Presentation on theme: "Brinkley Chapter 3 Society and Culture in Provincial America"— Presentation transcript:
1Brinkley Chapter 3 Society and Culture in Provincial America “The British colonies come of age.”McElhaney
2Essay 1“The British colonies were so antagonistic to each other that they were unable to unite to face the attack of common enemies.”Assess the validity of this statement.
3Essay 2Though there where many differences in the development of the New England, Middle, and Southern colonies, they had much in common. What conditions and experiences were common to American colonists regardless of their colony or region?
4Essay 3How did economic, geographic, and social factors encourage the growth of slavery as an important part of the economy of southern colonies between 1607 and 1775?
5Essay 4Although many Northerners and Southerners came later to think of themselves as having separate civilizations, the Northern and Southern colonies in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries were in fact more similar than different. Assess the validity of this statement.
6The Colonies 1700 Population Growth Women in the Colonies North and SouthColonial Economy North and SouthTriangular TradeColonial Society North and SouthSalem Witchcraft TrialsReligious Revival and The Great AwakeningColonial GovernmentRegionalism DevelopsSlavery ExpandsFrench and Indian WarSimilarities of Colonies
7Who is the subject?“Few of their children in the country learn English... The signs in our streets have inscriptions in both languages ... Unless the stream of their importation could be turned they will soon so outnumber us that all the advantages we have will not be able to preserve our language, and even our government will become precarious.”
8Population Growth by 1750s Immigration (See Map Page 120) Healthy Colonists- Married young,Immigration-Criminals, Huguenots, Some Jews, Scots, Scotch-Irish 200,000,German 125,000 Pennsylvania (Language issue Franklin)Some Irish CatholicsNew England the least ethnically mixed; predominantly Puritan
9Population Growth by 1750s Push Factors: Pull Factors: Religious OppressionEconomic MisfortuneWarPull Factors:Economic OpportunityReligious FreedomLand and Liberty
11Cities Population growth supports the growth of cities Philadelphia Largest city (1770’s) 22,000Boston (1760) 15,000New York (1700) 5,000 to 21,000 (1770s)Charleston- (1775) 12,000
12Population Growth 1700 = 251,000 non Indians 1770= 2,148,000 1775= 2,500,000 by 1775 (50,000 black)1790= 4,000,000Largest colonies were Virginia, Mass., Penn., NC, and MarylandOnly four major cities: Philadelphia, NY, Boston, Charleston 90% lived in rural areas.
13Women North or South? Mid/late colonial period 1740s Family structure more stableSex ratio balancedLower infant mortality rateStrict parental supervisionLess premarital pregnancyStatus defined by religious beliefWomen expected to be modest, submissive, serving, and working for the householdWomen moved from families when marriedSouthGreater independence (early)Lots of Widows (early)Had stronger social power when population was lowerPremarital pregnancyWere in demand due to low numbers thus more influenceStill child rearing
14Common Aspect Colonial Economy Commercial orientedTradeWith IndiansLocal French and Spanish when they couldAgriculture dominatedDomestic and exportExtraction economies
15Colonial Economy North and South The SouthLarge and small agricultureTobacco dominantBoom and bust patternRice in South CarolinaIndigoSlaveryLopsided DevelopmentLow Merchant class emergesLow IndustryNorthDiverse AgricultureLow scaleSmall local tradeHome industriesCobblers, blacksmiths, rifle makers, cabinet makers, silversmiths, printers,Mills run on water powerWheat, Cloth, lumberShip buildingIron works (Iron act 1750)Merchant Class growes strong Boston, New York, Philadelphia
16Industry and Trade Expand Industry in the colonies was restrictedEnglish wanted to limit manufactures in colonies so they would not compete with English companies.Iron Act 1750= limit colonial iron millsTriangular Trade: one example of the trade relationship between colonies and other countries. MapSlave trade considerationsExtraction economies
19The Colonies Differences among the three colonial regions. Mostly EnglishSelf-government (though not all democratic)Religious toleration (to at least some degree in each colony)Educational opportunity (New England better)Provided unusual opportunities for economic and social self-developmentFarming in all coloniesDifferences among the three colonial regions.-- New England: Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New HampshirePuritan dominated in many areas, less religiously tolerant, more restrictions on civic participation, more industry, less available farm landMiddle Colonies: New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, DelawareEthnically diverse, religiously tolerant, democratic, Quakers contributed to human freedom, farming, lumbering, ship building, shipping, trade, fur trappingSouthern Colonies: Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, GeorgiaPlantation economy, aristocratic, slavery, cash crops, scattered population, expansionary, some religious toleration (Church of England dominant)
20Slavery ExpandsLate 1600s and 1700s Large population of African Slaves begin to arriveEarlier Slaves from West Indies, Caribbean- excess Slaves from Sugar PlantationsChattel Slavery- ownership, hereditary, perpetual, racially definedSouth held 90% of slavesSlavery becomes a fundamental part of southern Colonial society1740, 40 % of all Virginians were slaves1720, African slaves outnumbered whites in South Carolina 2-1.
