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The Road to Revolution. Salutary Neglect During the early years of the existence of the colonies, Parliament opted for a policy of salutary neglect or.

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Presentation on theme: "The Road to Revolution. Salutary Neglect During the early years of the existence of the colonies, Parliament opted for a policy of salutary neglect or."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Road to Revolution

2 Salutary Neglect During the early years of the existence of the colonies, Parliament opted for a policy of salutary neglect or non- interference During the early years of the existence of the colonies, Parliament opted for a policy of salutary neglect or non- interference It was too difficult to control the situation in the colonies when they were 3000 miles away It was too difficult to control the situation in the colonies when they were 3000 miles away

3 North American Land Claims in 1750

4 The French & Indian War Begins England and France had been at odds with each other over the Americas but the final struggle began in the Ohio Valley England and France had been at odds with each other over the Americas but the final struggle began in the Ohio Valley The French drove out English fur traders and in 1754 built Fort Duquesne at the point where the rivers Monongahela and Allegheny rivers meet to form the Ohio river The French drove out English fur traders and in 1754 built Fort Duquesne at the point where the rivers Monongahela and Allegheny rivers meet to form the Ohio river The fort posed a serious threat to the Virginia and Pennsylvania colonies The fort posed a serious threat to the Virginia and Pennsylvania colonies

5 George Washington Arrives Facing the threat of the Fort, the colonists, under the command of 22 year old George Washington, attacked the fort Facing the threat of the Fort, the colonists, under the command of 22 year old George Washington, attacked the fort the Virginia militia were later captured and released by the French signaling what became the start of the war the Virginia militia were later captured and released by the French signaling what became the start of the war

6 A Shift in Support General Braddock’s defeat in a second attempt to take Fort Duquesne caused many Native Americans to shift their support to the French General Braddock’s defeat in a second attempt to take Fort Duquesne caused many Native Americans to shift their support to the French At this point the French were winning the war! At this point the French were winning the war!

7 William Pitt When William Pitt became minister of war in 1758 for Britain the tide shifted When William Pitt became minister of war in 1758 for Britain the tide shifted Pitt realized that by giving aid to France’s enemies in Europe he could effectively split her forces Pitt realized that by giving aid to France’s enemies in Europe he could effectively split her forces By the end of 1758 the British were again gaining a foothold in the Americas By the end of 1758 the British were again gaining a foothold in the Americas

8 Quebec Falls On September 13, 1759 – General James Wolfe defeated Commander Montcalm on the Plains of Abraham On September 13, 1759 – General James Wolfe defeated Commander Montcalm on the Plains of Abraham Montcalm and Wolfe both die as a result of their wounds Montcalm and Wolfe both die as a result of their wounds

9 The Treaty of Paris France --> lost her Canadian possessions, most of her empire in India, and claims to lands east of the Mississippi River. Spain --> got all French lands west of the Mississippi River, New Orleans, but lost Florida to England. England --> got all French lands in Canada, exclusive rights to Caribbean slave trade, and commercial dominance in India. North American was now divided between Great Britain and Spain with the Mississippi River forming the boundary North American was now divided between Great Britain and Spain with the Mississippi River forming the boundary

10 The Effects of War Britain It increased her colonial empire in the Americas. It increased her colonial empire in the Americas. It greatly enlarged England’s debt. It greatly enlarged England’s debt. Britain’s contempt for the colonials created bitter feelings because they felt they had to support the colonists overseas Britain’s contempt for the colonials created bitter feelings because they felt they had to support the colonists overseas The Colonies It united them against a common enemy for the first time. It united them against a common enemy for the first time. It created a socializing experience for all who participated increasing feelings of being “American” It created a socializing experience for all who participated increasing feelings of being “American” It created bitter feelings towards the British that would only intensify. It created bitter feelings towards the British that would only intensify.

11 The Proclamation of 1763 After Pontiac’s rebellion in the west the British responded by drawing a boundary line After Pontiac’s rebellion in the west the British responded by drawing a boundary line This line effectively ended settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains This line effectively ended settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains Colonists protested that the Proclamation deprived them of land they had a right to settle causing more friction between colonists and the crown Colonists protested that the Proclamation deprived them of land they had a right to settle causing more friction between colonists and the crown

12 The Sugar Act British taxed colonists on many of the goods coming into the colonies from other places British taxed colonists on many of the goods coming into the colonies from other places The most important of these was the Sugar Act of 1764 The most important of these was the Sugar Act of 1764 Colonial merchants realized that enforcement of this act would wipe out profits of the trade with the Spanish and French West Indies Colonial merchants realized that enforcement of this act would wipe out profits of the trade with the Spanish and French West Indies

13 The Stamp Act In 1765, British imposed taxes upon all paper products and stamped the item once the tax had been played. In 1765, British imposed taxes upon all paper products and stamped the item once the tax had been played. This tax was paid directly to the government – direct tax This tax was paid directly to the government – direct tax Products affected ranged from documents and wills to playing cards and newspapers Products affected ranged from documents and wills to playing cards and newspapers

