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Colonizing America Jamestown and the Pilgrims. Standard and EQ Standard 1 A and B Standard 1 A and B Objective: Student should be able to explain how.

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Presentation on theme: "Colonizing America Jamestown and the Pilgrims. Standard and EQ Standard 1 A and B Standard 1 A and B Objective: Student should be able to explain how."— Presentation transcript:

1 Colonizing America Jamestown and the Pilgrims

2 Standard and EQ Standard 1 A and B Standard 1 A and B Objective: Student should be able to explain how Jamestown and Plymouth colony developed and thrived. Objective: Student should be able to explain how Jamestown and Plymouth colony developed and thrived.

3 Who were the 1 st Settlers and what were their motivations Jamestown Jamestown Va Company – Joint stock company funded by investors and King JamesVa Company – Joint stock company funded by investors and King James Motivation – making BANKMotivation – making BANK Plymouth bay Plymouth bay Seperatists Motivation: Religious Freedom

4 What was the first settlement attempted in the USA? 1. Roanoke – unsuccessful colony founded in the “OBX” region of NC 1. Roanoke – unsuccessful colony founded in the “OBX” region of NC Sir Walter Raleigh attempted settlement twice but failedSir Walter Raleigh attempted settlement twice but failed 1 st time settlers starved1 st time settlers starved 2 nd time “Croatoan” was carved in a tree and everyone had disappeared!2 nd time “Croatoan” was carved in a tree and everyone had disappeared! –Web link to site with an explanation for the disappearance of the settlers Web link to site with an explanation for the disappearance of the settlersWeb link to site with an explanation for the disappearance of the settlers

5 Which came first? Jamestown or Plymouth? Jamestown or Plymouth? Jamestown – 1607; Plymouth – 1620Jamestown – 1607; Plymouth – 1620 What were the different motives of the Plymouth and Jamestown settlers? What were the different motives of the Plymouth and Jamestown settlers? Jamestown – “joint stock company”Jamestown – “joint stock company” Plymouth – founded on religious freedom and funded by men wishing to spread their religion to the new worldPlymouth – founded on religious freedom and funded by men wishing to spread their religion to the new world

6 Jamestown

7 Jamestown – cont’d. Problems of the location: Problems of the location: (As quoted from Wikipedia) It soon became apparent why the Native Americans did not occupy the site, and the inhospitable conditions severely challenged the settlers. Jamestown Island is a swampy area, and furthermore, it was isolated from most potential hunting game such as deer and bears which like to forage over much larger areas. The settlers quickly hunted and killed off all the large and smaller game that was to be found on the tiny peninsula. The low, marshy area was infested with mosquitoes, other airborne pests and the brackish water of the tidal James River was not a good source of drinking water.(As quoted from Wikipedia) It soon became apparent why the Native Americans did not occupy the site, and the inhospitable conditions severely challenged the settlers. Jamestown Island is a swampy area, and furthermore, it was isolated from most potential hunting game such as deer and bears which like to forage over much larger areas. The settlers quickly hunted and killed off all the large and smaller game that was to be found on the tiny peninsula. The low, marshy area was infested with mosquitoes, other airborne pests and the brackish water of the tidal James River was not a good source of drinking water.swampy mosquitoesbrackish water tidalswampy mosquitoesbrackish water tidal The settlers who came over on the initial three ships were not well-equipped for the life they found in Jamestown. In addition to the "gentlemen", who were not accustomed to manual or skilled labor, they consisted mainly of English farmers and "Eight Dutchmen and Poles" hired in Royal Prussia.[6] Many suffered from saltwater poisoning which led to infection, fevers and dysentery. As a result of these conditions, most of the early settlers died of disease and starvationThe settlers who came over on the initial three ships were not well-equipped for the life they found in Jamestown. In addition to the "gentlemen", who were not accustomed to manual or skilled labor, they consisted mainly of English farmers and "Eight Dutchmen and Poles" hired in Royal Prussia.[6] Many suffered from saltwater poisoning which led to infection, fevers and dysentery. As a result of these conditions, most of the early settlers died of disease and starvationRoyal Prussia[6]dysenteryRoyal Prussia[6]dysentery

8 Jamestown Structure: Structure: Physical – Triangular fort with high walls.Physical – Triangular fort with high walls. Governing structure:Governing structure: Led by a council with 3 Presidents and the ship captains who made the decisions for the settlers. Led by a council with 3 Presidents and the ship captains who made the decisions for the settlers. Ultimately, John Smith (3 rd Pres.) becomes most important person Ultimately, John Smith (3 rd Pres.) becomes most important person Original fort sketch

