Presentation on theme: "Pre-Revolution American Colonies 1689-1755 Chapter I."— Presentation transcript:
Pre-Revolution American Colonies Chapter I
The Road to Independence First English settlement was Jamestown 1607 From this settlement to 1754, English colonies were growing apart from England Many factors contributed to this separation #1
What is the role of a Colony & Mother Country? Colonies England Provide for England Provide for Colonies
Mercantilism Idea that a country should accumulate as much wealth as it can at the expense of the colonies Because England did not have gold mines they had to acquire the bullion through trade England began to exploit the colonies because of the raw materials colonies provided How would the colonies benefit if they sold the goods directly to other countries?
English Civil War In the late 1600’s England thrived because of the colonies However between the years England found itself entangled in a Civil War This caused England to pay little attention to the Colonies War ended with the trial and execution of Charles I
Salutary Neglect From the first English colony, England allowed the colonies to govern themselves Why? England always had a tradition of strong local government and weak central government To difficult to govern across the Atlantic England rarely enforced any of its Navigation acts and both sides flourished
How would each situation impact the relationship between two people? Different interest? Live in different locations? Different religions? Fighting with a third party?
Diversity in the Colonies Southern colonies were dependant on tobacco, cotton and slave trade Middle colonies had a mix of farming and commerce (vast supply of water ways in the middle colonies) New England was trading center for rum, firearms, lumber, fish, and furs
Western Expansion Colonial population was growing rapidly Number of immigrant coming from countries other than England was also growing at a great rate Large numbers came from Ireland, Germany, and Scotland This pushed the Colonies west
Religious Tension Early 1700’s was called the “Great Awakening.” Rebirth in religious attitudes Catholic Protestant, Puritans, Presbyterians, Quakers, Methodists, Baptists Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God -Jonathan Edwards
French and Indian War Earliest portrait of Washington 1772 Leader of the first Virginia Regiment Served in French and Indian War
How would each situation impact the relationship between two people? Different interest? = Diversity in Colonies Live in different locations? = Western Expansion Different religions? = Religious Diversity Fighting with a third party? = French Indian War
Causes of War Rivalry between French and English over territory in North America Nine year struggle between the English/Colonies vs. French/Indians George Washington became famous during this war French were attacking English in the Ohio Valley Major lasting impacts was the Albany Plan of Union v. ColoniesIndians
Albany Plan of Union Called by Benjamin Franklin of Pennsylvania Purpose, was to form a permanent Union between the colonies Called for a council of delegates from each colony Ultimately rejected by the colonies because they did not want a central government If the Albany plan of Union Failed, why is it so important in American history?
British Win the War British were better supplied and had more men Spring of 1759 British commander James Wolfe invaded Quebec Fall of Quebec forced the French to surrender Treaty of Paris 1763 Britain gained control of Canada and all land east of the Mississippi
War Weakens Loyalty Despite winning the war, the conflict caused the colonies and England to grow apart England felt that the colonies did not help the war effort enough The Colonies felt that English leadership was weak and called for colonial leaders Colonies lost faith in British military power
Growing Conflict George III passes the Proclamation of 1763 which prevents the colonies from settling the territory gained in the war Colonies settled area anyway, this showed Britain's lack of control Britain had heavy debts because of the war To Pay for the War England began to tax the colonies heavily
The Stamp Act The first in a series of acts to tax the colonies Tax on newspapers, pamphlets, legal documents, any printed material Reaction in the colonies was outrage Stamp Act Congress was formed The Congress wrote a Declaration of Grievances to the King “No Taxation without Representation” Stamp Act repealed, damage done
Sons of Liberty Began to boycott British goods One founder Samuel Adams Goal was to terrorize British control in the colonies British responded with Townshend Act
Boston Massacre British troops were sent to Boston to put down violence seen b/c of Townshend Act British opened fire on rowdy colonist Crispus Attucks African American & first casualty of attack #2
Boston Tea Party To protest the tea act and the British East India Company Group of colonist disguised as Indians raided an English ship Broke all the crates and threw them in the harbor
Intolerable Acts To punish Boston and New England passed a series of Laws called Coercive Acts Acts were so bad for the colonies they were called “intolerable” To discuss this the colonies met at the First Continental Congress Sent a list of grievances to the king and stated that the colonies were in a state of rebellion
Fighting breaks out April 18 th 1775 group of “Patriots” met British troops at Lexington and Concord British troops were trying to seize colonial supplies Paul Revere made his famous ride “the British are coming.” When the British arrived 4000 patriots were waiting behind trees and buildings. Revolution has begun #3