Presentation on theme: "The Planting of English America, 1500–1733"— Presentation transcript:
1The Planting of English America, 1500–1733 Chapter 2The Planting of English America, 1500–1733
2I. England’s Imperial Stirrings Initially hesitant to colonize overseasSpain’s ally 1st half of the century.Protestant ReformationKing Henry VIII broke for the Catholic ChurchCatholics v. ProtestantsProtestant Elizabeth (1558) rose to the thrownConflicted with Spain. Why?
3II. Elizabeth Energizes England Goals: promote Protestantism and plunder by seizing Spanish treasure ships.Sir Francis DrakeLooted Spanish ships and propertySecretly knighted by Queen ElizabethAttempts to colonizeSir Humphrey GilbertObtained charter, but was lost at sea (Newfoundland)Sir Walter Raleigh (1585)Roanoke Island, off the coast of North CarolinaColony mysteriously disapeared
4Elizabeth I (1533–1603), byGeorge Gower, ca Inthis “Armada Portrait” of QueenElizabeth I, the artist proclaimsher the Empress of the World.She was accused of being vain,fickle, prejudiced, and miserly,but Elizabeth proved to be anunusually successful ruler. Shenever married (hence, the“Virgin Queen”), although manyromances were rumored androyal matches schemed.p25
6III. England on the Eve of Empire England’s victory over SpainEnsured naval dominanceDampened Spain’s fighting spiritEngland population boomEconomic depression, unemploymentPrimogeniture landowners forced to look elsewhereEmergence and perfected Joint-stock companiesModern corporationPeace with Spain (1604) gave opportunity to colonizeUnemployment, adventure, markets, religious freedom all provided motives.
7Sir Walter Ralegh (Raleigh) (ca. 1552–1618), 1588 A dashing courtier who was one of Queen Elizabeth’sfavorites for his wit, good looks, and courtly manners, helaunched important colonizing failures in the New World.For this portrait, Raleigh presented himself as the queen’sdevoted servant, wearing her colors of black and white andher emblem of a pearl in his left ear. After seducing (andsecretly marrying) one of Queen Elizabeth’s maids ofhonor, he fell out of favor but continued his colonialventures in the hopes of challenging Catholic Spain’sdominance in the Americas. He was ultimately beheadedfor treason.p26
8IV. England Plants the Jamestown Seedling Virginia Company (joint-stock)Charter from King James IPromise of gold and passage through America to the IndiesGuaranteed same rights as Englishmen and eventually extend to subsequent English colonies.Remain with in the embrace of traditional English institutionDid not plan on long term colonizationhoped to make a quick buck and liquidize the profitsJamestown (1607)
10Pocahontas (ca. 1595–1617) Taken to England by her husband, she was received as a princess. She died whenpreparing to return, but her infant son ultimately reachedVirginia, where hundreds of his descendants have lived,including the second Mrs. Woodrow Wilson.p28
11V. Cultural Clashes in the Chesapeake Powhatan’s Confederacy V. English ColonistStarving colonist raid Indian food supplyLord De L Warr declares war against IndiansRaided, burned houses, confiscated provisions, and torched cornfields.First Anglo-Powhatan War (1614)Peace with the marriage of John Rolfe and PocahontasTensions and attacksVa. Company orders “perpetual war without peace truce.”Second Anglo-Powhatan War (1644)Peace in 1646Banished Chesapeake Indians from their land and formally separated Indian from white areas of settlement.Difference between Spain and England with Indian relationsSpain put Indians to work in minesNo economic purpose to Virginia colonist
12A Carolina Indian Woman and Child, by John White The artist was a member ofthe Raleigh expedition of Noticethat the Indian girl carries a European doll,illustrating the mingling of cultures thathad already begun.p29
13VI. The Indians’ New World Demographic and cultural transformationColumbian exchange of animals, food, diseasesReinvent their tribes for survivalTradeFirearmsResulted an increase of Indian on Indian violenceStruggled to keep up with the expanding Atlantic economyInland native, Algonquins, had advantagesTime, space, and numbersBritish or French trader conform to Indian waysOften taking Indian wives
14Carolina Indians German painter Philip Georg Friedrich von Reck drew these Yuchi Indians in the 1730s. The blanket and rifle show that trade with the English settlers hadalready begun to transform Native American culture.p30
15VII. Virginia: Child of Tobacco Promoted plantation system and fresh laborMakings of colonial slavery1619 reported 20 AfricansSeeds of slave system1650 reported 300 AfricansEnd of the century, 14% of the colony’s population1619 House of BurgessesRepresentative self governmentJames I grew hostile toward VA.Detested tobacco and distrusted House of BurgessesRevoked the charter in 1624, became ROYAL COLONY
17VIII. Maryland: Catholic Haven Lord Baltimore (1634)Refuge for fellow CatholicsTempers flared with back country planters (protestant)Plan for a feudal systemPlanation colony, tobaccoDepended on labor, indenture servantsSupported Act of Toleration, 1649Toleration of all ChristiansDeath penalty for Jews and atheistsSheltered most Catholics than any other English speaking colony in the New World.
18IX. The West Indies: Way Station to Mainland America Spain weakened in area, England makes presence known.Sugar plantationsFoundation of economySugar cane, rich mans crop.Extensive work , Wealthy growersHuge numbers of enslaved Africans (out numbered whites)Barbados Slave CodeComplete control, brutal punishmentsGrowth of sugar led to smaller farmers displacedMigrated to southern mainland coloniesBrought with them enslaved Africans & Slave CodeStaging area for the slave system in English North America
21X. Colonizing the Carolinas Prospered by developing close economic ties with West IndiesVigorous slave tradeEnlisted aid from Savannah Indians to search for captivesExporting Indians to West IndiesRice emerged as principle export cropCharles TownRapid busy sea portRich aristocratic flavorDiverse community: French Protestant & Jews
23XI. The Emergence of North Carolina “the quintessence of Virginia’s discontent.”SquattersRaised tobacco on small farmsLittle need for slavesCharacter traitsPoor, riffraffResistance to authorityDemocratic, Independent-minded, and least aristocratic of the original 13 coloniesSimilar to Rhode IslandTuscarora WarResulted in selling of hundreds into slavery,Wanders went north and became 6th nation of the Iroquois Confederacy
24Map 2.2 Early Carolina and Georgia Settlements Map 2-2 p35
25XII. Late-Coming Georgia: The Buffer Colony Last colony, meant to act as a bufferProtect valuable Carolinas against vengeful Spaniards from Florida and French from LouisianaReceived monetary subsidies from British govt.Only colony to receive such grantsAt first rejected slave systemHaven for wretched imprisoned individual in debtMelting pot communityGermans, Scots
26XIII. The Plantation Colonies Southern mainland Colonies: Md, Va, NC , SC, and Ga.Exporting agricultural productsTobacco and riceSlavery, later GeorgiaScattering of plantations and farms retarded the growth of citiesTax supported Church of Englandoverview