9 Relations with Powhatan indians Local Indians near Jamestown Local Indians near Jamestown During a hunting party in 1608 John Smith is captured by the Powhatan’s. During a hunting party in 1608 John Smith is captured by the Powhatan’s. All of the hunting party is executed except for Smith who is saved by PochohontasAll of the hunting party is executed except for Smith who is saved by Pochohontas Smith is released and for a year the two sides live in relative harmony Smith is released and for a year the two sides live in relative harmony

10 Powhatan wars Smith is injured and returns to London in late Smith is injured and returns to London in late = “starving time” Crops are scarce amongst the settlers and Indians = “starving time” Crops are scarce amongst the settlers and Indians. John Ratcliffe (new leader) is invited to discuss situation with Powhatan. John Ratcliffe (new leader) is invited to discuss situation with Powhatan. When discussing fight breaks out and all settlers are killed. When discussing fight breaks out and all settlers are killed. Leads to the wars……. Leads to the wars…….

11 War cont’d. Newly appointed governor Thomas West, 3rd Baron De La Warr (“Lord Delaware”) arrived from England in Jamestown in June Delaware introduced "Irish Tactics", where his troops raided Indian villages, burned houses, confiscated provisions, and torched cornfields. However, the Indian Pamunkey warriors, led by Opechancanough counter-attacked defending their own land, and laid siege to the fort at Jamestown. He and his warriors nearly succeeded in driving the English out of the Jamestown area. Newly appointed governor Thomas West, 3rd Baron De La Warr (“Lord Delaware”) arrived from England in Jamestown in June Delaware introduced "Irish Tactics", where his troops raided Indian villages, burned houses, confiscated provisions, and torched cornfields. However, the Indian Pamunkey warriors, led by Opechancanough counter-attacked defending their own land, and laid siege to the fort at Jamestown. He and his warriors nearly succeeded in driving the English out of the Jamestown area.Thomas West, 3rd Baron De La WarrPamunkeyOpechancanoughThomas West, 3rd Baron De La WarrPamunkeyOpechancanough A peace settlement ended the war in 1614, and it was sealed by the marriage of Pocahontas to the colonist John Rolfe. This was the first known inter-racial union in Virginia, and helped usher in a brief period of better relations between the Indians and the newcomers. A peace settlement ended the war in 1614, and it was sealed by the marriage of Pocahontas to the colonist John Rolfe. This was the first known inter-racial union in Virginia, and helped usher in a brief period of better relations between the Indians and the newcomers.PocahontasJohn RolfeVirginiaPocahontasJohn RolfeVirginia (www.wikipedia.com) (www.wikipedia.com)

12 Pressure from VA. Company During the first couple of years, the company is pressuring Jamestown for profit and riches. During the first couple of years, the company is pressuring Jamestown for profit and riches. Jamestown is highly unsuccessful until 1614 when John Rolfe successfully cultivates tobacco! Jamestown is highly unsuccessful until 1614 when John Rolfe successfully cultivates tobacco! Tobacco becomes a hit in England and leads to a mass migration to the new world to grow the cash crop. Tobacco becomes a hit in England and leads to a mass migration to the new world to grow the cash crop. By 1619 the first slaves are seen in Jamestown – tobacco farmers By 1619 the first slaves are seen in Jamestown – tobacco farmers

13 House of Burgess To organize the mass migration of people and to better oversee the thriving colony, a structured government was put in place. To organize the mass migration of people and to better oversee the thriving colony, a structured government was put in place. 1 st meeting was in 1619 with 22 members. 1 st meeting was in 1619 with 22 members. In 1624 it was setup to allow 2 representative from each county and representatives from certain cities.In 1624 it was setup to allow 2 representative from each county and representatives from certain cities.

14 Later problems of Jamestown and the Virginia colony Bacon’s rebellion – as more people spread to America the colony grew until it infringed on Indian land. Bacon’s rebellion – as more people spread to America the colony grew until it infringed on Indian land. Indians and farmers fought Indians and farmers fought The house of burgess would not use the military to assist colonist. The house of burgess would not use the military to assist colonist. Colonist took matters into their own hands until they eventually attempted to overthrow the gov. (More to this story) Colonist took matters into their own hands until they eventually attempted to overthrow the gov. (More to this story) The rebellion was put down, and rebels were tried. The rebellion was put down, and rebels were tried.

