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Chapter 2: Revolution and the Early Republic

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1 Chapter 2: Revolution and the Early Republic
Section 1: Colonial Resistance and Rebellion P. 46 Picture: Crispus Attucks, who was a member of a mob killed during the Boston Massacre. More on that later.

2 Colonies Organize to Resist Britain
Proclamation of 1763 Sought to halt expansion of colonies west of the Appalachian Mts. Colonists believed Britain did not care about their needs French and Indian War brought on a financial crisis for Britain Britain brought about new laws that only reinforced the colonists’ opinions

3 Sugar Act King George III Smuggling Succeeded grandfather in 1760
Hoped to lower debt Hired George Grenville as prime minister Smuggling Many colonial merchants were smuggling goods to and from French territories without paying import and export duties to Britain Picture: George Grenville

4 Sugar Act Grenville prompted Parliament to pass the Sugar Act in 1764
Cut the duty on foreign-made molasses in half Hoped colonists would pay the cheaper duty instead of risking arrest by smuggling Placed duties on other goods that did not previously have a duty Violators would be tried in a court with a single judge, rather than a court with a colonist-sympathetic jury

5 Sugar Act Impact: Little impact on most colonists, only traders and merchants Hurt profits of traders and merchants Resented being forced to pay taxes when they were unable to elect members to the Parliament

6 Stamp Act Passed in 1765 First tax directly levied on colonists
Taxed documents and printed items, such as wills, newspapers, and playing cards A stamp would signify that the tax had been paid First tax directly levied on colonists Other taxes were indirect paid on imports

7 Stamp Act Sons of Liberty Colonial Assembly Secret resistance group
Composed of shopkeepers, artisans, and laborers Protested the Stamp Act Colonial Assembly Declared Parliament had no right to impose taxes on the colonists because the colonists lacked representation in Parliament “No taxation without representation!”

8 Boycott October 1765 Merchants in New York, Boston, and Philadelphia agreed to boycott British goods until tax was repealed Success! Parliament repealed tax in March 1766 Parliament replaced the Stamp Act with other taxes and laws

9 Parliament Passes New Laws
Townshend Acts Taxed goods that were imported into the colony from Britain Lead, glass, and paper Tea  most popular drink in the colonies Samuel Adams One of the founders of the Sons of Liberty Again boycotted the British Tensions continued to rise

10 Boston Massacre March 5, 1770 Mob gathers and taunts British soldiers guarding the Boston Customs House British soldiers open fire and kill five unarmed colonists, including Crispus Attucks See p. 46 Colonists label the confrontation, “The Boston Massacre”

11 Frederick North Replaced Grenville as Prime Minister
Repealed the Townshend Acts except the tax on tea Lost more $ than they brought in Too expensive to send British troops to Boston Picture: Frederick North

12 Boston Tea Party Tea Act Boston Tea Party
Intended to save the nearly bankrupt British East India Company Company could sell tea to the colonies tax free Taxes would be levied on the colonial tea sellers Boston Tea Party December 16, 1773 Boston rebels, dressed as Native Americans, boarded three East India Company ships and dumped 18,000 lbs of tea into the Boston Harbor

13 The Intolerable Acts King George III was infuriated
Passed a series of laws Shut down Boston Harbor Quartering Act Allowed British soldiers to be housed in vacant private homes or businesses Martial Law in Boston Rule imposed by military forces

14 Thirteen Colonies By this time, the colonies had formed buzzing communication networks Allowed them to communicate information quickly September 1774 Committees of correspondence assembled the First Continental Congress

15 First Continental Congress
56 delegates met in Philadelphia Drew up a declaration of colonial rights Defended the colonies’ right to run their own affairs Stated that the colonies would fight back if the British used force against them

16 Minutemen Eastern New England colonies quietly made military preparations Stockpiled firearms and gunpowder Minutemen- civilian soldiers who pledged to be ready to fight in a minute’s notice British General Thomas Gage Ordered troops to march from Boston to Concorde and size illegal weapons

17 The British Are Coming! April 18, 1775
Paul Revere, William Dawes, and Samuel Prescott spread the word that 700 “redcoats” were coming Church bells, gunshots, and signals spread from town to town

18 Fighting at Lexington and Concord
Read the final two paragraphs on p. 50 Do you think the British underestimated the colonists? Why or why not?

19 The Second Continental Congress
May of 1775 Colonial leaders gathered in Philadelphia to debate their next move They agreed to recognize the colonial militia as the Continental Army Appointed George Washington as the commander Loyalists vs. Patriots Whose side do you agree with?

20 Battle of Bunker Hill (Breed’s Hill)
British General Gage sent 2,400 troops up the hill Colonists waited until the last minute before striking Colonist casualties = 450 British casualties = over 1,000 Deadliest battle of the war Mistakenly named the Battle of Bunker Hill

21 Preparing for War Colonies readied for a full-scale war
But still hoped for peace Felt deep loyalty to King George and blamed the bloodshed on the king’s ministers Olive Branch Petition Congress sent to King George III hoping to return to the former harmony The King rejected the offer Urged Parliament to order a naval blockade on a line of ships heading for America Picture: King George III

22 Public Opinion Shifts  Independence
Due in large part to Enlightenment ideas John Locke argued that all people have a right to life, liberty, and property People should choose to obey the government as long as the government safeguards their natural rights If violated, the people have a natural right to resist

23 Public Opinion Shifts  Independence
Other reasons Religious traditions Supported liberty Magna Carter Read 3rd paragraph on p. 52 What basic rights of Englishmen did the British violate according to the Magna Carta? Right to due process, speedy trial, jury of one’s peers. Sovereign did not have absolute authority and was subject to the same laws as everyone else. Taxation without the consent of property owners. A presumption of innocence no standing army during peacetime without consent no quartering of troops in private homes freedom of travel in peacetime the guarantee of regular legislative sessions

24 Common Sense Written by Thomas Paine
Attacked King George and the monarchy Read “A Personal Voice” on p. 52 Refers to the battles of Lexington and Concord Benefits of independence: Freedom of trade Better society: free from tyranny Equal social and economic opportunities for all

25 Declaring Independence
Colonies urged to create their own government Thomas Jefferson was chosen to prepare the Declaration of Independence Read p. 53

26 HW Create a political cartoon based on an event described in Section 1
Ex. Battles or congressional meetings..etc. Should make an argument that you believe in Not all political cartoons have to be humorous What is this cartoon trying to say? It is saying that politicians stress that the current war is a war for freedom, yet the author believes that the Patriot Act limits the freedoms of the United States itself. Allow students to work on cartoon during tomorrow’s movie

27 Movie Full class period American History: Road to Revolution
Instruct them to write the answers to the questions in the introduction. May need to pause the clip on each question to allow all students to jot it down.

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