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Global Issues Origins of American Government Mr. Biddle.

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1 Global Issues Origins of American Government Mr. Biddle

2 The Colonial Period In the 1600’s people came from all over the world to settle in North America The English are the ones who established and governed the original thirteen colonies. The English colonist brought two types of government ideas with them to America: –Limited Government –Representative Government

3 Limited Government The government is not all powerful Magna Carta- a Charter that King John was forced to sign in 1215. Established the principles of limited government and said that the monarch had some limitations and wasn’t absolute.

4 Limited Government Petition of Right- 1625 Charles I was forced to sign stating that he could no longer collect taxes without Parliaments consent, imprison people without just cause, house troops in private homes or declare martial law unless the country was at war. English Bill of Rights- Set limits on what a ruler can and cannot do. (1688)

5 English Bill of Rights 1.Monarchs do not have absolute power. They rule with consent of the people’s representatives in Parliament. 2.Monarchs must have Parliament’s consent to suspend laws, levy taxes, or maintain an army. 3.Monarchs cannot interfere w/ Parliamentary elections and debates 4.Right of the people to Petition the Gov’t, and have a fair and speedy trial. 5.No cruel or unusual punishment, or excessive fines and bail.

6 Representative Government A government in which people elect delegates to make laws and conduct government. –An established tradition in America before the colonist declared their independence Enlightenment Philosophers Ideas were used by our founding fathers. –John Locke, Montesquieu, Voltaire, and Rousseau.

7 Government in the Colonies The English founded 13 colonies along the eastern coast of North America between 1607- 1733. May Flower Compact- Signed in 1620, it was the first example of colonial plans for self government. These colonies had governors, written constitutions, legislatures of elected representatives, and court systems. However, they stayed loyal to the English Monarch.


9 Separation of Powers The colonies divided the power of government between the governor (King’s Agent) and the Colonial Legislature. The governor had executive powers and the Colonial Legislature had the power to pass laws and hold court cases. Americans would later use the idea of Separation of powers when drafting their constitution.

10 Colonial Government The combination of English heritage, Enlightenment Ideas, and colonial government experience helped to pave way for our current government.

11 Critical Thinking Explain the Ideas of John Locke and how they influenced the development of American Government. Why do you think government should be limited, like that of the Magna Carta?

12 Uniting for Independence Until the mid 1700’s Great Britain had allowed the colonies to develop politically on their own. By 1760 they say that they needed to tighten their control over them.

13 Uniting for Independence In the eyes of Great Britain the Americans existed for their own economic benefits. –Until 1760, the American Colonies were loyal because, they wanted protection from the French in Canada. Two events changed the easy going relationship between the colonies and G.B.

14 1. French and Indian War 1754-1763 Started as a fight over land in Ohio and West Pennsylvania. Great Britain eventually won the war

15 French and Indian War Once the French were driven out the colonies no longer needed Great Britain for protection. The war left Great Britain with a great war debt and they expected the colonies to pay it off. The idea of being an American and not a British supporter became more prominent after the F & I war.




19 French and Indian War Date1754–1763 Location North America ResultTreaty of ParisTreaty of Paris, British Victory. Territorial changes All of New France east of the Mississippi River ceded to Great Britain; French territory to the west ceded to Spain; Spanish Florida ceded to Great BritainNew FranceMississippi River Spanish Florida Combatants France First Nations allies: Algonquin Lenape Wyandot Ojibwa Ottawa Shawnee Great Britain American Colonies Iroquois Confederacy Strength 3,900 regulars 7,900 militia 2,200 natives (1759) 50,000 regulars and militia (1759) Casualties 3,000 killed, wounded or captured10,400 killed, wounded or capture

20 2. King George III Became King in 1760 He was more firm with the colonist than any King had been before

21 King George III King George III placed taxes on the colonists on many everyday items to help pay off the war debt. Stamp Act of 1765- 1 st direct tax; the colonist had to pay taxes on the following items –Legal document, pamphlets, newspapers, dice, and playing cards –Other taxes were on tea, sugar, glass, and paper


23 King George III British Revenue increased, but so did hostility with the colonist –Good idea with bad results Colonist got together and boycotted British Goods

24 King George III Boston Tea Party –December 16, 1773 –A group of colonist dressed up like Mohawk Indians and dumped 342 cases of Tea into the Harbor

25 King George III Intolerable Acts –Also known as the Coercive Acts –Passed in retaliation to the Boston Tea Party –They closed Boston Harbor and said that Massachusetts could no longer govern itself –Revolution is in the air


27 First Continental Congress 1774 Delegates from the colonies met to discuss Great Britain being out of control. They imposed an embargo on Great Britain. –Refused to trade with Great Britain or use their goods. Great Britain sent in troops to make sure the colonist were obeying them.

28 The Boston Massacre March 5, 1770 Heavy British military presence in Boston led to many quarrels. One incident led to British soldiers firing into a crowd of people 5 Americans were killed.