21Brutality of SlaveryAfrican Slaves not accustomed to English work hours and ethics are brutalizedHorrors of the Middle Passage:Two months on board shipCramped, 10-20% slaves diedSlaves resisted 1. is by passive Resistance and 2.2. by running awayNorthern colonies also used some slave laborBoth Northern and Southern colonies created slave codes to regulate the slave behavior and actions (land ownership…)During the entire time of the Atlantic Slave trade about 11 million Africans were transported to the Americas1739- Stono Rebellion slave uprising South Carolina = 100 slaves
23Society South Plantation Mostly Self contained Planter class emerges Dominated politicsMajority of small farmers had no slaves
24Society North Puritan Town focus of community Covenants bind members together “religious and social commitment to unity”Village around a “Common” PastureSocial Hierarchy the “Elect” chosen by god“Town Meetings”Adult males, close family ties due to lack of land
25Salem Witchcraft Trials (1692) Accusations of witchcraft come to a small village in Massachusetts- (Adolescent)Bad things were happening to Mass: and the very religious Puritans believed the devil was responsible.Names remain: Sarah Good, Sarah Osborne, Tituba…
27Salem Witches19 people executed 2 die in jail, one is tortured to deathProminent people are accused and the court is disbandedClassic Witch Hunt:“Accused could save their lives only by confessing and implicating others…”“Vivid example of people’s capacity to turn against fellow humans, however innocent, in an effort to save themselves.”
28Witch Trials Associated Correlations Mostly womenMiddle aged widowsFew or no childrenLow social positionInvolved in conflicts in the areaAccused of other crimesAbrasiveWomen who had inherited landWomen who challenged Gender norms
29The Great Awakening 1730s-1740s Great Awakening= “Awakening” to religionThe Great Awakening of the 1700s came in response to a decline in religious pietyWestern movement = less organized religionStated man is not helpless in achieving (Salvation) regeneration; his will can be an effective force in his being savedCharacteristics:Evangelism = strong, energetic preachersJeremiads = sermons complaining about decline of pietyAppealed to womenSermons emphasized starting new relationship with GOD.
30Great AwakeningCongregations divided into New Light Revivalists and Old LightsJonathan Edwards ( )Credited with starting the Great Awakening (c. 1734) in Northampton in 1734Most influential theological writer and thinker of the movement.Salvation depended on God's grace isGraphic Depictions of hellGeorge Whitefield ( )Huge crowds went to see himBrilliant English orator; made 7 trips to the American colonies and traveled extensively b. His basic appeal was to the BibleMost influential figure of the Great Awakening; founded Methodism
31Results of The Great Awakening Brought religion to many who had lost touch with it c. Undermined the older clergy (Old Lights)Brought a number of religious groups to popularity i.e., Baptists- which spread throughout the middle and southern coloniesLed to general acceptance of religious differences
32Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God the one preached to the congregation of Enfield, Massachusetts (later Connecticut) in July Anthologized in high school and college textbooks, Sinners represents in many persons’ minds the bleak, cruel, and hell-bent outlook of Edwards and his Puritan predecessors.As a specially crafted awakening sermon, Sinners was aimed at a particularly hard-hearted congregation. But, at the same time, the awakening sermon and all it expressed—the awful weight of sin, the wrath of an infinitely holy God, and the unexpectedness of the moment when God will execute justice—were integral to Edwards’s theology.