14 The Townshend Acts This act placed duties on tea, paper, glass and paint This act placed duties on tea, paper, glass and paint The British repealed this tax in 1770 except for the tax on tea The British repealed this tax in 1770 except for the tax on tea

15 The Protests Begin! Patrick Henry’s speech Sons and Daughters of Liberty Benjamin Franklin’s visit to Parliament Boston Massacre

16 Patrick Henry Speaks Out! When the House of Burgesses met to consider the Stamp Act in May of 1765 Patrick Henry introduced the Virginia Resolutions protesting Parliament’s action When the House of Burgesses met to consider the Stamp Act in May of 1765 Patrick Henry introduced the Virginia Resolutions protesting Parliament’s action In his speech he stated that since Americans elected no members to the British Parliament they should not be taxed by them In his speech he stated that since Americans elected no members to the British Parliament they should not be taxed by them This came to be know as “no taxation without representation” This came to be know as “no taxation without representation”

17 Sons of Liberty The Sons of Liberty carried out organized resistance by keeping watch on shopkeepers suspected of selling British goods The Sons of Liberty carried out organized resistance by keeping watch on shopkeepers suspected of selling British goods A group existed in almost every colony. A group existed in almost every colony. Members included middle and upper class citizens, anyone could join if they were trustworthy and had the skills the group needed. Members included middle and upper class citizens, anyone could join if they were trustworthy and had the skills the group needed. Famous members included Paul Revere, John Adams and his cousin, Samuel Adams. Famous members included Paul Revere, John Adams and his cousin, Samuel Adams.

18 Daughters of Liberty Colonial women organized the Daughters of Liberty to boycott British goods Colonial women organized the Daughters of Liberty to boycott British goods They gave up imported clothes, made tea out of local herbs, and produced homespun cloth They gave up imported clothes, made tea out of local herbs, and produced homespun cloth One of the most influential Daughters of Liberty was Mercy Otis Warren, who published pamphlets supporting the resistance – she had to publish in a man’s name One of the most influential Daughters of Liberty was Mercy Otis Warren, who published pamphlets supporting the resistance – she had to publish in a man’s name

19 The Boston Massacre After Parliament repealed the Townshend duties, the first clash between British and Americans took place After Parliament repealed the Townshend duties, the first clash between British and Americans took place On the night of March 5, 1770, a crowd of 50 or 60 men and boys gathered to taunt British soldiers outside the Boston Customs House On the night of March 5, 1770, a crowd of 50 or 60 men and boys gathered to taunt British soldiers outside the Boston Customs House When the crowd went as far as to throw sticks and snowballs at the redcoats, the soldiers panicked and opened fire, killing five men When the crowd went as far as to throw sticks and snowballs at the redcoats, the soldiers panicked and opened fire, killing five men The event quickly became known as the Boston Massacre The event quickly became known as the Boston Massacre

20 The Boston Tea Party In 1773 the British East India Company, facing bankruptcy, appealed to Parliament for assistance In 1773 the British East India Company, facing bankruptcy, appealed to Parliament for assistance Parliament quickly voted to give them a monopoly for the trade of tea in America Parliament quickly voted to give them a monopoly for the trade of tea in America Opposition groups mobilized against the plan and forcing ships to turn back at New York and Philadelphia harbours Opposition groups mobilized against the plan and forcing ships to turn back at New York and Philadelphia harbours In Boston, Governor Hutchinson ordered that no ship could leave harbour without being unloaded In Boston, Governor Hutchinson ordered that no ship could leave harbour without being unloaded Colonists on a signal from Sam Adams disguised themselves as Mohawks, boarded the ship and heaved 342 chests of tea into the harbour Colonists on a signal from Sam Adams disguised themselves as Mohawks, boarded the ship and heaved 342 chests of tea into the harbour

21 The Intolerable Acts (Coercive Acts) The Boston Port Act - closed the port of Boston to trade The Boston Port Act - closed the port of Boston to trade The Massachusetts Government Act - revoked the colony's charter and forbade town meetings The Massachusetts Government Act - revoked the colony's charter and forbade town meetings The Quartering Act - required the colonists to provide billets for British soldiers The Quartering Act - required the colonists to provide billets for British soldiers The Impartial Administration of Justice Act - removed British officials from the jurisdiction of Massachusetts courts The Impartial Administration of Justice Act - removed British officials from the jurisdiction of Massachusetts courts

22 The Quebec Act It was passed at the same time and considered by many as one of the Intolerable Acts It was passed at the same time and considered by many as one of the Intolerable Acts It extended the Canadian province of Quebec south to the Ohio River It extended the Canadian province of Quebec south to the Ohio River It also allowed French Canadians use of their own legal system which did not recognize trial by jury It also allowed French Canadians use of their own legal system which did not recognize trial by jury The colonists believed The Quebec Act was designed to keep American settlers out of western lands forever The colonists believed The Quebec Act was designed to keep American settlers out of western lands forever

