Presentation on theme: "Chapter 2 The Planting of English America, 1500–1733."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 2 The Planting of English America, 1500–1733
I. England’s Imperial Stirrings Initially hesitant to colonize overseas – Spain’s ally 1 st half of the century. Protestant Reformation – King Henry VIII broke for the Catholic Church – Catholics v. Protestants – Protestant Elizabeth (1558) rose to the thrown – Conflicted with Spain. Why?
II. Elizabeth Energizes England Goals: promote Protestantism and plunder by seizing Spanish treasure ships. Sir Francis Drake – Looted Spanish ships and property – Secretly knighted by Queen Elizabeth Attempts to colonize – Sir Humphrey Gilbert Obtained charter, but was lost at sea (Newfoundland) – Sir Walter Raleigh (1585) Roanoke Island, off the coast of North Carolina Colony mysteriously disapeared
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III. England on the Eve of Empire England’s victory over Spain – Ensured naval dominance – Dampened Spain’s fighting spirit England population boom – Economic depression, unemployment – Primogeniture landowners forced to look elsewhere Emergence and perfected Joint-stock companies – Modern corporation Peace with Spain (1604) gave opportunity to colonize – Unemployment, adventure, markets, religious freedom all provided motives.
IV. England Plants the Jamestown Seedling Virginia Company (joint-stock) – Charter from King James I Promise of gold and passage through America to the Indies Guaranteed same rights as Englishmen and eventually extend to subsequent English colonies. Remain with in the embrace of traditional English institution – Did not plan on long term colonization hoped to make a quick buck and liquidize the profits Jamestown (1607) –
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V. Cultural Clashes in the Chesapeake Powhatan’s Confederacy V. English Colonist – Starving colonist raid Indian food supply – Lord De L Warr declares war against Indians Raided, burned houses, confiscated provisions, and torched cornfields. First Anglo-Powhatan War (1614) – Peace with the marriage of John Rolfe and Pocahontas Tensions and attacks – Va. Company orders “perpetual war without peace truce.” – Second Anglo-Powhatan War (1644) Peace in 1646 Banished Chesapeake Indians from their land and formally separated Indian from white areas of settlement. Difference between Spain and England with Indian relations – Spain put Indians to work in mines – No economic purpose to Virginia colonist
VI. The Indians’ New World Demographic and cultural transformation – Columbian exchange of animals, food, diseases Reinvent their tribes for survival – Trade Firearms Resulted an increase of Indian on Indian violence – Struggled to keep up with the expanding Atlantic economy – Inland native, Algonquins, had advantages Time, space, and numbers British or French trader conform to Indian ways Often taking Indian wives
VII. Virginia: Child of Tobacco Promoted plantation system and fresh labor – Makings of colonial slavery – 1619 reported 20 Africans Seeds of slave system – 1650 reported 300 Africans – End of the century, 14% of the colony’s population 1619 House of Burgesses – Representative self government – James I grew hostile toward VA. Detested tobacco and distrusted House of Burgesses Revoked the charter in 1624, became ROYAL COLONY
VIII. Maryland: Catholic Haven Lord Baltimore (1634) – Refuge for fellow Catholics Tempers flared with back country planters (protestant) – Plan for a feudal system Planation colony, tobacco – Depended on labor, indenture servants Supported Act of Toleration, 1649 – Toleration of all Christians – Death penalty for Jews and atheists Sheltered most Catholics than any other English speaking colony in the New World.
IX. The West Indies: Way Station to Mainland America Spain weakened in area, England makes presence known. Sugar plantations – Foundation of economy – Sugar cane, rich mans crop. Extensive work, Wealthy growers Huge numbers of enslaved Africans (out numbered whites) Barbados Slave Code – Complete control, brutal punishments Growth of sugar led to smaller farmers displaced – Migrated to southern mainland colonies – Brought with them enslaved Africans & Slave Code Staging area for the slave system in English North America
X. Colonizing the Carolinas Prospered by developing close economic ties with West Indies Vigorous slave trade – Enlisted aid from Savannah Indians to search for captives – Exporting Indians to West Indies Rice emerged as principle export crop Charles Town – Rapid busy sea port – Rich aristocratic flavor – Diverse community: French Protestant & Jews
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XI. The Emergence of North Carolina “the quintessence of Virginia’s discontent.” Squatters Raised tobacco on small farms – Little need for slaves Character traits – Poor, riffraff – Resistance to authority Democratic, Independent-minded, and least aristocratic of the original 13 colonies – Similar to Rhode Island Tuscarora War – Resulted in selling of hundreds into slavery, – Wanders went north and became 6 th nation of the Iroquois Confederacy
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XII. Late-Coming Georgia: The Buffer Colony Last colony, meant to act as a buffer – Protect valuable Carolinas against vengeful Spaniards from Florida and French from Louisiana – Received monetary subsidies from British govt. Only colony to receive such grants – At first rejected slave system Haven for wretched imprisoned individual in debt Melting pot community – Germans, Scots
XIII. The Plantation Colonies Southern mainland Colonies: Md, Va, NC, SC, and Ga. – Exporting agricultural products – Tobacco and rice – Slavery, later Georgia Scattering of plantations and farms retarded the growth of cities Tax supported Church of England overview