3Americans Move WestAfter the United Sates gained its freedom from Great Britain in 1783, Anglo Americans began searching for new areas to settle.Some Americans ventured across the Mississippi River.They dreamt of new homes in the West.Anglo Americans – People whose ancestors moved from one of many European countries to the United States and who now share a common culture and language.
4Why were settlers coming to Texas? They were attracted to the plentiful and inexpensive land.They were seeking adventure and personal gain.They sought escape from problems in the United States.browne/browne03.jpg
5Americans Move WestAuthorities in New Spain wanted to stop the U.S. government from claiming land west of the Mississippi River.New Spain was afraid that if Americans came West, they would outnumber the Spaniards and take over.
6Spain Controls Immigration Initially, Spain tried to control the movement of American immigrants by allowing Anglo Americans to settle in Missouri on generous land grants IF they agreed to:1. pledge their loyalty to the Spanish government2. become Catholics (many were not)Immigrants – a person who comes to a country to settle
7Spain Controls Immigration By making the settlers agree to the two conditions, Spain hoped:to populate the area to extend Spanish rule andthe new settlers would help prevent other Anglo Americans from entering the territory illegally.
8Spain Controls Immigration empresario – an agent who makes all arrangements to bring settlers to a colonyrecruit – to persuade someone to join a group
9MOSES AUSTIN BEGINS COLONIZATION IN TEXAS Moses Austin was from Connecticut.Austin was interested in lead mining.After hearing about George Morgan’s colony in current-day Missouri, Moses Austin moved there to operate a lead mine.texas/colonization.htm
10MOSES AUSTIN BEGINS COLONIZATION IN TEXAS Initially things went well for Austin until he lost his fortune and was deep in debt.He decided that helping colonists locate in Texas was a good way to make money and pay off his debt.
11MOSES AUSTIN BEGINS COLONIZATION IN TEXAS He wanted to bring 300 US families to Texas.Moses Austin presented a petition to the Spanish government.(petition – formal written request)Do you think the Spanish Government is going to say, “yes” to more U.S. settlers to enter Spanish Texas? (The Spanish government was skeptical because of the filibusters who had attempted to seize/take over Spanish lands.)
12MOSES AUSTIN BEGINS COLONIZATION IN TEXAS Believing his petition was going to be approved, Moses Austin headed east to start recruiting colonists for Texas.He became ill and was dying when he learned that his petition was officially approved by the Spanish officials.On his deathbed, Austin asked his son, Stephen F. Austin, to carry out his dream of colonizing Texas.texas/colonization.htm
13STEPHEN F. AUSTINAt 27, Stephen F. Austin put aside his plans of practicing law and went to Texas to fulfill his father’s wishes.Erasmo Seguin (mayor of San Antonio de Bexar) had traveled to Louisiana to meet with himphoto at people/a_c/austin.htm
14STEPHEN F. AUSTINWhere would Austin put these colonists he was bringing to Texas?Austin’s first job was to choose a site for his colony.He chose the area between Lavaca and San Jacinto Rivers.area easy for settlers to clearreceived enough rainfall for cropsarea good to grow sugar cane, cotton,corn, and other familiar cropsphoto at
15Austin traveled to New Orleans to recruit colonists. Austin looked for people who were willing to accept hard times and could provide for themselves.
16How it WorkedStephen F. Austin was the first to get his contract approved by the Spanish (and then the Mexican) government… so he was the first empresario (he was also the most successful)Each empresario would sign a contract with the government of Mexico whereby they promised to settle a certain number of families (in Austin’s first contract he was supposed to settle 300 families)REQUIREMENTS FOR SETTLING IN TEXAS:You had to become a citizen of your new country (Spain, and later Mexico)You had to become CatholicYou had to be of good moral character
18The Old Three HundredBy 1824, Austin had 297 families and single men who had received land in his colony. These settlers were infamously known as THE OLD THREE HUNDRED.Among the 1,790 colonists in 1825 about 440 were slaves of African and Caribbean decent.These colonists were very well educated and law abiding and many came from the southern U.S. including several from Louisiana.Some women even held land grants in Austin’s colony which was untraditional for that time. One of the most influential was Jane Long, the widow of James Long.
19Settlers Arrive in Texas Beginning in 1821, settlers came to Texas.Austin purchased a small vessel named “Lively” to transport the colonists.Some colonists landed at the wrong river (the Brazos, instead of the Colorado) and didn’t see Austin. These colonists were frustrated and returned back to their homes in New Orleans.Lively
20Characteristics of The Old Three Hundred mostly U.S.southernersmostly farmersmanyslaveholdersmostly law-abidingfairly welleducated
21OLD THREE HUNDREDSettlers who were farmers received one labor, or 177 acres.Settlers who raised cattle received a sitio, or a square league of 4,428 acres.Many settlers received both.Once the settlers were selected to come to Texas, they were given land titles, or proof of ownership of the land.
22Cheap Land Land was 12 cents an acre. Every man who came to Austin for land would receive:640 acres for himself320 acres for his wife160 acres for each child80 acres for each slave
23Austin’s Leadership The first years in the colony were tough. drought attacks by Karankawasmany colonists returning to the United StatesAustin’s colony was successful.This success was due to Austin’s leadership.
24Once Austin found out that Mexico had gained its independence from Spain, he traveled over 1,000 miles to Mexico to obtain permission for his colony.After a year, he received the approval of the Mexican government for his colony.During this year, Austin learned to speak Spanish and won the trust of Mexican officials.
25Austin deals successfully with Mexican leaders. Austin was awarded grants under national colonization laws.Austin influenced laws that freed colonists from taxes.Austin also obtained homestead rights for the colonists.These rights meant that settlers’ land and tools could not be seized to pay back a debt.
26Mexico’s New Colonization Laws Effects on Settlement in TexasState ColonizationLaw of 1825National ColonizationLaw of 1824allowed each Mexican state to set its own colonization policiesrestricted new U.S. immigrants from establishing colonies near the borders or the coastEmpresarios received 67,000 acres of land for every 200families- heads of household received4,428 acres of land for $30 and exempt from paying taxesfor 10 yearshuge wave of immigration, particularly U.S. immigration to Texasseveral new colonies established
27Early Problems in Austin’s Colony Stephen F Austin returned to his colony in August 1823 along with Baron Bastrop to issue the official land titles.He found that several settlers had already left and others were threatening to leave.Major droughts had ruined many of the first crops and raids by the Karankawa and Tonkawa Indians left little food and supplies.
28Stephen F Austin’s Contributions to Texas He will forever be known as “The Father of Texas”
29If you were an empresario, which land grant would you have wanted and why? Mexican Land Grants,
30Other EmpresariosMartin de Leon- was the only Mexican empresario to found a Texas colony made up of primarily Mexican settlers.Lorenzo de Zavala- was active in Mexican politics and received a grant to settle 500 families in East Texas. He sold the land before establishing the colonies