Mercantilism Countries ultimate goal was to establish self-sufficiency—trying to get as much gold and silver as possible. Colonies—favorable balance of trade England wanted raw materials from the colonies (not always the case…people were selling good to other countries)
Navigation Acts Laws that restricted the colonists trading abilities. (English Parliament) Results: England benefited more from being more involved in the trading process, colonists did not. (Illegal Trading)
Anger People didn’t follow the Navigation Acts and traded with whomever they wanted (especially Massachusetts) King Charles got mad at Mass., he took away their charter (happened a lot) Eventually King James picked one guy to rule all of New England
Taste of Independence England started to focus more on France (war) Salutary Neglect—England would loosen some of its Navigation Act policies if the colonies would promise to trade with England only. Each colony appointed its own governor Governors were loyal to the colonist (salaries) Colonies began to practice self government (liked it a lot)
Glorious Revolution GB got rid of King James (Catholic) Replaced him with William and Mary Results in America Puritans got rid of their governor (James’ pick) Compromise: New governor for area if the Pilgrims would be more tolerant.
The Agricultural South Cash Crop—single crop that is grown for sale; not personal use. Tobacco, Rice, Indigo, Cotton South relied heavily on Cash Crops
Southern Lifestyle Many different groups settled in the South, Germans, Scots, Irish. Few wealthy people owned most of the land and made the decisions Women in the South/North were looked upon as inferior (chores, lack of education)
Southern Plantations Big farms located on waterways developed instead of small towns like in the North. Major cities were located on the coast. Charlestown, etc
Slaves People that were property of others Slaves in America usually came originally from Africa (not enough indentured servants, Indians ran away) Europeans saw Africans as being “inferior” because of their dark skin. Africans were also better suited to meet the demands of slavery (climate, work load) By 1750, over 200,000 Africans worked in the Southern Colonies
Slave Trade Triangular Trade— Trade between Africa, West Indies and America. Way in which goods and people were shipped throughout the world.
Slavery in the South Most slaves worked in the fields—most difficult. (80-90 %) Other 10-20 % slaves worked in the house as servants. Not as difficult of work. Most slaves worked from 12 to death. Often subjected to terrible beatings/harsh treatments.
Africans Coping in the New World Africans came to America from a variety of different cultures (different areas/languages) Africans tended to bond together by doing things that they had in common (making things, pottery, etc) Slavery was difficult on families, especially when slaves were sold. Music and dance were ways in which Africans could communicate while keeping old African customs alive.
Revolts Not all Africans accepted the conditions of slavery…some would do such things as fake illness, break tools and slow down working. Stono Rebellion—Sept. of 1739, 20 slaves gathered guns/other things killed plantation owners. Rebellion was put down and tighter restrictions were placed. Many slaves escaped North on the Underground Railroad…popular route to take to the North
The Commercial North Northern economy was driven by trade while the Southern economy was driven by agriculture. Differences led to a complete opposite way of life. Farms in the North: Small, produce a variety of crops Livestock
The Commercial North Industry: Lumber, fishing, ship building Expansion of trade caused many cities to grow New York, Boston, Philadelphia Philadelphia became one of the leading cities city in the world…extremely modern for the time. (police, parks, street lights)
Northern Society is Diverse Germans, Irish, Mennonites, Quakers, Dutch, Scandinavians and Jews all lived within the North. People moved to the North because of job opportunities in cities. Slavery did exist in the North, but it was on a much smaller scale than the South (household servants). The further South, the more slavery was NEEDED!
Women’s Rights Women had few rights in the North, religion and law kept women inferior to men. Salem Witch Trials (Salem, Massachusetts) Several girls accused a Native America of practicing witchcraft…started to spread, more and more girls began being accused of being witches (if they were different than the norm) 19 girls were hanged, 150 others were jailed. Showed how uptight people were about any differences in religion or customs
Enlightenment Scientist started to look beyond religion to answer the questions of the world. Used Reason to explain what is going on in the world New ideas spread fast in the North because people could read new thing coming from Europe. Ben Franklin—Scientist that used Enlightenment to explain things (electricity) Colonists used Enlightenment to question the authority of the British
Great Awakening As time went on, Puritans that were living in the North became wealthy and began to turn away from religion. John Edwards—Clergyman who decided that the people of New England needed to be more active in the Puritan Church. Great Awakening—when people like Edwards went from town to town to try to create a spiritual uprising (making religion number one again)
Great Awakening Results People became more interested in church (even African Americans and Natives) It also caused people to examine exactly what the church was saying….this led to numerous other denominations appearing (Baptist, Methodists) Increased importance in Education..churches started to establish colleges (Princeton, Brown)
Great Awakening and Enlightenment Both caused people to focus on themselves and in turn led them to question the authority that England had on them. Caused further separation between the two!
France vs. England Both trying to build a world empire…one are they both wanted to claim was the Ohio River Valley in America. Colonists favored England Colonists wanted to move west, felt that if England was in control it would be easier
New France French claimed most of Eastern Canada, the Great Lakes, down the Mississippi River. Area in which the French had explored New France—the area that France controlled Major population difference between French areas and English colonies. French were more concerned with trade than colonizing French had friendly relations with a wide variety of Indian groups (Huron, Ottawa’s) b/c of trade.
Tensions start to increase Ft. Duquesne—French fort that was built in the area that is now Pittsburgh Problem: England had already claimed the land Virginia sent the state militia (army) to see what the French were doing. Leader of the Virginia militia was George Washington
George Washington Leader of Virginia Militia Set up Ft. Necessity (located close to Ft. Duquesne) to watch the French French attacked and forced Washington to surrender. This was the start of the French and Indian War
French and Indian War French/Indians vs. England/Colonies Early times did not go well for the GB/Colonist Washington and Braddock (English General) were ambushed by French and Indian Troops British were not able to figure out how to handle the guerilla style of fighting used by the French/Indians Washington and other colonist were surprised by how the “tough” British army was easily defeated. Many began to questions how strong GB was.
GB/Colonists turn the tide William Pitt—became the new leader of the British troops. Able to start to get the British to win some battles Also able to talk the Iroquois to turn against the French James Wolfe—British General Led a daring surprise attack on the French city of Quebec Short and bloody battle, British won and took control of the war.
End of the War Treaty of Paris of 1763—ended the French and Indian War. Terms: GB would get all of the lands east of the Mississippi River, including New Orleans.
British Problems with Indians The Native Americans were upset that the French lost because they did not want to give up their land. The British got upset with the Native Americans for resisting British attempts to set up colonies in the new areas. British did nice things like send blankets full of small pox virus to different tribes.
Strained Relationships between the Colonist and GB Proclamation of 1763 British govt. banned all colonist from moving west of the Appalachian Mountains. Did this to prevent the colonists from having problems with the Indians. British could not enforce this act. Colonists were upset because it appeared that the British did not care about them GB was also getting mad at Massachusetts
Massachusetts Problems GB was mad because Massachusetts kept illegally trading and smuggling goods (against Navigation Acts) The people of Massachusetts became more and more upset at GB British also left 10,000 troops in the colonies to protect them from the Natives
More Problems Colonists were upset about the troops—felt threatened by their presence. Colonists also had to pay for the British troops to be there. Sugar Act—Laws that were passed by GB in hopes of ending the smuggling of sugar that the colonies were doing. GB took more and more control of the jurisdiction of the Sugar Act. By the end of 1764, most colonists were really mad at GB.