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Exploration and Settlement. Preview Activity ► Groups of students ► Students walked around claiming furniture with sticky notes ► One group started before.

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Presentation on theme: "Exploration and Settlement. Preview Activity ► Groups of students ► Students walked around claiming furniture with sticky notes ► One group started before."— Presentation transcript:

1 Exploration and Settlement

2 Preview Activity ► Groups of students ► Students walked around claiming furniture with sticky notes ► One group started before the rest ► Other groups rushed to catch up ► First group had 30 sticky notes ► European countries ► Explorers claiming land with flags. ► Spain was first with Columbus ► Other countries tried to catch up ► Spain claimed the most land in the new world

3 Goals ► Identify the motives behind European explorations to the Americas ► Describe the differences between Spanish, French, English, and Dutch settlements in America ► Explain how European expansion and settlement affected Native Americans and West Africans

4 Word Wall Words ► Priests ► Trapper ► Mission ► Presidio ► Pueblo ► Colony ► Conquistador ► Slavery ► Plantation ► Columbian Exchange ► New World ► Explorers

5 People to Know ► Cartier ► Cabot ► Hudson ► Coronado ► Cortes ► Pizarro ► Columbus ► Minuit ► Stuyvesant ► Pocahontas ► John Smith ► Rolfe ► Joliet ► Marquette ► DeLeon ► La Salle ► Raleigh

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7 Renaissance ► Increased wealth to pursue arts and education ► Mid 1300’s to 1600’s experienced a rebirth ► Science and technology

8 Renaissance

9 Direct trade with Asia Direct trade with Asia ► Trade with Africa ► Trade with Asia desirable but expensive ► Italian monopoly ► Marco Polo ► Spread of Christianity ► Technology of the Middle Ages

10 Columbus ► From Genoa ► Read Marco Polo ► Sail west to get to China ► Unknown ocean to the west (est. 10,000mi) ► Error in calculation

11 Columbus in Spain ► Ferdinand and Isabella ► Six year war ► Funded him to compete with Portugal ► “Pearls, precious stones, gold and silver” ► August 3, 1492 set sail with the Nina, Pinta, and Santa Maria (larger of three) ► Month passed with no sign of land ► October 12, 1492 land was sighted

12 The first explorations The first explorations ► Bahama’s and Hispaniola ► “Indians” but no gold ► 2 months, La Navidad with 20 men ► Treasures ► Reaction of Europeans Reaction of Europeans Reaction of Europeans ► Visitors ► Need to convert and explore

13 Columbus’s later explorations ► 3 more ► Navidad destroyed ► First to see South America ► Could not grow European crops ► 1502 last voyage with his son ► Shipwrecked and ruined ► Died unnoticed and unsung

14 How did Spain establish territorial claims in the Caribbean and South America? ► Cortes- Mexico ► Pizarro-Peru ► Columbus-Caribbean Islands

15 What was life like in the Spanish Settlements in the Caribbean and South America? ► Looking for gold ► Sugar Plantations ► Need for labor from Native Americans ► Disease killed large numbers of Natives ► Need for laborers from African slave traders

16 What type of relationship existed between Spanish and Native Americans living in the Caribbean and S.Am? ► Harsh treatment from Cortes on the Aztecs ► Pizarro killed the leader of the Incas even though he gave him the gold he wanted ► Diseases ► Slave labor ► Change

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18 The Conquistadors ► Conquistador is Spanish for conqueror ► Cortes conquers Aztecs Cortes ► Impact of disease Impact of disease Impact of disease ► Pizarro conquers the Incas Pizarro

19 De Leon, Coronado, Cortes, Pizarro

20 How did Spain establish territorial claims in North America? ► Ponce de Leon discovers Florida in 1513 ► Hernando De Soto explores the southeast in 1539 ► Coronado is the first European to see the Grand Canyon in ► While in search of the Seven Cities of Cibola but found seven little pueblos

