Presentation on theme: "Chapter 2: Revolution and the Early Republic"— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 2: Revolution and the Early Republic Section 1:Colonial Resistance and RebellionP. 46Picture: Crispus Attucks, who was a member of a mob killed during the Boston Massacre. More on that later.
2Colonies Organize to Resist Britain Proclamation of 1763Sought to halt expansion of colonies west of the Appalachian Mts.Colonists believed Britain did not care about their needsFrench and Indian War brought on a financial crisis for BritainBritain brought about new laws that only reinforced the colonists’ opinions
3Sugar Act King George III Smuggling Succeeded grandfather in 1760 Hoped to lower debtHired George Grenville as prime ministerSmugglingMany colonial merchants were smuggling goods to and from French territories without paying import and export duties to BritainPicture: George Grenville
4Sugar Act Grenville prompted Parliament to pass the Sugar Act in 1764 Cut the duty on foreign-made molasses in halfHoped colonists would pay the cheaper duty instead of risking arrest by smugglingPlaced duties on other goods that did not previously have a dutyViolators would be tried in a court with a single judge, rather than a court with a colonist-sympathetic jury
5Sugar ActImpact:Little impact on most colonists, only traders and merchantsHurt profits of traders and merchantsResented being forced to pay taxes when they were unable to elect members to the Parliament
6Stamp Act Passed in 1765 First tax directly levied on colonists Taxed documents and printed items, such as wills, newspapers, and playing cardsA stamp would signify that the tax had been paidFirst tax directly levied on colonistsOther taxes were indirect paid on imports
7Stamp Act Sons of Liberty Colonial Assembly Secret resistance group Composed of shopkeepers, artisans, and laborersProtested the Stamp ActColonial AssemblyDeclared Parliament had no right to impose taxes on the colonists because the colonists lacked representation in Parliament“No taxation without representation!”
8BoycottOctober 1765Merchants in New York, Boston, and Philadelphia agreed to boycott British goods until tax was repealedSuccess! Parliament repealed tax in March 1766Parliament replaced the Stamp Act with other taxes and laws
9Parliament Passes New Laws Townshend ActsTaxed goods that were imported into the colony from BritainLead, glass, and paperTea most popular drink in the coloniesSamuel AdamsOne of the founders of the Sons of LibertyAgain boycotted the BritishTensions continued to rise
10Boston MassacreMarch 5, 1770Mob gathers and taunts British soldiers guarding the Boston Customs HouseBritish soldiers open fire and kill five unarmed colonists, including Crispus AttucksSee p. 46Colonists label the confrontation, “The Boston Massacre”
11Frederick North Replaced Grenville as Prime Minister Repealed the Townshend Acts except the tax on teaLost more $ than they brought inToo expensive to send British troops to BostonPicture: Frederick North
12Boston Tea Party Tea Act Boston Tea Party Intended to save the nearly bankrupt British East India CompanyCompany could sell tea to the colonies tax freeTaxes would be levied on the colonial tea sellersBoston Tea PartyDecember 16, 1773Boston rebels, dressed as Native Americans, boarded three East India Company ships and dumped 18,000 lbs of tea into the Boston Harbor
13The Intolerable Acts King George III was infuriated Passed a series of lawsShut down Boston HarborQuartering ActAllowed British soldiers to be housed in vacant private homes or businessesMartial Law in BostonRule imposed by military forces
14Thirteen ColoniesBy this time, the colonies had formed buzzing communication networksAllowed them to communicate information quicklySeptember 1774Committees of correspondence assembled the First Continental Congress
15First Continental Congress 56 delegates met in PhiladelphiaDrew up a declaration of colonial rightsDefended the colonies’ right to run their own affairsStated that the colonies would fight back if the British used force against them
16MinutemenEastern New England colonies quietly made military preparationsStockpiled firearms and gunpowderMinutemen- civilian soldiers who pledged to be ready to fight in a minute’s noticeBritish General Thomas GageOrdered troops to march from Boston to Concorde and size illegal weapons
17The British Are Coming! April 18, 1775 Paul Revere, William Dawes, and Samuel Prescott spread the word that 700 “redcoats” were comingChurch bells, gunshots, and signals spread from town to town
18Fighting at Lexington and Concord Read the final two paragraphs on p. 50Do you think the British underestimated the colonists?Why or why not?
19The Second Continental Congress May of 1775Colonial leaders gathered in Philadelphia to debate their next moveThey agreed to recognize the colonial militia as the Continental ArmyAppointed George Washington as the commanderLoyalists vs. PatriotsWhose side do you agree with?
20Battle of Bunker Hill (Breed’s Hill) British General Gage sent 2,400 troops up the hillColonists waited until the last minute before strikingColonist casualties = 450British casualties = over 1,000Deadliest battle of the warMistakenly named the Battle of Bunker Hill
21Preparing for War Colonies readied for a full-scale war But still hoped for peaceFelt deep loyalty to King George and blamed the bloodshed on the king’s ministersOlive Branch PetitionCongress sent to King George III hoping to return to the former harmonyThe King rejected the offerUrged Parliament to order a naval blockade on a line of ships heading for AmericaPicture: King George III
22Public Opinion Shifts Independence Due in large part to Enlightenment ideasJohn Locke argued that all people have a right to life, liberty, and propertyPeople should choose to obey the government as long as the government safeguards their natural rightsIf violated, the people have a natural right to resist
23Public Opinion Shifts Independence Other reasonsReligious traditionsSupported libertyMagna CarterRead 3rd paragraph on p. 52What basic rights of Englishmen did the British violate according to the Magna Carta?Right to due process, speedy trial, jury of one’s peers.Sovereign did not have absolute authority and was subject to the same laws as everyone else.Taxation without the consent of property owners.A presumption of innocenceno standing army during peacetime without consentno quartering of troops in private homesfreedom of travel in peacetimethe guarantee of regular legislative sessions
24Common Sense Written by Thomas Paine Attacked King George and the monarchyRead “A Personal Voice” on p. 52Refers to the battles of Lexington and ConcordBenefits of independence:Freedom of tradeBetter society: free from tyrannyEqual social and economic opportunities for all
25Declaring Independence Colonies urged to create their own governmentThomas Jefferson was chosen to prepare the Declaration of IndependenceRead p. 53
26HW Create a political cartoon based on an event described in Section 1 Ex. Battles or congressional meetings..etc.Should make an argument that you believe inNot all political cartoons have to be humorousWhat is this cartoon trying to say? It is saying that politicians stress that the current war is a war for freedom, yet the author believes that the Patriot Act limits the freedoms of the United States itself.Allow students to work on cartoon during tomorrow’s movie
27Movie Full class period American History: Road to Revolution Instruct them to write the answers to the questions in the introduction. May need to pause the clip on each question to allow all students to jot it down.