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Bellwork What does it mean to be neglected? What does it mean to be neglected?

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Presentation on theme: "Bellwork What does it mean to be neglected? What does it mean to be neglected?"— Presentation transcript:

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2 Bellwork What does it mean to be neglected? What does it mean to be neglected?

3 Objectives Define salutary neglect & explain how it affected the colonies Define salutary neglect & explain how it affected the colonies Define mercantilism & explain how triangular trade & the Navigation Acts relate to it Define mercantilism & explain how triangular trade & the Navigation Acts relate to it

4 England & Colonial America Salutary Neglect: English policy of leaving the colonies to develop on their own. The main goal of England: To make money

5 Mercantilism Economic policy that states colonies exist for the benefit of the mother country Economic policy that states colonies exist for the benefit of the mother country

6 Mercantilism Economic idea Colony Mother Country Raw Materials & Gold/Silver Finished Products

7 Navigation Acts laws to limit Colonial trade laws to limit Colonial trade All trade must be done on British boats All trade must be done on British boats Colonies could only trade with Britain Colonies could only trade with Britain Leads to smuggling Leads to smuggling Mercantilism

8 Triangular Trade Colonies England Africa Middle Passage

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11 French & Indian War (1754 – 1763) The first major step in the road to Revolution The first major step in the road to Revolution

12 The French and Indian War A War Between France and England and their allies in Colonial North America Why?

13 The French and Indian War Conflict between French and English over dominance in Europe in late 1600s and 1700s spilled over into America Conflict between French and English over dominance in Europe in late 1600s and 1700s spilled over into America In 1740 a common interest in Ohio River Valley led to tensions between French and British In 1740 a common interest in Ohio River Valley led to tensions between French and British Both sides built forts to claim territory Both sides built forts to claim territory

14 Battle over the Ohio River Valley The French had set up trading posts and forts in Canada and the Ohio River Valley. American Colonists saw them as a threat to westward expansion

15 The French and Indian War In 1754 George Washington was asked to intervene for the British and expel the French In 1754 George Washington was asked to intervene for the British and expel the French Washington’s troops defeated a small group of French but had to surrender when the French counterattacked (Fort Necessity) Washington’s troops defeated a small group of French but had to surrender when the French counterattacked (Fort Necessity) The British suggested that the American colonies form an alliance with the Iroquois. The British suggested that the American colonies form an alliance with the Iroquois.

16 Albany Conference During a meeting called the Albany Conference between the colonists and Iroquois, the Iroquois agreed to remain neutral During a meeting called the Albany Conference between the colonists and Iroquois, the Iroquois agreed to remain neutral The conference issued the Albany Plan of Union – the first suggestion that the colonies unite to form a federal government. The conference issued the Albany Plan of Union – the first suggestion that the colonies unite to form a federal government.

17 Albany Plan of Union (1754) United colonial effort to solve Indian problem United colonial effort to solve Indian problem Strengthen colonial defenses Strengthen colonial defenses Leads to stronger colonial unity Leads to stronger colonial unity

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19 Causes of French & Indian War Desire to control the Ohio River Valley Desire to control the Ohio River Valley Lingering hostilities between the French and British & the Indians and Colonists Lingering hostilities between the French and British & the Indians and Colonists George Washington’s Fort Duquesne George Washington’s Fort Duquesne

20 Treaty of Paris (1763) Ends the War Ends the War France removed from North America (for the most part) France removed from North America (for the most part) Great Britain emerged as dominant world power Great Britain emerged as dominant world power Colonies have an increased confidence in military strength Colonies have an increased confidence in military strength

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23 The French and Indian War Why? 1- Great Britain accumulates a massive debt 2- Begins to enforce laws and tax colonists Vocabulary- Salutary Neglect British policy of avoiding strict enforcement of laws, meant to keep the colonies obedient

24 The Colonies Grow Discontented The British victory caused an enormous British debt The British victory caused an enormous British debt Britain looked to its colonies to help pay for the war Britain looked to its colonies to help pay for the war In the spring of 1763, Pontiac, chief of the Ottawa people, united several Native American groups, including the Ottawa, Delaware, Shawnee, and Seneca peoples, to go to war against the British. In the spring of 1763, Pontiac, chief of the Ottawa people, united several Native American groups, including the Ottawa, Delaware, Shawnee, and Seneca peoples, to go to war against the British.

