owners decide that to continue the practice of hiring “indentured servants” was to continually increase the number of the free but poor population from with Bacon’s Rebellion drew strength. Thus, to stop increasing that free lower class population, the wealthy Tidewater plantation owners turned to slavery, a practice common throughout Africa and Europe dating back to pre-Roman days when any conquered people group could become slaves. In fact the term “slave” comes form “Slavic” referring to eastern Europeans. The use of Africans as slaves was merely convenient. It became very easy to tell who was a slave and who was not. The system of racism and considering African slaves as inferior develops because the system of slavery is inherently evil and must be propped up with reasoning no matter how faulty the reasoning.

17 Exit Ticket: Describe how taxation is related to representation in government using colonial history? Ask students to first try to write an answer without consulting their notes. Second, consult their notes. Third, compare their answer with a neighbor. Third, Solicit answers from the class and make sure the right answer is stated. The king taxed too much so nobles made him sign the Magna Carta, providing limited representational government. In the colonies, the king appointed Governors who had to deal with locally elected assemblies who paid them, and had approval over taxation.

18 Salem Witch Trials Watch the video answer the questions ASK questions
be prepared to discuss OPTIONAL – depends on how much time the colonies review is taking, or in the case of a substitute if an additional lesson is needed. This is a very good History Channel documentary and is well worth viewing. Viewing is optional if viewed, require the handout to be completed for class participation grade. The writing assignment is doubly optional. Perhaps for gifted or honors require it but not academic. After doing the Witch Trials, I always like to distribute the attached Commentary by Betsy Hart and discuss it so that the students get more than a one-sided dislike of the Puritans. They were real people too! It is usually a lively discussion if they are not too embarrassed to talk about it.

19 Ben Franklin designed this political cartoon during the middle 1700’s
Ben Franklin designed this political cartoon during the middle 1700’s. What does it represent? Why did he draw it? This slide shifts from the 17th century to the 18th century. As the world becomes more ‘mapped’ and other nations are claiming colonies or territories, America becomes a land of contention among the super-powers of Great Britain, France, Spain. This slide jumps ahead to the French and Indian War. Ask the questions, “What do you think this political cartoon is suggesting? When do you think it was made? Who do you think may have drawn it?” Made at the beginning of the French and Indian War by Benjamin Franklin. The colonies and regions were all very distinct and separated. They each felt closer to the British crown then to each other. At the beginning of the French and Indian War, Ben Franklin had hoped that the colonies would come together and fight with little or no help from Great Britain, in a sense, that the colonies would take care of themselves. Representatives from many of the colonies had met with Ben Franklin and had agreed to this but when they went back home, the colonies stayed divided thinking not of a continental union but of themselves and their own colony’s interests. This is the initial seed of a union that would bring the colonists together as Americans rather than British citizens. The “join or die” was not a threat, it was more like “we must all work together or we will all die separately.”

20 Colonial Conflicts in the New World
There were many French and British conflicts from 1689 to __________ and ___________ fought 3 wars ___________ was in contention – in the 1750’s British colonists wanted to expand into valley along the Ohio __________ French and ___________ allies conducted raids on British trading posts to prevent spread of British trade and colonists From 1689 into the 1740’s, the French and the British had fought three wars. In the 1750’s, British land companies wanted to expand into the Ohio Valley. To discourage the Brits from moving into the Ohio Valley, A Frenchman led Indian allies in an attack on a British trading post. Ask these questions: “What is the natural boundary between the coastal British colonies and the inland French colonies?” The Appalachian mountains “How did the French access the inland continental American land?” The St. Lawrence River and the Great Lakes “What caused the contention over the Ohio Valley land area?” Growing British population and the desire to expand

21 Very courteously, the French say, “go stuff yourself, we are staying.”
French and Indian War In 1753, the Lt Governor of Virginia sent a young _________________ to tell the French to leave the Ohio Valley. Very courteously, the French say, “go stuff yourself, we are staying.” Washington builds a fort, “________________”, but is quickly defeated and forced out GW writes about hiking through the woods during the winter to meet with the French representative. It gets printed throughout the colonies and he becomes the second most famous colonist next to Benjamin Franklin. He is certainly the most famous military person. In 1753, the Lt Governor of VA sent a young George Washington to tell the French to vacate the Ohio Valley. Very courteously, the French say, “go stuff yourself, we are staying.” GW writes about this adventure of trekking through the woods during the winter to meet with the French representative. It gets printed throughout the colonies and he becomes perhaps the second most famous colonist, next to Benjamin Franklin. He is certainly the most famous military person. The French stayed, built forts. Virginia sends George Washington to fight the French and he orders the ambush which actually begins the war. Ultimately, GW loses a battle at Ft Necessity in the Pittsburgh area and is sent back to VA. GW than accompanies a British general and a large British fort back to the same area where they are ambushed by a large Indian force led by the French. The British army is defeated killing most officers. George Washington leads a successful retreat saving many British lives. He takes no more part in the war except in organizing the VA militia and protecting the “white” VA frontier from Native Americans.

22 The ________________ signed in 1763 officially ends the war
British Victory French win many of the early battles, but __________ ultimately wins. However, Britain has to borrow a lot of _________to gain victory. The ________________ signed in 1763 officially ends the war North America as claimed by European empires... The French won most of the battles in the first half of the war. To defeat the French, the British crown borrows heavily to fund the war eventually winning battles and defeating the French. The Treaty of Paris 1763 gave England sole European control of Eastern North America to the Mississippi River and into Canada. Great Britain is left with the greatest and wealthiest part of North America, but at great financial cost. The British crown is almost bankrupt.

23 Great Britain now in Great Debt
Colonists want to expand ________________________ Indians ___________ spread of colonists To prevent further military costs: _____________________ - prevents colonists from expanding west of the Appalachian Mountains _____________________ – Tax of good to raise money to pay for war With the French out of the way, British/American Colonists now wanted to settle westward. The Indians opposed this, resulting in bloodshed. To prevent further military expenditure: The British issued the Proclamation of 1763 prohibiting expansion beyond the Appalachian Mtns. Issued the Stamp Tax 1765 on the colonies. Both of these done without any consultation or representation from the colonists themselves. So after this great victory over the French in which the British colonists take some pride in being part of, they feel punished by the Crown and that their British rights are being infringed upon. Remember the British Bill of Rights from William and Mary? This is the beginning of British colonists thinking that being “British” might not be so great. The idea of independence is a long way off, but the seeds of the argument with Great Britain are firmly planted here with the Proclamation of 1763 and the Stamp Act of In the next unit, we will explore the various events which lead up to the American Revolution beginning in 1775, only twelve short years after the end of the French and Indian War. The big question is, “How do proud British citizens become first angry British citizens, then ultimately independent Americans over the course of about twenty years?”

24 Setting the stage for Revolution
The proclamation and stamp tax were done without real colonial _________________ in government decisions Colonist want to expand west. They also feel the taxes are unfair without having any say in the decisions of British Government even though they are loyal citizens of Great Britain.

25 Exit Ticket: What were some results of the French and Indian War?
Ask students to first try to write an answer without consulting their notes. Second, consult their notes. Third, compare their answer with a neighbor. Third, Solicit answers from the class and make sure the right answers are stated. French essentially removed from North America. Colonies develop a small but growing sense of unity. Great Britain takes control of all land east of Mississippi River. British stop westward movement of colonists with Proclamation of 1763. British government taxes colonists to help satisfy debt incurred by the F&I War. George Washington becomes a colonial hero.

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