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23 Cabrillo and California

24 What types of permanent settlements did the Spanish establish in North America? ► Pueblo- towns usually built upon site of Indian villages ► Missions: established by priests to convert Indians (S.F., El Paso) ► Presidios: military bases on the frontier (St. Augustine)

25 Presidio Presidio

26 Pueblo

27 Spanish Mission

28 What type of relationship existed between the Spanish and the Native Americans living in N.Am? ► Pueblo people learned about new tools, grow food, raise sheep ► Many converted to Catholicism ► Spanish learned new farming techniques ► Harsh treatment of Native Americans for slave labor ► Beating of those who did not convert ► Disease, death ► Rebellion

29 How did France establish territorial claims in North America? ► Cartier claimed Canada ► Champlain claimed the trading post of Quebec ► Marquette and Joliet explored the Mississippi River ► Robert La Salle claimed Louisiana

30 Race for Empires ► Cartier explores the St. Lawrence river in 1534 ► Religious civil wars between French Catholics and Huguenots ► Quebec founded by Champlain in 1608 ► First permanent settlement in the new world ► Champlain is the father of “New France”

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32 What was life like in French settlements in N.Am? ► Fur trappers, or coureur de bois, and missionaries came to New France. ► Colony failed to grow ► Harsh climate ► Best land went to nobility ► Trading of furs

33 What was the relationship between the French and Native Americans living in North America? ► Business partners ► Friendly ► Huron close allies ► Enemies with Iroquois ► Diseases killed many

34 New France ► French economy relies heavily on the fur trade in the new world ► Indians trapped and traded with the French ► Blankets, guns, trinkets, pots, and pans ► Grew slowly ► Pierre Marquette and Joliet explore south of Great lakes in 1673 along the Mississippi River

35 How did English establish territorial claims in N.America? ► John Cabot in New Foundland ► Raleigh ► Roanoke ► Jamestown

36 English settlements ► New Foundland 1582 ► Sir Walter Raleigh attempts to colonize off the coast of North Carolina in ► Establishes the colony of Roanoke ► Second attempt in 1585 with 150 men and women

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38 Lost Colony of Roanoke Roanoke ► Spanish Armada delays supply until 1590 ► No settlers found but buildings are standing ► CROATOAN ► Unsolved mystery

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40 What was life like in Jamestown? Jamestown ► Difficult ► Swamp area with disease carrying mosquitoes ► Laziness from settlers ► John Smith took over during the starving time ► Native Americans refuse to trade during this time

41 Pocahontas and John Smith

42 Settlement at Jamestown ► London Company forms a Joint Stock company after the failure of Roanoke ► April 26 th, 1607, 3 ships and 105 male colonist sail for America ► Adventurers with little skill, disease, salt water, lack of supplies, harsh winter ► John Smith takes control ► Smith captured and “saved” by Pocahontas

43 Powhatan Confederacy ► Algonquian Indians ► Brought food, taught how to plant crops ► Colonist forcefully took supplies from time to time ► 1609, 400 more settlers came, John Smith back to England ► Starving time: winter of 1609 to summer of 1610 only 60 of 500 colonist survive

44 War in Virginia ► John Rolfe marries Pocahontas, a Powhatan chiefs daughter ► Colonist surviving on their own without Powhatan, want more land for tobacco ► 1622, colonist attack and kill Powhatan leader ► Rolfe is killed in retaliation with 350 other men, women and children ► War continues for 20 years

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46 How did the Netherlands establish territorial claims in North America? ► Henry Hudson in present day New York state and into Canada ► Peter Minuit buys Manhattan island

47 What was life like in New Netherland? New Netherland?New Netherland? ► Fur trade ► 8,000 people from many nations including Africans, Europeans, and Jews seeking religious freedom ► Peter Stuyvesant was the governor ► English drive the Dutch out and rename it New York English drive the Dutch out and rename it New York English drive the Dutch out and rename it New York ► Capital New Amsterdam

48 What type of relationship existed between the Dutch and Native Americans living in New Netherlands? ► Friendly with the Iroquois ► Supplied the Iroquois with guns and weapons to fight the Huron


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