29 Lexington and Concord April 19, 1775 Shot Heard ‘Round the World The 1 st scrimmage of the war

30 Second Continental Congress May 10, 1775 – March 1, 1781 Delegates met again, declared themselves the central gov’t, and governed the colonies Set the ball a rollin’ John Hancock was the President

31 Key Figures in the American Revolution Thomas Paine Samuel Adams Richard Henry Lee Thomas Jefferson John Hancock George Washington

32 Second Continental Congress Lee’s Resolution was approved on July 2 The Declaration of Independence was approved on July 4

33 The War After the signing of the Dec. of Ind. Great Britain had to go to war with the Colonies. The war was long and bitter, but the American Colonist won with the help of: –Guerilla warfare –George Washington as General –France and Spain intervention In 1783, Great Britain recognized American Independence. Since the colonies were no longer subject to British rule they thought of themselves as states.

34 Articles of Confederation In 1777, a committee appointed by congress presented a plan of Government for the colonies called the Articles of Confederation. List the 13 original colonies


36 Articles of Confederation These Articles basically continued the structure already established by the 2 nd Continental Congress The States wanted a confederation instead of a strong National Government. –“Loose union of Independent States” By 1781, all 13 states had ratified (or approved) the Articles of Confederation.

37 Articles of Confederation The Government under this was made up of delegates (2 to 7) from each state –No President –No Executive Branch –No Federal Court System (Congress settled disputes b/w States)

38 Articles of Confederation Each state had only one vote in congress, no matter what the size or population of the state was. –Not cool with big states –Outline of the A of C handout

39 Weaknesses of the A of C The biggest problem was that the Articles of Confederation created a weak national Government, because the states weren’t willing to give up sovereign power.

40 Weaknesses of the A of C 1. Congress had no power to levy or collect taxes. –Could only request money from the states (the states collect taxes) –Congress could do little if a state refused them money 2. Congress did not have the power to regulate trade. –Economic disputes among states resulted from this.

41 Weaknesses of the A of C 3. Congress could not force anyone to obey the laws it passed. –They could only request that the states comply.

42 Weaknesses of the A of C 4.Laws needed the approval of 9 out of 13 states to pass. - Problem: Usually only 9 to 10 states were in congress at a time. - States only had 1 vote and the smaller states could block the larger ones from passing good laws. (8 small 5 large)

43 Weaknesses of the A of C 5.In order to change or amend the articles it required a unanimous vote. -Impossible for everyone to agree on something -It never happened 6.No Executive Branch or Federal Courts -No organizations or anyone to enforce the laws.

44 Achievements of the A of C The Peace Treaty with Great Britain (1783) –They got land from the East Coast to the Mississippi River –They recognized American Independence Set the tone for the future Government

45 Need for Stronger Government The States began to quarrel and discovered the need for a stronger Gov’t –Shay’s Rebellion –Economic disputes –Different currencies –Navigation of rivers –States dealing w/ foreign countries on their own

46 The Constitutional Convention After the success of the Annapolis Convention everyone agreed to have a Convention in Philadelphia just to revise the Articles of Confederation The meeting began on May 25, 1787 All the States sent delegates except R.I. –George Washington (presided over meeting) –Ben Franklin (81 years old) –James Madison –Alexander Hamilton

47 The Constitutional Convention At the convention they decided to do away with the Articles of Confederation and start over. They decided: –Limited and Representative Gov’t was the way to go –The National Government should be divided into a Legislative, Executive, and Judicial Branch. –To limit the power of the State and strengthen the power of the National Government

48 Father of the Constitution James Madison is considered the Father of the Constitution, because he was the author of the basic plan of Government that the Convention eventually adopted.


50 Debates over 2 Plans Before the Constitution was agreed upon the founding fathers had to decide between two plans. –The Virginia Plan –The New Jersey Plan

51 The Virginia Plan 15 resolutions that James Madison drafted 3 main principles 1.Strong National legislature with 2 chambers 2.A strong Executive Branch 3.A National Judiciary Opposition felt that this plan would leave the large states with all the power, because it emphasized bigger States having more power.

52 The New Jersey Plan Plan to keep the Articles of Confederation, but to amend them. –Give congress the power to create Taxes and regulate trade –Each State still only gets 1 vote in congress no matter what the population is. Eventually voted out

53 The Connecticut Compromise Designed by a special committee Suggested –That the Legislative Branch have 2 parts: 1.A House of Representatives with State representation based on Population 2.A Senate with two members from each state where each state has equal representation Congress is made up of the H.O.R. and the Senate

54 The Three-Fifths Compromise Debates over how to determine how many representatives each state would have. Problem –1/3 of people in the Southern States were slaves and couldn’t vote –The South wanted them to count for population for representation, but not for levying taxes. (North was vise-versa) –The Compromise was that 3/5’s of the slaves would count for both

55 Slavery Slavery was left out of the Constitution, because the Northern States knew the South would never sign it if it was outlawed. The issue was left for later Americans to debate. Only says that slaves could be sent back to their owner if they escape

56 Other Things Agreed On The Electoral College System was agreed upon President would serve terms of 4 years The Final Document was signed on September 17, 1787

57 Ratifying the Constitution 9 out of the 13 States had to ratify (approve) it in order for it to become law. Went into effect when New Hampshire signed it on June 21, 1788. Rhode Island was the last to ratify it on May 29, 1790. Many States ratified the Constitution, because of the Bill of Rights being added to it.

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