2Salutary NeglectDuring the early years of the existence of the colonies, Parliament opted for a policy of salutary neglect or non-interferenceIt was too difficult to control the situation in the colonies when they were 3000 miles away
4The French & Indian War Begins England and France had been at odds with each other over the Americas but the final struggle began in the Ohio ValleyThe French drove out English fur traders and in 1754 built Fort Duquesne at the point where the rivers Monongahela and Allegheny rivers meet to form the Ohio riverThe fort posed a serious threat to the Virginia and Pennsylvania colonies
5George Washington Arrives Facing the threat of the Fort, the colonists, under the command of 22 year old George Washington, attacked the fortthe Virginia militia were later captured and released by the French signaling what became the start of the war
6A Shift in SupportGeneral Braddock’s defeat in a second attempt to take Fort Duquesne caused many Native Americans to shift their support to the FrenchAt this point the French were winning the war!
7William PittWhen William Pitt became minister of war in 1758 for Britain the tide shiftedPitt realized that by giving aid to France’s enemies in Europe he could effectively split her forcesBy the end of 1758 the British were again gaining a foothold in the Americas
8Quebec FallsOn September 13, 1759 – General James Wolfe defeated Commander Montcalm on the Plains of AbrahamMontcalm and Wolfe both die as a result of their wounds
9The Treaty of ParisFrance --> lost her Canadian possessions, most of her empire in India, and claims to lands east of the Mississippi River.Spain --> got all French lands west of the Mississippi River, New Orleans, but lost Florida to England.England --> got all French lands in Canada, exclusive rights to Caribbean slave trade, and commercial dominance in India.North American was now divided between Great Britain and Spain with the Mississippi River forming the boundary
10The Effects of War Britain It increased her colonial empire in the Americas.It greatly enlarged England’s debt.Britain’s contempt for the colonials created bitter feelings because they felt they had to support the colonists overseasThe ColoniesIt united them against a common enemy for the first time.It created a socializing experience for all who participated increasing feelings of being “American”It created bitter feelings towards the British that would only intensify.
11The Proclamation of 1763After Pontiac’s rebellion in the west the British responded by drawing a boundary lineThis line effectively ended settlement west of the Appalachian MountainsColonists protested that the Proclamation deprived them of land they had a right to settle causing more friction between colonists and the crown
12The Sugar ActBritish taxed colonists on many of the goods coming into the colonies from other placesThe most important of these was the Sugar Act of 1764Colonial merchants realized that enforcement of this act would wipe out profits of the trade with the Spanish and French West Indies
13The Stamp ActIn 1765, British imposed taxes upon all paper products and stamped the item once the tax had been played.This tax was paid directly to the government – direct taxProducts affected ranged from documents and wills to playing cards and newspapers
14The Townshend ActsThis act placed duties on tea, paper, glass and paintThe British repealed this tax in 1770 except for the tax on tea
15The Protests Begin! Patrick Henry’s speech Sons and Daughters of LibertyBenjamin Franklin’s visit to ParliamentBoston Massacre
16Patrick Henry Speaks Out! When the House of Burgesses met to consider the Stamp Act in May of 1765 Patrick Henry introduced the Virginia Resolutions protesting Parliament’s actionIn his speech he stated that since Americans elected no members to the British Parliament they should not be taxed by themThis came to be know as “no taxation without representation”
17Sons of LibertyThe Sons of Liberty carried out organized resistance by keeping watch on shopkeepers suspected of selling British goodsA group existed in almost every colony.Members included middle and upper class citizens, anyone could join if they were trustworthy and had the skills the group needed.Famous members included Paul Revere, John Adams and his cousin, Samuel Adams.