33Colonial Government Colonies had large degree of Autonomy 1600-1750 Salutary Neglect: Lax enforcement of laws, loose controlRoyal Governor represented the King’s Government (could veto colonial legislatures)Could dissolve assembliesJudges were appointed by GovernorsWere appointed by the King’s governmentElected representative bodies- Bicameral (Two house legislatures)(White male, land owners- 50 acres of land minimum, Self Government)House of Burgesses (Virginia) and AssembliesBudgeted Governor's SalaryMake laws for the colonies
34Essays for Ch 4 Brinkley“The British colonies were so antagonistic to each other that they were unable to unite to face the attack of common enemies.”Assess the validity of this statement.How did economic, geographic, and social factors encourage the growth of slavery as an important part of the economy of southern colonies between 1607 and 1775?Between 1754 to 1774 a profound alteration of relationship occurred between the American colonists and their mother country, Great Britain. This changing relationship became painfully obvious to both parties with the opening of the American Revolution and active hostilities.Identify and explain the key factors which brought about this changing relationship using your own knowledge and the documents provided.
35French and Indian War 1754-1763 AKA: Seven Years War The British and French rivalry and antagonism manifest itself in the American colonies.A Series of limited wars preceded the FI War:King William’s WarQueen Anne’s WarKing George’s WarThe Ohio Company of Virginia gain charter to settle land and causes French to assert claims and build forts. Map
37French and Indian WarThe Ohio Company of Virginia send troops to build fort and are expelled by FrenchFrench build Fort DuquesneWashington-commanded a small force, attacks and must retreat to Ft. Necessity and later surrenders.Full scale war erupts and British send troops but want colonial cooperationAt first colonials don’t support the war until the British promise to reimburse colonies for efforts.
40Albany Plan of Union Benjamin Franklin, Cartoon in the Pennsylvania Gazette, May 9, 1754 This cartoon shows a snake cut into eight pieces, each labeled with the name of one of the colonies. The position of each colony in the snake corresponds to the geographic position of the colonies along the American coast, with the snake's tail pointing south and the head pointing north.The colonies, from tail to head (south to north), are: South Carolina, North Carolina, Virginia, Maryland, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York, and New England (New England refered to the colonies of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, and New Hampshire). The caption reads, "JOIN, or DIE."The cartoon appeared along with Franklin's editorial about the "disunited state" of the colonies, and helped make his point about the importance of colonial unity. At the time, there was a superstition that a snake which had been cut into pieces would come back to life if the pieces were put together before sunset.
41French and Indian WarFrench were allied with most Indian tribes except IroquoisBritish invade under Braddock and are beaten backLater the British, under new leadership, are able to gradually divide the French powers and end up invading Canada, taking Quebec and Montreal.Peace of Paris, 1763 effectively remove French presence in Canada and East of the Mississippi including New Orleans (Was ceded to Spain).
43Effects of the French and Indian War British now control most of North AmericaBritish change their policy and relationship with the ColoniesBritish War Debt= L122, 603, 336 (7Million lbs each 6 month)More taxes will be charged in order to pay for war expensesNo more movement West for colonists, Proclamation line of Speculator, buy land and sell it to immigrants for profit.British left troops in colonies- Standing Army (Colonists Resented)British government expected- colonist to pay for portion of the Troops.These changes will mark an end to Salutary Neglect and bring a more direct control of colonies by England and lead to the Revolution.Colonists begin to develop a sense of common identity, proud to be part of the British family, but perceiving clear distinctions.