Presentation on theme: "Section 3: The Impact of the Enlightenment. The Arts: –Architecture: Balthasar Neumann: two masterpieces The Church of the Fourteen Saints and the palace."— Presentation transcript:
Section 3: The Impact of the Enlightenment
The Arts: –Architecture: Balthasar Neumann: two masterpieces The Church of the Fourteen Saints and the palace of prince-bishop of Wurzburg; both are light, painted with bright colors, lavish with elaborate detail
Art: rococo: replaced baroque in the 1730s; it was secular, emphasizing grace, charm, and gentle action.
Antoine Watteau: his paintings reveal a world of upper class pleasure and joy; Danse dans un Pavillion; Gersaint’s Shopsign
Giovanni Battista Tiepolo painted many walls and ceilings of churches and palaces; masterpiece: the Ceiling of the Bishop’s Palace at Wurzburg
Music: Bach: organist; composer; music director at the Church of St. Thomas; Mass in B Minor Handel: known for his religious music; Messiah Hayden: musical director for Hungarian princes; The Creation and The Seasons Mozart: child prodigy; wrote operas; The Marriage of Figaro, The Magic Flute, and Don Giovanni BACH HANDEL HAYDEN
Literature: development of the European novel Henry Fielding wrote novels about people without morals who survive by their wits; The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling
Enlightenment and Enlightened Absolutism The philosophers believed in natural rights for all people. These rights are referred to in the American Declaration of Independence: to religious worship, speech, press, assembly, hold property, and the pursuit of happiness; they believed that enlightened rulers were to preserve these rights. B. Enlightened absolutism: a system in which rulers tried to govern by Enlightenment principles while retaining royal power. Enlightened rulers emerge in Prussia, Austria, and Russia.
Prussia: Army and Bureaucracy - Fredrick William I built the fourth largest army in Europe; it was the most important institutions in the state. - Frederick II, or Frederick the Great, adopted some Enlightenment ideas: 1.abolished torture except in treason and murder cases, 2.granted limited freedom of speech, 3.limited freedom of the press, and 4.complete religious toleration; but he kept serfdom and the rigid social structure
FREDERICK I FREDERICK II PRUSSIA
The Austrian Empire: - Austria was a major power by the eighteenth century. - Empress Maria Theresa, worked to alleviate the conditions of the serfs but was not open to the ideas of the Enlightenment.
CHRISTMAS IN AUSTRIA
- Her successor, Joseph II, was more influenced by the philosophers. He abolished serfdom and the death penalty, recognized equality before the law and allowed religious toleration. His programs largely failed because he alienated nobility and the Catholic Church. Serfs were confused about their new role in society.
Russia Under Catherine the Great:. - Catherine II, or Catherine the Great, was the German wife of the murdered Peter III, through politics she came to the Russian throne. - She knew the ideas of the Enlightenment, and even invited Diderot to speak in Russia, and corresponded through letters to Voltaire. However, she did not adopt Enlightenment reforms because she need the support of the Russian nobility. - Under her rule, conditions for the peasants worsened, and she crushed a peasant revolt and expanded serfdom to new parts of the empire. - She expanded Russia’s territory. Catherine fought the Ottoman Turks for a warm water port and added territory along the Black Sea; Russia gained about 50 percent of Poland’s territory; She attacked Poland with Prussia and Austria; they divided the rest of Poland; Poland leaves the map until 1918.
CATHERINE THE GREAT
Catherine’s Palace North Side
Enlightened Absolutism? The rulers of Austria, Prussia, and Russia decisions were ultimately guided by a concern for power and the well-being of their states.
War of the Austrian Succession: Maria Theresa succeeded her father to the Austrian throne after his death; many European rulers did not recognize her right to succeed him, therefore Prussia invaded Austrian Silesia. France allied with Prussia, and Britain allied with Austria.
The War of the Austrian Succession was fought in Europe, the Far East, and North America. In 1748 all parties agreed to peace with the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle; all occupied territories but Silesia were returned to their original owners.
The Seven Years’ War A.In 1756 a worldwide war broke out; three major areas of conflict Europe, India, and North America (“FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR”) B.Europe: British and Prussians against the Austrians, Russians, and French; Prussian army was able to defeat the French, Austrians, and Russians for some time, But Frederick the Great faced disaster until the czar Peter III (Russia) withdrew his troops from the war; A stalemate led to peace; under the Treaty of Paris (1763), All occupied territories were returned and Austria officially recognized Prussia’s permanent control of Silesia.