25 The Colonies Grow Discontented They attacked forts and towns along the frontier They attacked forts and towns along the frontier The British government did not want to pay for another war, so it issued the Royal Proclamation of 1763 that limited western settlement. The British government did not want to pay for another war, so it issued the Royal Proclamation of 1763 that limited western settlement. Colonists were not allowed to settle in certain areas without the government’s permission. Colonists were not allowed to settle in certain areas without the government’s permission. The proclamation angered many farmers and land speculators The proclamation angered many farmers and land speculators

26 Proclamation of 1763 Prohibits the colonists from moving west of the Appalachians Prohibits the colonists from moving west of the Appalachians –Colonists upset: limiting the freedom rights of the colonists. –Proclamation ignored

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28 The Colonies Grow Discontented In an effort to reduce Britain’s debt and pay for the British troops in North America, George Grenville, the British Prime Minister, implemented new tax policies in the colonies In an effort to reduce Britain’s debt and pay for the British troops in North America, George Grenville, the British Prime Minister, implemented new tax policies in the colonies Merchants smuggled goods in and out of America to avoid customs duties, or taxes paid on imports and exports. Merchants smuggled goods in and out of America to avoid customs duties, or taxes paid on imports and exports. Smugglers were sent before a naval court. Smugglers were sent before a naval court.

29 The Colonies Grow Discontented Grenville also introduced the Sugar Act in the colonies Grenville also introduced the Sugar Act in the colonies This act changed tax rates for raw sugar and molasses imported from foreign colonies This act changed tax rates for raw sugar and molasses imported from foreign colonies The act placed new taxes on silk, wine, coffee, pimento, and indigo The act placed new taxes on silk, wine, coffee, pimento, and indigo Merchants felt the Sugar Act hurt trade and argued that it violated traditional English rights Merchants felt the Sugar Act hurt trade and argued that it violated traditional English rights

30 The Stamp Act Crisis To raise more money to pay for the war, Parliament passed the Stamp Act in 1765 To raise more money to pay for the war, Parliament passed the Stamp Act in 1765 Stamps were required on most printed materials Stamps were required on most printed materials The stamp tax was the first direct tax Britain had ever placed on the colonists. The stamp tax was the first direct tax Britain had ever placed on the colonists. When the Stamp Act took effect, the colonists ignored it When the Stamp Act took effect, the colonists ignored it

31 Stamp Act First Direct Tax First Direct Tax use of stamped paper for legal documents, newspapers and playing cards. use of stamped paper for legal documents, newspapers and playing cards. stamp was to be proof that the tax had been paid. stamp was to be proof that the tax had been paid. Extremely unpopular, massive protests Extremely unpopular, massive protests

32 The Stamp Act Crisis The protests led to the Stamp Act being repealed in 1766 The protests led to the Stamp Act being repealed in 1766 Parliament passed the Declaratory Act, which gave them the power to make laws for the colonies. (an effort to assert its control) Parliament passed the Declaratory Act, which gave them the power to make laws for the colonies. (an effort to assert its control)

33 Sugar Act New tax: Lower than original tax Goal: Stop smuggling Colonist Reaction: Ignore it: Continue to smuggle

34 Colonial Concerns Quartering Act: British troops in colonial homes Admiralty courts: No juries, defendants were “guilty until proven innocent” “No taxation without representation”

35 Colonial Resistance

36 Stamp Act Congress –Petition: - Please repeal the taxes - Refuse to buy all British goods, until Stamp Act repealed Boycotts:

37 What did the colonists need in order to boycott English goods?

38 Homespun: Women make clothing in their homes

39 Colonial Resistance (enforcement)

40 Sons of Liberty Radicals mainly from Boston Radicals mainly from Boston Enforcers of boycotts Enforcers of boycotts

41 Sam Adams Leader of the Sons of Liberty Leader of the Sons of Liberty Propaganda Propaganda Committees of correspondence Committees of correspondence

42 Results Declaratory Act: Parliament has the power to pass laws on the colonies Stamp Act repealed

43 Townshend Acts 1767: Punishment for Stamp Act uprising 1767: Punishment for Stamp Act uprising “Indirect Tax” to pay for royal judges “Indirect Tax” to pay for royal judges British troops to enforce the tax British troops to enforce the tax

