Presentation on theme: "And The French Trouble in Colonial New Hampshire The Indians The English."— Presentation transcript:
and The French Trouble in Colonial New Hampshire The Indians The English
Background to War For almost a century, French, English and Native American forces warred with each other to control eastern North America. In New England, where Indians had lost land and much of their way of life to English settlers … Native Americans sided with the French. To the English, Frenchmen and Indians were a common enemy. Concord Marker
Early Days in New Hampshire More than 50 years after New Hampshire’s first settlements in 1623, towns still clung to the coast and to nearby waterways.
The New Hampshire Frontier Settling towns involved extremely hard work. Fields, homes roads — everything — had to be carved out of wilderness. The Founding of Portsmouth
The Wilderness The land that settlers saw around them truly was a wilderness. But it was hardly empty. Native Americans lived in villages throughout New Hampshire’s woodlands. They were of great concern to the English newcomers.
Indians The fact that Indians and settlers lived close together provided opportunities for friendly trade. Native Americans appreciated the improvement of English metal over their traditional stone tools. For their part, settlers learned much from their Indian neighbors about surviving in this new, wild country. Even so, the English fortified themselves against possible attack.
Peaceful Relations Peaceful relations with the English were possible. Passaconaway, the great sachem of the Pennacooks, counseled Native Americans in the region to co-exist peacefully with the new settlers in New Hampshire. Settler Wearing a Trade Shirt Snare with Figure-4 Trigger
The French Strong log houses guarded against Indians whom the settlers mistrusted, but settlers also wanted protection from the French. As early as 1632, New Hampshire began fortifying a point on New Castle against French invasion by sea.
Joliet’s Map of 1674 New France The French had explored large parts of North America before the English. They struggled with the English for control of the continent … … and vied for alliance with Native Americans.
Competition This satiric engraving suggests a contrast. An Englishman offers a Bible and a bolt of cloth to a Native American. The Frenchman offers a tomahawk and a purse of money.
Tensions But good relations did not last. Indian population plummeted because of “a great and deadly sickness” beginning around 1617. English population, on the other hand, kept increasing — especially between 1630 and 1642. Indian Population European Population 3,000 1,250 500 2,500 8,000 10,000 00 0 New Hampshire’s Population 800 1,400 2,300
Tensions Also, Native Americans did not understand English notions of land ownership … and English settlers did not respect the legitimacy of Indian use of the land. From The Old Indian Chronicle: Being a Collection of Exceeding Rare Tracts Written and Published in the Time of King Philip’s War
King Philip’s War In 1675, tired of English arrogance in general and spurred by a specific incident, Native Americans attacked English settlers. This bloody war lasted just over a year and ended with the slaying of Metacomet — the Indian leader known to the English as King Philip. Metacomet, or King Philip
King Philip’s War Indians of the Northeast would never recover from this loss. Most battles had been fought in Massachusetts and Rhode Island But incidents also occurred in New Hampshire late in the war.
Incidents in New Hampshire 1676Dover: invited to a “sham” battle, 400 Indians who came in peace were seized by Major Richard Waldron; some were hanged in Boston, and 200 others were sold into slavery 1677Incidents in North Hampton (4 dead) and Hampton (60 killed)
Indian Diaspora Native Americans in northern New England would never again live easily in their homeland. Some would move westward to live with Indians they once had considered enemies. Others would move northward to Canada and ally themselves with the French.
The End of Peace From 1623, when settlers first resided permanently in New Hampshire, to the death of King Philip in 1676 … and the end of peaceful relations with Indians in northern New England … just over 50 years had passed. Passaconaway Metacomet
French and Indian Wars Most of the raids were linked to wars between the French and the English — King William’s War (1688–1697) Queen Anne’s War (1702–1713) Lovewell’s War (1721–1725) King George’s War (1744–1748) The French and Indian War (1754–1763) Over the next 90 years, Indian raids would ravage New Hampshire.
Traditional open battles between French and English armies did occur. Often English armies were supported by provincial soldiers, including those from New Hampshire. But no battles between European armies took place in New Hampshire. Even so, the province’s residents suffered directly from the wars — just as if they were on a battlefield! Battles
Raids New Hampshire’s settlers experienced the terrors of Indian raids that targeted civilians as well as soldiers. Many houses were burned … and women and children, as well as men, were killed in their homes and fields or were captured and taken to Canada.
