Presentation on theme: "Civil War in the Colonies 1763-1781 End of Benign Neglect British government deep in debt after the Seven Years War Parliament votes to increase taxation."— Presentation transcript:
Civil War in the Colonies
End of Benign Neglect British government deep in debt after the Seven Years War Parliament votes to increase taxation Burden spread to British colonies Colonies had been taxed previously Indirect taxation (tariffs) Colonist had either avoided taxation or saw it as the cost of doing business with Britain Proclamation of 1763 Marks British reversal of previous policies in North America
End of Benign Neglect Parliament decides to leave a standing army in the colonies Tremendous cost to Britain (6% peacetime budget) Justified the increase in colonial taxation Increased British interference British revise previous colonial regulations (Navigation Acts) Sugar Act Writs of Assistance New measures didn’t raise desired revenues
Why would the colonists not react strongly to changes in the Navigation Acts?
Direct Taxation Stamp Act 1765 Turning point for British colonists already angry over increasing tax burden Passed along with Quartering Act (Mutiny Act) Colonists rejected new form of direct internal taxation “No taxation without representation” Virtual vs Actual Representation Colonists organize to resist Stamp Act Stamp Act Congress First successful intercolonial meeting Domestic terrorism Loyal Nine/Sons of Liberty Stamp Act repealed/Declaratory Act passed in 1766 Colonist fears increase
Direct Taxation Next step: Townshend Acts (Revenue Act) 1767 Also seen as direct internal taxation Resulted in a boycott of British goods Subsequently repealed by Parliament(except tea duties) Only the taxes on tea generated significant revenue Tea Act 1773 Passed to help failing East India Company Seen as Parliament aiding a corrupt monopoly at the expense of colonial taxpayers Leads to Boston Tea Party
Organized Resistance to British Policies In Print Letters from a Pennsylvania Farmer by John Dickinson Series of essays: opposed direct taxation Pamphlets “Common Sense” by Thomas Paine Committees of Correspondence Linked New England towns to Boston revolutionaries Later, link colonial legislatures together Propaganda Boston Massacre engraving by Paul Revere (1770)
Why was Revere’s engraving effective propaganda at the time?
Organized Resistance to British Policies In action Boston Tea Party 1773 Results in passage of Coercive (Intolerable) Acts Massachusetts uprising begins revolution In government First continental Congress meets 1775 Adopt Suffolk Resolves (response to Coercive Acts) Boycott British trade/cut off colonial exports Agree to resist British if attacked Agree to meet again
Revolutionary War Has Begun “Shot Heard ‘Round the World” Lexington and Concord 1774 Bunker (Breed’s) Hill Showed British resolve Second Continental Congress 1775 Issued paper money to support the war Appointed George Washington commander of the continental army Olive Branch petition (rejected) Divide into three committees 1. Explain reasons for declaring independence 2. Draft a colonial constitution 3. Draft a Declaration of Independence
Fighting the War Colonial difficulties Large Loyalist population (1/5-1/3 total population) Low morale in continental army/colonial militias Lacked supplies/funding (faced difficult conditions) French Alliance Critical support for colonial war effort Colonists had to demonstrate an ability to win Saratoga 1778 British Surrender Cornwallis surrenders in 1781 at Yorktown Sign Treaty of Paris # British recognize independence Never fully settles territorial boundaries
What was Washington’s greatest advantage over the British?
Declaration of Independence Thomas Jefferson was assigned to the least important of the committees Assumed that revolutionary principles were already very well known Jefferson “borrowed” many of his ideas Virginia had already drafted their own resolution of independence Ideas from European Enlightenment Specifically John Locke Although document was not seen as important at the time it was brought to prominence by nineteenth century idealism In particular, Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address