FRENCH & INDIAN WAR
India: Struggle was between Britain and France; outside of Europe was known as the Great War for Empire; Sheer persistence made the British win in India. With the treaty of Paris the French withdrew from India for good
North America: known as the Seven Years’ War; The French colonies in North America (Canada and Louisiana) were thinly populated trading outposts; The 13 British colonies were thickly populated and were quite prosperous; Native Americans allied with the French because they were viewed as traders, not settlers. Mainly fought over the Ohio River Valley; British win; With the Treaty of Paris the French transferred Canada and all lands east of the Mississippi to Britain
Section 4: Colonial Empires and the American Revolution
Colonial Empires in Latin America –Latin America was a multiracial society: –Economic Foundations: gold and silver was one source of wealth, but farming (plantations) proved to be a long-lasting source of prosperity other valuable products shipped to Europe: diamonds and animal hides
Colonial Empires in Latin America
State and Church Portuguese and Spanish Empires last over 300 years; close regulation of these empires was impossible because of distance between the colony and the monarch; result colonies had a lot of freedom to carry out imperial policies Converting Native Americans to Christianity had been a goal of Europeans since they first arrived; this policy gave the Catholic Church an important role to play in society; they built cathedrals, hospitals, orphanages, and schools; taught Native Americans how to read, write, and basic math; the Church also allowed women new opportunities – an education and work outside the home; example Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz
Britain and British North America –1714, Queen Anne (last Stuart ruler) died without an heir to the throne; the throne passed to her nearest relatives – the Hanoverians; George I (German) comes to the throne; he does not speak English nor does George II therefore they appoint ministers to deal with parliament (prime minister); Robert Walpole considered the first prime minister –The Cabinet was created to advise the king and help set policies; 1757 William Pitt became the head of the cabinet; he expanded the British Empire in the Seven Years War –The British colonies were supposedly run by the British Board of Trade, The Royal Council, and Parliament, but colonies had legislatures and tended to act independently.
QUEEN ANNE ROBERT WALPOLE WILLIAM PITT
AMERICAN REVOLUTION ( GEORGE VS. GEORGE III) VS.
The American Revolution –Thomas Paine wrote the pamphlet Common Sense, called for the colonist to declare independence from Britain. –After the Seven Years War, the British Parliament wanted to impose taxes on the colonist to cover the cost of the war, and to pay for maintaining military protection in the colonies. –1765: Parliament imposed the Stamp Act; opposition was widespread – “No taxation without representation;” act was repealed in 1766
–1770: Five Protesters died in the “Boston Massacre”
1773: Colonist staged the Boston Tea Party to protest a tax on tea.
1774: First Continental Congress met; colonist decided to “take up arms and organize militias”
April 1775: War erupted between the colonies and Britain. May 1775: Second Continental Congress met: formed the Continental Army led by George Washington
Declared independence from Britain; Thomas Jefferson writes the document declaring independence from Britain; based on the ideas of John Locke July 1776: Continental Congress signed the Declaration of Independence. 1777: American victory at the Battle of Saratoga convinced France to join the American side. French supplied arms, money, and sent officers and soldiers to serve in the army
VALLEY FORGE BLOODY FOOTPRINTS
VALLEY FORGE BATTLE STRAGEGY
WASHINGTON PRAYS FOR HIS TROOPS American losses were 673 killed and wounded and about 400 taken prisoner. British losses were approximately 533 killed and wounded. Valley Forge "... you might have tracked the army from White Marsh to Valley Forge by the blood of their feet." - George Washington "An army of skeletons appeared before our eyes naked, starved, sick and discouraged," - New York's Gouverneur Morris of the Continental Congress. "The unfortunate soldiers were in want of everything; they had neither coats nor hats, nor shirts, nor shoes. Their feet and their legs froze until they were black, and it was often necessary to amputate them." - The Marquis de Lafayette
1781: British Army under the command of General Cornwallis surrendered at Yorktown to American and French forces 1783: Treaty of Paris was signed which recognized the independence of the United States of America accepted America’s western frontier as the Mississippi River
CORNWALLIS SURRENDERS AT YORKTOWN
1787: Delegates wrote a new Constitution for the United States. 55 delegates met; became known as the Constitutional Convention Created a federal system; power would be shared between the national government and state governments Created three branches of government; executive, legislative and judicial; each being able to checks the others power Nine states would have to approve before the Constitution would come into effect
1789: For states to adopt the Constitution, the Bill of Rights was added.