Presentation on theme: "Chapter 4 EARLY EXPLORERS OF TEXAS. First Steps in a New World 1492 and Spain: Christopher Columbus and the crews of his 3 small ships sight land in the."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 4 EARLY EXPLORERS OF TEXAS
First Steps in a New World 1492 and Spain: Christopher Columbus and the crews of his 3 small ships sight land in the Americas for the first time. The continent was unknown to Europeans Columbus was born in Italy, but was sailing for Spain.
Sailed to the Americas 3 separate times Oh his second voyage, he established a permanent colony on one of the islands of the West Indies. Most of South America, the Caribbean, Mexico, Central America and part of the land that makes up the U.S. was eventually claimed by Spain.
New Spain Monarchy: Form of government ruled by a King or Queen Conquistadores, also known as Spanish soldiers, sought power and money for Spain, and for themselves. Defeated many Native Americans and helped make it possible for other Spaniards to come to the Americas.
Friars (members of Catholic religious orders), also helped Spain gain a foothold in the Americas. Wanted to convert Native Americans to Catholicism Mission System: established as religious outposts, and was often the first Spanish settlement in an area.
Hernan Cortes 1519 and Spain: Hernan Cortez landed in Mexico, Pineda mapped the coast of Texas Hernan Cortes sailed from Cuba and landed his army on the eastern coast of Mexico. He led his army in to the city of Tenochtitlan, the capital of the Aztec empire. The Aztecs believed Cortes was their legendary god Quetzalcoatl, who had sailed east years before, and had promised to return. Cortes and his forces imprisoned the Aztec leader, Moctezuma, and eventually destroyed the Aztecs. Named Mexico City the new capital of New Spain
Alvarez de Pineda Alonso Alvarez de Pineda: became the first European to explore the Texas coast in First European to map the coast line of Texas Sailed from Florida to Mexico Mapped and observed the land as he sailed Returned to Mexico in 1520 where he died during a Native American uprising.
Cabeza de Vaca Cabeza de Vaca was sent with an expedition to conquer the area between Florida and Mexico in Shipwrecked with other Europeans near Galveston, lived with Karankawas, brought first African, named Estevanico, to Texas
Panfilo De Narvaez was a conquistador who lead the expedition The expedition failed, and they became stranded in the gulf. Narvaez built 5 ships to sail back to Mexico, but the ships were driven aground during a severe storm in November of 1528.
The ship wreck brought the explorers to the island Malhado (present day Galveston), the isle of misfortune. The Karankawas helped the explorers, however most of the sailors died of diseases within a few months. Cabeza de Vaca and Estevanico (the first known black man to enter Texas), stayed with the Karankawas for over 6 years, until their return to Mexico in 1536.
The Quest for Gold Cabeza de Vaca brought the first tales of buffalo as well as plentiful and fertile lands in Texas. Viceroy: an official who represents the Spanish monarch Viceroy Antonio De Mendoza heard the tales and became interested in Texas. Sent a priest, Fray Marcos de Niza, to check on stories he heard about Mexico. Reported back about a city called Cibola, which was 30 days away. Was to be seven cities made of gold, silver and gems Marcos de Niza found what he thought was Cibola, but it was only a pueblo lit up with the light of the sunset.
Coronado Francisco Vazquez de Coronado was sent to lead an expedition to Mexico by Viceroy Mendoza. Was sent to explore Cibola (7 cities of gold) July 7, 1540 Coronado found Cibola and realized it was nothing more than mud and stone, and filled with angry Zuni warriors. Coronado left Cibola, but decided to stay and explore Texas while looking for treasure. Met a Native American who they named the Turk, who told of a fabulous placed called Quivira. After searching for years and finding no treasure, Coronado executed the Turk.
Moscoso Explores East Texas Luis de Moscoso lead an expedition that was marching west from Florida to Texas, after the death of their leader, Hernan de Soto. Met many Native Americans but never found the treasures they were looking for. Sailed down the Mississippi River, and eventually along the coast and back to Mexico.
New Mexico is Founded 1609: Spaniards set up a permanent colony on the upper waters of the Rio Grande. Named the colony New Mexico, and established the capital city of Santa Fe. Traded with the Jumano people The legend of Maria de Jesus de Agreda, the Lady in Blue, was born. Spanish nun who claimed that her spirit made 500 trips from 1620 to 1631, without physically leaving Spain.
The French Challenge Spanish Claims Rene Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle lead the French quest for an empire in Texas. Founded Louisiana in 1682 Continued to sail west while looking for the Mississippi River after accidently sailing past it’s mouth. 1685: went ashore at Matagorda Bay
The French Flag Flies Over Texas La Salle and the colonist built a stockade (an enclosure of posts made to form a defense),on the banks of the river. Named the outpost Fort St. Louis He continued to explore the area, while the colonist stayed to defend Fort St. Louis Most colonist had been killed by Native Americans while La Salle was gone Only 40 of the 280 were still alive Fort St. Louis ultimately failed