2End of Benign NeglectBritish government deep in debt after the Seven Years WarParliament votes to increase taxationBurden spread to British coloniesColonies had been taxed previouslyIndirect taxation (tariffs)Colonist had either avoided taxation or saw it as the cost of doing business with BritainProclamation of 1763Marks British reversal of previous policies in North America
3End of Benign NeglectParliament decides to leave a standing army in the coloniesTremendous cost to Britain (6% peacetime budget)Justified the increase in colonial taxationIncreased British interferenceBritish revise previous colonial regulations (Navigation Acts)Sugar ActWrits of AssistanceNew measures didn’t raise desired revenues
4Why would the colonists not react strongly to changes in the Navigation Acts?
5Direct Taxation Stamp Act 1765 Turning point for British colonists already angry over increasing tax burdenPassed along with Quartering Act (Mutiny Act)Colonists rejected new form of direct internal taxation“No taxation without representation”Virtual vs Actual RepresentationColonists organize to resist Stamp ActStamp Act CongressFirst successful intercolonial meetingDomestic terrorismLoyal Nine/Sons of LibertyStamp Act repealed/Declaratory Act passed in 1766Colonist fears increaseColonists pay 2-6% what the British pay in taxes (1-1 1/2 shillings vs. 26)
6Direct Taxation Next step: Townshend Acts (Revenue Act) 1767 Also seen as direct internal taxationResulted in a boycott of British goodsSubsequently repealed by Parliament (except tea duties)Only the taxes on tea generated significant revenueTea Act 1773Passed to help failing East India CompanySeen as Parliament aiding a corrupt monopoly at the expense of colonial taxpayersLeads to Boston Tea Party
8Organized Resistance to British Policies In PrintLetters from a Pennsylvania Farmerby John DickinsonSeries of essays: opposed direct taxationPamphlets“Common Sense” by Thomas PaineCommittees of CorrespondenceLinked New England towns to Boston revolutionariesLater, link colonial legislatures togetherPropagandaBoston Massacre engraving by Paul Revere (1770)
10Why was Revere’s engraving effective propaganda at the time?
11Organized Resistance to British Policies In actionBoston Tea Party 1773Results in passage of Coercive (Intolerable) Acts 17741774 Massachusetts uprising begins revolutionIn governmentFirst continental Congress meets 1775Adopt Suffolk Resolves (response to Coercive Acts)Boycott British trade/cut off colonial exportsAgree to resist British if attackedAgree to meet again
12Revolutionary War Has Begun “Shot Heard ‘Round the World”Lexington and Concord 1774Bunker (Breed’s) HillShowed British resolveSecond Continental Congress 1775Issued paper money to support the warAppointed George Washington commander of the continental armyOlive Branch petition (rejected)Divide into three committees1. Explain reasons for declaring independence2. Draft a colonial constitution3. Draft a Declaration of IndependenceBunker Hill 1,154 casualties (British) 311 (Patriots)
15Fighting the War Colonial difficulties Large Loyalist population (1/5-1/3 total population)Low morale in continental army/colonial militiasLacked supplies/funding (faced difficult conditions)French AllianceCritical support for colonial war effortColonists had to demonstrate an ability to winSaratoga 1778British SurrenderCornwallis surrenders in 1781 at YorktownSign Treaty of Paris #2 1783British recognize independenceNever fully settles territorial boundaries
16What was Washington’s greatest advantage over the British?
20Declaration of Independence Thomas Jefferson was assigned to the least important of the committeesAssumed that revolutionary principles were already very well knownJefferson “borrowed” many of his ideasVirginia had already drafted their own resolution of independenceIdeas from European EnlightenmentSpecifically John LockeAlthough document was not seen as important at the time it was brought to prominence by nineteenth century idealismIn particular, Lincoln’s Gettysburg AddressOverhead Jeffersion vs. LockeFilm reading Declaration of Independence