3 Life Under Spanish Rule Spain owned all the farms and businesses in the colonies.The Colonist were taxed by a government that was whole ocean away.The Spanish born colonists had more rights then the American Born colonists had.Spain had a tight control over what went on in the colonies.
4 I. Mexico Begins A. For 300 years Spain held colonies in New Spain. 1. These colonies enjoyed success.B. Change1. Change occurred when Napoleon Bonaparte conquered Spain in 1801 threw out the king.2. Why do you think this opened the door for change in Mexico?
5 How it opened the doorColonist had to take complete charge of their own affairs.They had independence from Spanish rule and taxes.The colonist could keep the money made from their farms and businesses.The American born citizens could now get the privileges only the Spanish born had till now.
6 II. Leader for Independence Miguel Hidalgo1. Priest from a small village who worked to make life better for the poor and native populationStarted a revolution in the small town of Dolores.1. Cried out to the people"Long Live Independence!"
7 More Leaders for Independence C. Hidalgo fails.1. with limited resources and no trained soldiers Father Hidalgo’s revolt was defeated by the Spanish, and Hidalgo was executed.D. Others take up the fight.1. Jose Morelosa. cont. the fight, declared independence and wrote a constitution.b. Morelos was executed
8 III. Mexico gains independence A. Agustin IturbideCommander in the Spanish army who joined the rebellion.Connected the country by praising all that Spain did for Mexico.Mexico was became independent after 11 years of fighting.When does Mexico celebrate their independence day?What is Cinco de Mayo?
9 IV. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna/loss of Texas A. 1st Latin American Dictator. Dictator-is a ________________________________________________________________________________.B. Stephen Austin (Texan) asks Santa Anna for permission to set up a ____________ in TexasC. Santa Anna agrees, but closes the borders from the U.S after colonies population get large.D. 1836, Texas declared themselves a new country, which forces Santa Anna to take back Texas with force.
10 V. The AlamoA. _______Mexican attacked ____ Texans who came to the mission for safety. The mission is called the Alamo.B. All Americans Died1. Women and Children were allowed to leave.C. “__________________________________” became the battle cry for Texas.
11 VI. SANTA ANNA SUPRISEDA. After the defeat at the Alamo, Santa Anna moves troops to present day ______________ TX.B. Texan army, led by Sam Houston, made a surprise attack on the Mexicans.c. Mexicans surrender after over ____ of them are killed, against only ___ Texans.Houston makes a deal with Santa Anna. The independence of Texas for his freedom.
12 VII. The Mexican American War A. U.S and Mexico clashed over where the new border would go.B. Pres. _____ sent troops into the disputed zone.C. Troops were attacked inside the Texas border.D. Polk uses this attack as a reason to declare war on Mexican troops 1846E. ________________ led Mexican Army.F. Mexico couldn’t stop advancing American troops.G. Americans reached the capital of Mexico in Sep. of 1847.H. Mexico surrenders after battles reaches Mexico City.
13 VIII. Treaty of Guadalupe A. Peace came in 1848 with the signing of the treaty of ____________________________________.B. In the treaty Mexico lost (present day)Cali., Colo., AZ., NW, NV, UT.C. U.S. paid $15 million dollars for all of the new land (which included Texas).D. In 1853, Santa Anna sold more of Mexico’s land to U.S. for $10 million dollars.
