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The British Empire and Colonial Crisis

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1 The British Empire and Colonial Crisis

2 Thomas Hutchison Became the Royal Governor of Massachusetts in 1771.
He was a fifth generation American, not a British Aristocrat. He was proud of his British connection and loyal to the King. Recognized the difficulties of maintaining full rights and privileges to colonist from far away Britain. What is the opposite of Liberty? What is the Irony of this?

3 The Seven Years War Begins in 1754 with issues over land in the Ohio Valley. The land was claimed by Virginians, Pennsylvanians, French, and Indians already living there. Seven Years war is the British name, “French Indian War” is Colonist name and the “war of the conquest” is the Canadian name. The war was fought for 10 years in Europe, America, India and the West Indies.

4 Seven years war British and American colonist eventually defeated the French and Indians to end the war. How will this lay the groundwork for the Imperial Crisis?

5 War Begins in ohio The Ohio company, formed by Virginians and given 500 square miles from the King, including present day Pittsburgh. French built military forts to protect trade routes and create a barrier for the Americans. George Washington, now 21 years old was sent on a mission to warn the French about being on the Kings land.

6 Ohio Massacre Washington and 160 men, accompanied by the Mingo Indians set off to remove the French from Fort Duquesne , but could not be the aggressor. Tanaghrisson, Mingo leader attacked the French, who knows who fired first shot, but the Mingo scalped the French that were killed, why would they do this? Washington builds Fort Necessity, and is attacked by French losing 1/3 of his men. What statement did the French make by this?

7 Albany Congress July 1754, 24 delegates from 7 colonies, Iroquois Indians of the six nations ( Mohawk, Oneida, Cayuga, Seneca, and Tuscarora.) Main focus was to repair the Covenant Chain, and get support against French threat. Franklin and Hutchison Albany Plan? Did the Colonies agree to it? Did the British? Did the Indians?

8 Battle of Monongahela General Braddock and George Washington marched towards Fort Duquesne. Ambushed by 250 French and 640 Indians. 1,000 British died including Braddock, Washington was unhurt but had two horses shot while on them. Washington was now the commander of the Virginia Army.

9 William Pitt British Prime Minister in 1757.
Unleashed an assault on France and Spain in Europe, the Americas and the Caribbean. Captured Fort Duquesne, Niagara, and Ticonderoga in 1759. Took the invincible Fort of Quebec in September 1759. Fighting continued in Europe, Caribbean and India.

10 Treaty of paris 1763 British gained Canada from the French.
All French territory west of Mississippi River was given to Spain for helping France. Cuba given back to spain Guadeloupe and Martinique given back to France. Nothing done about Indians.

11 War Issues British Military took all the credit, said colonist were ungrateful. Britain’s national debt was twice what it was before the war. Pontiac uprising leads to the Proclamation of 1763 which stated colonist could not go past the Appalachian Mountains. Did the proclamation acknowledge that the Indians owned the land? Did the Colonist stop at the Appalachians?

12 Sugar and Stamp Acts Molasses Act of 1733 was set in place to stop the colonist from buying non British Molasses. Smuggling was a huge problem, so sugar act lowered tax on molasses. The tax did not work just made the colonist more isolated from the British Government.

13 Stamp Act Had to pay a tax to get a stamp on any legal document or paper. These were taxable.. Newspapers, phamplets, court documents, licenses, wills, ship cargo list. This was a revenue machine for the king. Virtual representation came into play during this act. The fact that the colonist were under the empire and represented by the House of commons, was this true?

14 Reaction to the stamp act
Virginia Resolves.. We are citizens and self-taxation was a right, Virginia authority only one could tax Virginians, did not recognize any tax outside Virginia. None approved but put in paper. British Demonstration, made the tax distributor Andrew Oliver resign, what was the outcome of most people in the demonstration? Hutchison house was sacked, and no one was able to collect the tax on the stamp act in Boston.

15 Sons of Liberty Liberty and property was the battle cry.
Tried to enforce tax distributors to resign. Stamp Act Congress sent letter to Parliament and King, basically using the Virginia resolve. This group unified the colonist into the fact of taxation without representation.

16 Liberty vs Slavery Colonist felt that being taxed without representation was like being held in slavery. What is the irony of that feeling, and was there anything done about that? Tax Act repealed, BUT stated the British Government could tax the colonist.

17 The Townshend Duties This was a tax on imports of British goods, paid by the importer but passed on the colonist through price increase. Non consumption agreements, how do these protest that tax? How do the “ Daughters of Liberty” become powerful during this Act? What is the quartering act? Is that a form of Tax? How do the Colonist handle this act? Does the colonist protest work? What else are the protest doing?

18 Military in Boston In 1768 3,000 British troops land in Boston, why?
Who dies in front Of Ebenezer Richardson house? March 15, 1770 what happens? What type of Funerals do the sons of liberty have? What do John Adams and Josiah Quincy have to do with the massacre? What is the outcome?

19 Tea Party and Coercive Acts
Prime Minster North, repeals Townshend duties because of what? What happened to commerce after this happened? 1772 the burning of the Gaspee- no one arrested but would stand trial in Britain…….. Major issue! Colonial Assembly starts the committee of Correspondence. Lord North will pay judges out of tea revenue! Why is that an issue?

20 Tea Party and Coercive Acts
Tea Act of 1773, East india company sell British tea to Government agents instead of merchants. Hope to lower price so colonist would buy smuggled Dutch tea. All done to raise money to pay for governors and judges, and to show taxation power over the colonies. Boston Tea Party? What was the punishment?

21 Coercive acts Four acts as a response to Tea party.
1. Boston Port Act- Closed Boston harbor June 1, 1774 until tea was paid for. 2. Mass Govt Act- basically gave all power to Governor and no elections, or town meetings. 3. Impartial Administration of Justice Act- any Royal official accused of a crime will be tried in Britain. 4. Quartering act- soldiers housed anywhere, even private residents.

22 Quebec Act Thomas Gage- military office is now in charge of Massachusetts. Quebec Act- gave catholic Quebec rights to fur trade land in ohio valley, land that was claimed by Virginia and Pennsylvania. Philadelphia Convention of 1774 set to deal with the crisis, what are some things that are proposed? Gunpowder alarm.

23 Lexington and Concord Thomas Gage sent troops to concord to find ammunition shed. 70 militia met them, the shot heard around the world happens. Small battle in concord, then militia ambush the British on road to Boston, 273 British wounded or dead and 95 Americans. The War Begins. British look for aid from slaves….. After was 8-10,000 are freed by British to Canada and Africa.

24 Chapter 6 Quiz How did the seven years war lead to the American Revolution? Why did the sugar and stamp act draw criticism from the Colonist? What was the purpose of the coercive acts in 1774? How did slaves react to the stirrings of the revolution?

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