King William’s War (1688–1697) 1689Dover: 23 settlers are killed and 29 captured 1689Durham: 18 are killed 1690Raymond: 8 are killed and 1 captured 1690Newington: 16 are killed and 6 captured 1690Exeter: 8 are killed 1690Lee: 16 are killed 1691Rye: 21 are killed 1694Durham: 13 houses are burned; 94 are killed or captured 1695Exeter: 2 are killed
King William’s War (1688–1697) 1696Dover: 3 settlers are killed and 3 wounded 1696Rye: Captain John Locke is killed while working in his field 1697Dover: 3 settlers are killed 1697Boscawen: Hannah Dustin kills 10 Indians and escapes after having been captured in Haverhill, Massachusetts Hannah Dustin Detail of the Monument at Boscawen
Queen Anne’s War (1702–1713) 1703Hampton: 5 settlers are killed 1704Durham: 2 are killed 1704Dover: 3 are killed; 3 are wounded and 3 captured 1706Durham: 10 are killed 1706Nashua: 10 are killed; others are captured 1706Exeter: 3 are killed and 3 captured 1707Durham: 3 are killed 1707Dover: 9 are killed 1709Exeter: 5 are killed 1709Durham: 1 is killed 1711Dover: 5 are killed 1712Durham: 1 is killed 1712Dover: 2 are killed and 3 captured
Lovewell’s War (1721-1725) 1724Dover: Elizabeth Hanson and four of her children are taken. Mrs.Hanson keeps a journal during her year’s captivity. 1724(and 1725) Tamworth and the Lakes Region: John Lovewell leads two expeditions during which 11 Indians are killed. For the slayings, he receives bounties totaling over £1000.
Lovewell’s War (1721-1725) In a third expedition, both Lovewell and Paugus, the Indian leader, are killed, and 14 of Lovewell’s men never return.
King George’s War (1744–1748) 1745Westmoreland: 2 settlers are killed and 3 captured 1745Keene: 1 is killed 1746Charlestown (Fort No. 4): 7 are killed and 5 captured; later, the fort is taken “Thomas Hastings His horn”
King George’s War (1744–1748) 1746Concord: 5 are killed 1746Contoocook and Hopkinton: 2 are killed and 9 captured 1747Epsom: 1 is captured Concord Monument Commemorating the Ambush of 1746
Between Wars 1749Charlestown (Fort at No. 4): one man is killed; another, captured 1752Rumney: while trapping, John Stark is captured, and another man is killed. Indians are impressed with Stark’s bravery while “running the gauntlet.”
Between Wars The following spring, Stark is ransomed and returns home. As a good soldier, Stark pays attention to his surroundings during his forced march to Canada and is able to help map his route after his return.
French and Indian War (1754–1763) 1754Salisbury: Nathaniel Meloon and his family are captured and taken to Canada. Rachel Meloon was nine years old when captured. Like many other captive children, she refuses to return with her parents when the family is ransomed four years later. Finally, after nine years with the Abenakis, Rachel does return. After her return from Canada, she weaves this porcupine quill belt for her friend Peter Kimball of Boscawen. 1754Franklin: 2 are killed, and 3 captured
French and Indian War (1754–1763) 1754Charlestown (Fort at No. 4): Susanna Johnson, her family, and two others are captured and marched to Canada. A day and a half into the journey, Susanna gives birth to a baby girl, whom she names Elizabeth Captive. Amazingly, she and her child both survive the trek and the captivity. After they are ransomed, they return to Charlestown.
French and Indian War (1754–1763) Charlestown (Fort at No. 4): 1756one settler is killed 1757five are captured of whom three die in Canada Westmoreland: 1760six are captured; one is killed Reconstruction of the Historic Village of the Fort at No. 4 in Charlestown Towns established as a northern “frontier against the Indians.” Fort at No. 4 is here referred to as Stephens Fort.
French and Indian War (1754–1763) Famous for their success in using guerilla tactics to fight Indians … Rogers’ Rangers attack the Indian village of St. Francis in Canada for… “so many devastations on the frontiers of New England.” Major Robert Rogers
French and Indian War (1754–1763) The Rangers’ attack on the Indians at St. Francis in 1759 effectively ends coordinated Indian raids into New England. That same year, General Wolfe’s victory over the French army on the Plains of Abraham in Quebec destroys France’s hopes for victory in America. In 1760, war ends in America. Tavern Sign, Rochester
Attacks in New Hampshire A Review A review of the towns attacked during 90 years of off-again-on-again war … (as listed in this presentation) A Review
Attacks in New Hampshire A Review King Philip’s War King William’s War Queen Anne’s War Lovewell’s War King George’s War French and Indian War Dover, Hampton, North Hampton
King Philip’s War King William’s War Queen Anne’s War Lovewell’s War King George’s War French and Indian War Dover, Newington, Rye, Exeter, Raymond, Durham, Lee, Boscawen Attacks in New Hampshire A Review
King Philip’s War King William’s War Queen Anne’s War Lovewell’s War King George’s War French and Indian War Dover, Durham, Exeter, Hampton, Nashua Attacks in New Hampshire A Review
King Philip’s War King William’s War Queen Anne’s War Lovewell’s War King George’s War French and Indian War Dover, Tamworth and the Meredith-Moultonborough Area Attacks in New Hampshire A Review
King Philip’s War King William’s War Queen Anne’s War Lovewell’s War King George’s War French and Indian War Epsom, Concord, Hopkinton, Westmoreland, Keene, Charlestown Attacks in New Hampshire A Review
King Philip’s War King William’s War Queen Anne’s War Lovewell’s War King George’s War French and Indian War Westmoreland, Charlestown, Salisbury, Franklin, Rumney Attacks in New Hampshire A Review
British America — Briefly After 1763, New Hampshire is safe from the terrors of French and Indian incursions. But the end of the wars brings to the forefront American dissatisfaction with English rule. A mere 12 years later, the American colonies join together in a successful revolt against England. — Briefly