14 IX. Mexico treated fairly? Many people (including Abraham Lincoln) believed that Mexico was taken advantage of by the United States. That this started the minute Americans stepped foot in Texas.What do you think?Write one paragraph on your position on the debate line.We shouldn’t have stepped foot in Texas_______________________________________ We had the right
15 X. Porfirio Diaz – 1910 president of Mexico. Served for 11 terms. A. Diaz balances budget for the first time, economy is goodB. Poor continue to stay poorC. Few families own most land. Haciendas owned by few families, most everyone works for Hacienda owners.D. Rurales were Diaz’s private police force1. Comprised of the nations worst bandits2. Became more problem than BanditsE. To end political problems Diaz uses “Bread or the Club” program1. People who helped him got “Bread”2. People who opposed him got “club”
16 XI. Diaz invites countries to invest in Mexico A. Money was used to build1. Factories2. Railroads3. Search for oil4. Operate mines5. Build roadsB. Money from construction went to other people1. $ Went to rich families2. Foreign investorsDidn’t go to poor people
17 XII. Francisco MaderoA. Francisco Madero wrote a book calling for more democracy.B. Madero runs for Pres. but Diaz jails him. After the election Diaz let him go, Madero fled to TexasC. Madero ordered supporters (including Pancho Villa)to protest against Diaz from Texas. This begins the Mexican Civil war.D. The pressure forces Diaz out, outcome was Madero becomes President.E. “The pen is mightier than the sword.”
18 Mexican RevolutionCause: Uneven distribution of _______ and _______Result: The conflict resulted in a new Mexican constitution and major economic, political, and social reforms for Mexico.Estimated 1 million Mexicans died in the war.Estimated over 500,000 Mexican immigrated to the U.S to escape the war and killing.Take a second to write down one question you have from this slide on your inquiry and participation log.
19 Women’s role- soldaderas Soldaderas were female soldiers, military leaders, and authors how opposed Diaz and his inequality policies to women.Some of these soldaderas were:Dolores Jiménez y Muro – Revolutionary and Author.Margarita Neri – Military comanderHermila Galindo- Mexican Feminest
20 XIII. Emiliano Zapata and Francisco(Pancho)Villa- revolutionary generals. A. Emiliano Zapata and Poncho Villa Led revolt against the rich.Took from the rich and gave to the poor.B. Zapata, Was a leader to give land to the poorC. Villa1. Was an outlaw who wanted to take from the rich to give to the poor.2. Known for his raids on aciendasD. When Madero (who thought much like them) didn’t honor their violent rebellion, wanted gov. change, the people turned their back on Madero, and he lost power.
21 XIV Cont. Pancho VillaE. Pancho Villa becomes a hero in the Mexican Civil war.F. Ran for president against, Zapata, and a man named Venustiano Carranza.Pancho loses election when the USA supports Carranza.G. As retaliation Pancho Villa attacks the border town of Columbus, NM.1. Becomes the #1 villain in the U.S2. USA sends an ARMY of soldiers into Mex. To find and capture him, but they never found him!
22 XV Madero loses powerA. Victor Huerta, a general in Madero’s army who helped Madero become president.B. Huerta kicked Madero out and took power.C. Huerta orders troops to kill Madero and his V.P as they leave the capital.D. This action started the civil war again.-Zapata and Villa were allies of Madero.
23 XVI Venustiano Carranza A. Wrote a new constitution for Mexico1. Land reform. Broke up the haciendas2. Gave land to those without any3. All minerals and oil from Mexico belong to MexicoForeign investors were taking minerals and oil, but no longer now4. 8 hour work day.
24 MEXICO 1800’S Mexico had a rough start Spaniards continued to conquer and convert natives to the Spanish lang. and Religion.Priests set up missions, which became towns.Several civil wars between native and Spaniards, and warring Spanish families.Lost ½ of its land to U.S.
25 Rough starts continues Often, the defeated side in an election would accuse the other side of dishonesty and act to overthrow the new gov. The sudden overthrow of a government by force is called a COUP.1821 Mexico won independence from Spain. Mexico was twice as large as it is now. It covered what are now Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Arizona California, Colorado, Kansas, Nevada, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas, Utah, and Wyoming.Attacked, and occupied by France.CINCO DE MAYO
26 XIV Land changesA. Peon – people who lived and worked on the haciendas.1. 95% of Mexican owned no land and were peons.B. Ejidos-land given to whole village not just one family