Presentation on theme: "Seven Year War (1754 – 1763) Starting in 1689 England and France engaged in a series of wars for control of Europe, and for commercial (trade) and colonial."— Presentation transcript:
Seven Year War (1754 – 1763) Starting in 1689 England and France engaged in a series of wars for control of Europe, and for commercial (trade) and colonial supremacy throughout the world. At the same time, American colonist realize that they are not political equals of the English back in England (second-hand citizens)
Beginnings 1754 hostilities began Colonial Virginia militia (citizen soldiers) clash with French forces for control of the Ohio Valley (GW brings letter) French win many victories to start The most important being the ambush of Gen. Braddock (1755) as marched against the French Fort Duquesne. George Washington saved the men from complete disaster by surrendering at Ft. Necessity
Step 1 – Strengthen Canadian Control
War Formally Declared, May 1756 France first agenda is to strengthen their position in Canada General Louis Joseph, moves his troops to take control of Lake Ontario, the St. Lawrence River, Lake Champlain, and sets eye’s on Lake George The British seek American Colonial help in the North WHAT ROLE WOULD THE COLONIST TAKE? Livelihood or Country?
What does War look like? European warfare (civilized warfare) There are rules to fighting Organization, Formality, and Civility in war Weaponry Cannons, riffles, hand-to-hand combat Forts Fort William Henry Fort at Crown Pointe Fort Ticonderoga Where there are winners… there are losers. The promise of never returning to America
Native American Point of View With the French dominating in the war, the British look for help from the strongest Native American tribes The Iroquois, the Creek, Choctaw, and Cherokee The British come to a late realization: The Natives were aligning themselves with the strongest side (the French) Indian raiders attack English settlement along the frontier from 1755 – 1758 from New England to Georgia When the war turns in 1758, so does the Native alliances The natives are smart enough to know that their future depends on their allies There in it for themselves
William Pitt takes Control “I know that I can save this country and that no one else can” William Pitt 1758, Pitt takes control of the War for the British Realizes the need for colonial militia and promises full reimbursement (repayment) for all expenses This offered the colonist wealth and political influence With this influence came a renewed effort for the war British attack from the North By using the British Navy, Pitt attacks the St. Lawrence Victory will be by controlling this river. Once the St. Lawrence is controlled, Ft. Niagara and Ft. Detroit are indefensible
William Pitt redoubles war effort with troops. After a series of battles in the North, the French were defeated. Quebec was first, than Montreal
Fall of Montreal (Sept. 1759)
The Results: The Treaty of Paris (February, 1763) Eliminates France as a colonial power in North America. France gives up: to Spain: all French territory west of the Mississippi, as well as the city of New Orleans to Britain: Canada and all French territory east of the Mississippi, except New Orleans.
Territorial control after Treaty of Paris
Results of the French and Indian War On the Colonies The American colonists were favorably affected because they: (a) gained self-confidence and valuable military experience (b) saw the need for colonial unity (c) had the danger of attack by the French and certain Indian tribes removed from their frontiers and thus became less dependent on the mother country (England)
Results of the war on Britain Being forced to concentrate on wars against France, Britain had followed a policy of “salutary neglect.” She had permitted her American colonies to: exercise virtual self-government and evade Britain’s mercantilist restrictions. Now Britain was determined to change her policy.
More results for Britain Britain believed: (a) the colonists had not cooperated sufficiently in the war against France (b) had gained much from the victory over the French and the Indians (c) should help pay for the cost of fighting the war. Britain’s New Policy For Colonial America (1763) (1) to place the colonies under strict British political and economic control (2) to compel the colonists to demonstrate respect for and obedience to English laws (3) to make the colonies bear their part of the cost of maintaining the British Empire.
Examples of Britain’s New American Policies Strict Enforcement of Existing Laws Navigation Acts – Who could ship where and with who Writs of Assistance – No search warrant needed New Taxes Sugar Act, Stamp Act, Townshend Act Land Expansion Policies – Proclamation of 1763 Soldiers in your home – Quartering Act of 1765