18Daughters of LibertyColonial women organized the Daughters of Liberty to boycott British goodsThey gave up imported clothes, made tea out of local herbs, and produced homespun clothOne of the most influential Daughters of Liberty was Mercy Otis Warren, who published pamphlets supporting the resistance – she had to publish in a man’s name
19The Boston MassacreAfter Parliament repealed the Townshend duties, the first clash between British and Americans took placeOn the night of March 5, 1770, a crowd of 50 or 60 men and boys gathered to taunt British soldiers outside the Boston Customs HouseWhen the crowd went as far as to throw sticks and snowballs at the redcoats, the soldiers panicked and opened fire, killing five menThe event quickly became known as the Boston Massacre
20The Boston Tea PartyIn 1773 the British East India Company, facing bankruptcy, appealed to Parliament for assistanceParliament quickly voted to give them a monopoly for the trade of tea in AmericaOpposition groups mobilized against the plan and forcing ships to turn back at New York and Philadelphia harboursIn Boston, Governor Hutchinson ordered that no ship could leave harbour without being unloadedColonists on a signal from Sam Adams disguised themselves as Mohawks, boarded the ship and heaved 342 chests of tea into the harbour
21The Intolerable Acts (Coercive Acts) The Boston Port Act - closed the port of Boston to tradeThe Massachusetts Government Act - revoked the colony's charter and forbade town meetingsThe Quartering Act - required the colonists to provide billets for British soldiersThe Impartial Administration of Justice Act - removed British officials from the jurisdiction of Massachusetts courts
22The Quebec ActIt was passed at the same time and considered by many as one of the Intolerable ActsIt extended the Canadian province of Quebec south to the Ohio RiverIt also allowed French Canadians use of their own legal system which did not recognize trial by juryThe colonists believed The Quebec Act was designed to keep American settlers out of western lands forever
23The First Continental Congress 56 delegates from 12 colonies attended the first Continental Congress in Philadelphia in September, 1774The Congress petitioned the King for relief from the Intolerable Acts and vowed to stop trade with Britain until the acts were repealed
24Here come the Brits!Early on April 19, 1775, 700 British soldiers were secretly sent to destroy the military supplies the colonists had collected at ConcordAfter learning the soldiers’ destination, the Sons of Liberty sent Paul Revere & William Dawes to warn the Minutemen of approaching British soldiers.Fighting between the Americans and the British broke out near Boston – a city occupied in 1774 by the British army under General Thomas Gage
25Lexington and ConcordWhen the British soldiers reached Lexington, Captain Jonas Parker and 75 armed Minutemen were there to meet them.The Minutemen were greatly outnumbered. The British soldiers fired, killing 8 Minutemen and injuring 10 others.While the British soldiers continued on their way to Concord, the men and women of Concord were busy moving the arms and ammunition to new hiding places in surrounding towns.
26The British Retreat to Boston A large force of patriots gathered in response to the British troops.As the British soldiers headed back to Boston, they were attacked by the Minutemen.All along the route, Minutemen, local farmers and townspeople continued the attack against the British.By the time the soldiers reached Boston, 73 British solders were dead and 174 more were wounded.
27Second Continental Congress The Second Continental Congress was a body of representatives appointed by the legislatures of several British North American colonies which met from May 10, 1775, to March 1, 1781By the time the Second Continental Congress met, the American Revolutionary War had already started with the Battles of Lexington and Concord on April 19, 1775.Thus, the Second Continental Congress found itself in the unenviable position of being the decision-making body of a military alliance at war with a far more powerful enemy.
28Thomas Paine and Common Sense In January 1776, Thomas Paine published Common SenseHe attacked the strongest bond tying tying America to Britain – the KingHe pointed out the advantages of freedom from British rule and commercial restrictionsThe book divided Americans into either Patriots or Loyalists
29Independence!Beginning in April of 1776, the colonies advised their delegates to vote for independenceOn June 7th, Richard Henry Lee introduced a brief “Resolution of Independence”On July 2nd, 1776, the Continental Congress adopted Lee’s resolution “that these united colonies are, and of right ought to be free and independent states.”
30The Declaration of Independence The Official Declaration of Independence was agreed upon on July 4th, 1776Its purpose was to justify the Revolution, state that the colonies were independent and to express the nation’s principlesThe rest is history!