23 The First Continental Congress 56 delegates from 12 colonies attended the first Continental Congress in Philadelphia in September, delegates from 12 colonies attended the first Continental Congress in Philadelphia in September, 1774 The Congress petitioned the King for relief from the Intolerable Acts and vowed to stop trade with Britain until the acts were repealed The Congress petitioned the King for relief from the Intolerable Acts and vowed to stop trade with Britain until the acts were repealed

24 Here come the Brits! Early on April 19, 1775, 700 British soldiers were secretly sent to destroy the military supplies the colonists had collected at Concord Early on April 19, 1775, 700 British soldiers were secretly sent to destroy the military supplies the colonists had collected at Concord After learning the soldiers’ destination, the Sons of Liberty sent Paul Revere & William Dawes to warn the Minutemen of approaching British soldiers. After learning the soldiers’ destination, the Sons of Liberty sent Paul Revere & William Dawes to warn the Minutemen of approaching British soldiers. Fighting between the Americans and the British broke out near Boston – a city occupied in 1774 by the British army under General Thomas Gage Fighting between the Americans and the British broke out near Boston – a city occupied in 1774 by the British army under General Thomas Gage

25 Lexington and Concord When the British soldiers reached Lexington, Captain Jonas Parker and 75 armed Minutemen were there to meet them. When the British soldiers reached Lexington, Captain Jonas Parker and 75 armed Minutemen were there to meet them. The Minutemen were greatly outnumbered. The British soldiers fired, killing 8 Minutemen and injuring 10 others. The Minutemen were greatly outnumbered. The British soldiers fired, killing 8 Minutemen and injuring 10 others. While the British soldiers continued on their way to Concord, the men and women of Concord were busy moving the arms and ammunition to new hiding places in surrounding towns. While the British soldiers continued on their way to Concord, the men and women of Concord were busy moving the arms and ammunition to new hiding places in surrounding towns.

26 The British Retreat to Boston A large force of patriots gathered in response to the British troops. A large force of patriots gathered in response to the British troops. As the British soldiers headed back to Boston, they were attacked by the Minutemen. As the British soldiers headed back to Boston, they were attacked by the Minutemen. All along the route, Minutemen, local farmers and townspeople continued the attack against the British. All along the route, Minutemen, local farmers and townspeople continued the attack against the British. By the time the soldiers reached Boston, 73 British solders were dead and 174 more were wounded. By the time the soldiers reached Boston, 73 British solders were dead and 174 more were wounded.

27 Second Continental Congress The Second Continental Congress was a body of representatives appointed by the legislatures of several British North American colonies which met from May 10, 1775, to March 1, 1781 The Second Continental Congress was a body of representatives appointed by the legislatures of several British North American colonies which met from May 10, 1775, to March 1, 1781 By the time the Second Continental Congress met, the American Revolutionary War had already started with the Battles of Lexington and Concord on April 19, By the time the Second Continental Congress met, the American Revolutionary War had already started with the Battles of Lexington and Concord on April 19, Thus, the Second Continental Congress found itself in the unenviable position of being the decision-making body of a military alliance at war with a far more powerful enemy. Thus, the Second Continental Congress found itself in the unenviable position of being the decision-making body of a military alliance at war with a far more powerful enemy.

28 Thomas Paine and Common Sense In January 1776, Thomas Paine published Common Sense In January 1776, Thomas Paine published Common Sense He attacked the strongest bond tying tying America to Britain – the King He attacked the strongest bond tying tying America to Britain – the King He pointed out the advantages of freedom from British rule and commercial restrictions He pointed out the advantages of freedom from British rule and commercial restrictions The book divided Americans into either Patriots or Loyalists The book divided Americans into either Patriots or Loyalists

29 Independence! Beginning in April of 1776, the colonies advised their delegates to vote for independence Beginning in April of 1776, the colonies advised their delegates to vote for independence On June 7 th, Richard Henry Lee introduced a brief “Resolution of Independence” On June 7 th, Richard Henry Lee introduced a brief “Resolution of Independence” On July 2 nd, 1776, the Continental Congress adopted Lee’s resolution “that these united colonies are, and of right ought to be free and independent states.” On July 2 nd, 1776, the Continental Congress adopted Lee’s resolution “that these united colonies are, and of right ought to be free and independent states.”

30 The Declaration of Independence The Official Declaration of Independence was agreed upon on July 4 th, 1776 The Official Declaration of Independence was agreed upon on July 4 th, 1776 Its purpose was to justify the Revolution, state that the colonies were independent and to express the nation’s principles Its purpose was to justify the Revolution, state that the colonies were independent and to express the nation’s principles The rest is history! The rest is history!


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