44 “No Taxation without Representation” Believed that only colonial governments could tax them Believed that only colonial governments could tax them Colonies had no members (Representatives) in Parliament Colonies had no members (Representatives) in Parliament No voice or say in Parliaments decisions = no right to tax No voice or say in Parliaments decisions = no right to tax

45 Colonial Reaction Some colonists were against independence, but for “no taxation w/o representation”. They promoted the use of petition to remove taxes, it that didn’t work….Boycott

46 The Boston Massacre

47 Boston Massacre (March 5,1770) British soldiers fire on an unruly mob British soldiers fire on an unruly mob Crispus Attucks Crispus Attucks What is a massacre?

48 John Adams Lawyer Lawyer Member of Sons of Liberty Member of Sons of Liberty Defender of British soldiers accused of murder Defender of British soldiers accused of murder

49 Townshend Acts: Results Decline in exports Decline in exports –1770: Townshend Acts repealed Tax remains on tea Tax remains on tea

50 Homework Answer questions 1-10 in study guide, review notes, and highlight key vocabulary words Answer questions 1-10 in study guide, review notes, and highlight key vocabulary words

51 Tea Act (1773) British East India Co: Monopoly on American tea trade British East India Co: Monopoly on American tea trade Lowers the price of tea Lowers the price of tea Colonists reaction: Colonists reaction: –Boston Tea Party

52 The Tea Act and the Boston Tea Party Colonists opposed the monopoly that was created by Act Colonists opposed the monopoly that was created by Act Tea was actually cheaper but some Local merchants were put out of business Tea was actually cheaper but some Local merchants were put out of business Sons of Liberty Protested by dumping tea in harbor. Sons of Liberty Protested by dumping tea in harbor. Disguised as Native Americans

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54 Intolerable Acts (1774) Closed Boston harbor Closed Boston harbor Massachusetts charter revoked Massachusetts charter revoked Colonists must house troops Colonists must house troops Response to Tea Party Response to Tea Party

55 Colonial Reaction 1 st Continental Congress 1 st Continental Congress –Sept – Oct 1774 –Complete boycott of British good –Restated allegiance to England

56 Lexington & Concord Paul Revere, William Dawes, and Doctor Samuel Prescott rode from Boston to warn Lexington and Concord. Paul Revere, William Dawes, and Doctor Samuel Prescott rode from Boston to warn Lexington and Concord. Paul Revere and William Dawes was stopped in Lexington, but Dr. Prescott was able to continue to Concord and warn the Minutemen Paul Revere and William Dawes was stopped in Lexington, but Dr. Prescott was able to continue to Concord and warn the Minutemen

57 Lexington & Concord (April 1775)

58 “ By the rude bridge that arched the flood, Their flag to April’s breeze unfurled, Here once the embattled farmers stood, And fired the shot heard round the world”

59 Lexington & Concord British search for: colonial weapons, Sam Adams and John Hancock British search for: colonial weapons, Sam Adams and John Hancock Casualties: Casualties: –8 colonists killed –70 “Redcoats” killed, 300 injuries total

60 2 nd Continental Congress (May 10,1775) Government of colonies during the war Government of colonies during the war Create army Create army Name George Washington head of Continental Army Name George Washington head of Continental Army Olive Branch Petition Olive Branch Petition –Last ditch effort to prevent all-out war –Pledged loyalty to the crown KING

61 Early Battles Fort Ticonderoga Fort Ticonderoga –Ethan Allen & Green Mountain Boys –Benedict Arnold Bunker Hill Bunker Hill –Bloodiest battle of war –American victory despite abandoning hill –“don’t fire until you see the whites of their eyes!”

62 Battle of Bunker Hill

63 Recognition Several slides come from the Power Point of bthone. US History. Smithtown, NY Several slides come from the Power Point of bthone. US History. Smithtown, NY Some have been changed slightly, but slides, 11,13,20,22,30,43,45,51, and 53 came from Mr. Thone’s PPT. Some have been changed slightly, but slides, 11,13,20,22,30,43,45,51, and 53 came from Mr. Thone’s PPT.


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