15 Plymouth bay colony Founded in 1620 by the Pilgrims Founded in 1620 by the Pilgrims Traveled on the Mayflower Traveled on the Mayflower All travelers signed the Mayflower compact……(you need to know details about this) All travelers signed the Mayflower compact……(you need to know details about this) What do you think the impact of the Mayflower compact was?What do you think the impact of the Mayflower compact was?

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18 Pilgrim motivation The Pilgrims were actually separatists, not Puritains. (wanted to separate from the church of England and start their own church) The Pilgrims were actually separatists, not Puritains. (wanted to separate from the church of England and start their own church) Pilgrims had moved from England to the Netherlands, to the new land. Pilgrims had moved from England to the Netherlands, to the new land. In Europe, the seperatists were being arrested and their privacy had been invaded with home raids, etc……In Europe, the seperatists were being arrested and their privacy had been invaded with home raids, etc……

19 Setup of Pilgrim society Governed by a hybrid of Biblical law and English law. Governed by a hybrid of Biblical law and English law. Governor was head and was elected and had 7 assistants appointed to be his cabinet. (“They were responsible for publishing announcements, performing land surveys, carrying out executions, and a host of other duties”) – was head and was elected and had 7 assistants appointed to be his cabinet. (“They were responsible for publishing announcements, performing land surveys, carrying out executions, and a host of other duties”) – Original pilgrim bible

20 William Bradford Bradford was the first leader of Plymouth. Bradford was the first leader of Plymouth.

21 John Winthrop Mass. Bay colony Mass. Bay colony Winthrop created a vision for the colony called “City on a hill”Winthrop created a vision for the colony called “City on a hill” Concept = To be a shining example for the whole world to see that a society can be religiously faithful yet economically prosperous and moralConcept = To be a shining example for the whole world to see that a society can be religiously faithful yet economically prosperous and moral

22 Setup cont’d. General court was elected and made laws and carried out judicial duties. General court was elected and made laws and carried out judicial duties. Published the book of laws in 1636Published the book of laws in 1636 Later as the colony expands, towns have gatherings called “town meetings” to discuss their problems Later as the colony expands, towns have gatherings called “town meetings” to discuss their problems

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24 Beliefs Church is the most important institution in their society. Church is the most important institution in their society. Believe in the supernatural (witches) Believe in the supernatural (witches) Salem Witch trials – Witches sent by devil to corrupt the societySalem Witch trials – Witches sent by devil to corrupt the society Great Salem Witch Trials websiteGreat Salem Witch Trials websiteGreat Salem Witch Trials websiteGreat Salem Witch Trials website

25 Beliefs cont’d. Only church followers and believers could have voting rights and political authority. Only church followers and believers could have voting rights and political authority. Passed the “HALFWAY COVENANT” in 1662 which states you can be part of the church if your parents are baptized members. Passed the “HALFWAY COVENANT” in 1662 which states you can be part of the church if your parents are baptized members.

26 Relations with the Native Americans The PEQUOT WAR The PEQUOT WAR The PEQUOT WAR The PEQUOT WAR King Phillip's war King Phillip's war King Phillip's war King Phillip's war

27 King Phillips war 1. King Phillip was an Indian chief named “Metacom” 1. King Phillip was an Indian chief named “Metacom” 2. Metacom had “double agent” indian spy who worked for both him and the Plymouth colony 2. Metacom had “double agent” indian spy who worked for both him and the Plymouth colony 3. Spy indian told of a coming attack and the Plymouth colonist sought out Metacoms advisor and killed them, thus tipping off a bloddy war. 3. Spy indian told of a coming attack and the Plymouth colonist sought out Metacoms advisor and killed them, thus tipping off a bloddy war.

28 Formation of Rhode Island Roger Williams was a seperatist who got into entaglements with the Puritain church due to his dispute that Puritain people did not have a divine right to Native American lands. Roger Williams was a seperatist who got into entaglements with the Puritain church due to his dispute that Puritain people did not have a divine right to Native American lands. Williams fled to Rhode Island in 1636 and setup a colony that would separate church and state as well as allow complete religious freedom. Williams fled to Rhode Island in 1636 and setup a colony that would separate church and state as well as allow complete religious freedom.


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