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Chapter 4 The Bonds of Empire 1660-1750.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 4 The Bonds of Empire 1660-1750."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 4 The Bonds of Empire

2 Introduction 4 major questions:
How did the Glorious Revolution shape relations between England and its North American colonies? What were the most important consequences of British mercantilism for the mainland colonies? What factors explain the relative strengths of the British, French, and Spanish empires in North America

3 Introduction (cont.) What were the most significant results of the Enlightenment and Great Awakening in the British colonies?

4 Rebellion and War, 1660-1713 Introduction
Until the restoration of the Stuart kings in 1660, England made little effort to rule its overseas territories With the accession of Charles II (ruled from ) England sought to expand its empire and trade Impose royal authority on its colonies Regulate their economic activities so as to benefit English commercial interests

5 Royal Centralization, 1660-1688
Stuart kings wanted to become absolute monarchs like Louis XIV Rarely called parliament into session Ignored the colonial legislatures 1684=Charles II revoked Massachusetts’s charter Between 1686 and 1688, James II consolidated all of the New England colonies, NY, and NJ into the Dominion of New England Abolished their assemblies Placed full power into the hands of his arbitrary and dictatorial royal governor (Sir Edmond Andros)

6 Royal Centralization, 1660-1688 (cont.)
The colonists bitterly resented this denial of their rights Tensions ran particularly high in Massachusetts and NY

7 The Glorious Revolution, 1688-1689
=James II’s high-handed, pro-Catholic actions led to the Glorious Revolution in England He was forced into exile The throne went to William and Mary Agreed to a limited monarch and promised to summon Parliament annually and respect the civil liberties of English people

8 The Glorious Revolution, 1688-1689 (cont.)
When news of the Glorious Revolution reached America in 1689, New Englanders rebelled against Andros and his councilors Massachusetts and other colonies appealed to William and Mary for the return of their charters The new monarchs dissolved the Dominion of New England and issued charters granting each colony the right to have a representative assembly

9 The Glorious Revolution, 1688-1689 (cont.)
Massachusetts’s new charter did not give it as much independence as it had formerly enjoyed Its governors would be appointed by the crown, not elected It would have to tolerate and share power in the colony with Anglicans

10 The Glorious Revolution, 1688-1689 (cont.)
Leisler’s Rebellion in New York and John Coode’s uprising in Maryland also were inspired by the Glorious Revolution

11 A Generation of War, British and French fought against each other in 2 wars King William’s War (War of the League of Augsburg) Queen Anne’s War (War of the Spanish Succession) Most of the fighting was done in Europe Some fighting happened in North America

12 A Generation of War, 1689-1713 (cont.)
Peace returned in 1713 France still controlled the North American interior English colonist felt a heightened sense of British identity and dependence on their mother country’s protection from their powerful neighbor

13 Colonial Economics and Societies, 1660-1750
Mercantilist Empires in America Mercantilism=each nation’s power was measured by its wealth, especially in gold Followed by Britain, France, and Spain The country should produce within its own empire as much of what it needed as possible Its exports to foreign competitors should exceed its imports

14 Mercantilist Empires in America (cont.)
To achieve the goals of mercantilism British Parliament passed a series of laws known as the Navigation Acts 1651 to 1733 Required all trade to be conducted on British-owned ships Prohibited Americans from selling certain products (tobacco, rice, furs, indigo, and naval stores) to foreign countries unless they first passed through England

15 Mercantilist Empires in America (cont.)
Navigation Acts (cont.) Placed high taxes on products that Americans bought from outside the empire (i.e. molasses from French Caribbean) Forbade colonials form competing with British clothing manufactures

16 Mercantilist Empires in America (cont.)
Navigation Acts (cont.) Parliament intended these laws to benefit only England, the acts in practice did not unduly hamper the colonists The laws cut into the profits of rice and tobacco planters

17 Mercantilist Empires in America (cont.)
Benefits of Navigation Acts Shipping had to be done on British vessels and this stimulated the growth of America’s merchant marine, shipbuilding, and ports Bounties paid to producers of hemp, lumber, and other items under the Navigation Acts encouraged the development of those industries in the colonies

18 Mercantilist Empires in America (cont.)
The restrictions on large-scale manufacturing did little harm, since only home production and small workshops were economically feasible in America

19 Mercantilist Empires in America (cont.)
French and Spanish colonies in North America did not develop nearly as robust economies as the British New France Main export was furs By 18th century furs did not bring much profit French govt. even underwrote the fur-trading with the Indians in order to keep on good terms with their Native American allies

20 Mercantilist Empires in America (cont.)
Spanish colonies Colonists smuggled British and French products Did very little manufacturing Mercantilist principles did not work well for France and Spain because they did not have the large merchant class with liquid assets to invest in the colonies and other commercial ventures Great Britain could do this

21 Population Growth and Diversity
French and Spanish colonies in NA lagged behind the British in population growth as well as economic development 1750 British North America had 1.1 million New France had 60,000 Spanish North America had 19,000

22 Population Growth and Diversity (cont.)
Religion British opened their colonies to all Europeans of whatever religion French and Spanish barred non-Catholics and made no effort to attract settlers from countries other than their own The steady growth of the British colonies outpaced not only their European rivals, but also Britain itself

23 Population Growth and Diversity (cont.)
After 1700, British North America grew rapidly from both natural increase and the arrival of newcomers. 18th century immigrants came less from England and more from other places (pg. 97) Africans brought on slave ships Scots-Irish, Irish, and Germans Many of the Europeans came as indentured servants English colonies became more racially and ethnically diverse (not always welcomed by all English colonist)

24 Population Growth and Diversity (cont.)
Most 18th century white immigrants were too poor to buy land in the already developed coastal areas so they pushed into the Piedmont region Eastern slope of the Appalachians By /3 of colonial population lived there Map on page 98

25 Population Growth and Diversity (cont.)
From 1713 to 1754, the importation of slaves to the mainland was greatly increased Black colonial population rose from 11% to 20 % Most slaves lived in the South 15% were in the colonies north of MD African American population also multiplied through natural increase

26 Rural White Men and Women
Worked small farms Depended on the labor of their sons Supplemental production from wives and daughters Clothing Vegetables Poultry Few inherited land Young couples at first Worked for others Borrow $$$$ to buy own farms

27 Colonial Farmers and the Environment
Rapidly cut down the forests Bring more land under cultivation Uses of timber Fences Fuel Buildings Sold wood to townspeople

28 Colonial Farmers and the Environment (cont.)
Results of deforestation Drove away large game Greater extremes in temperature Less dependable water levels in streams Reduced amount of fish Dried and hardened the soil

29 Colonial Farmers and the Environment (cont.)
Farmers grew tobacco and other soil-depleting plants Did not use fertilizer No crop rotation or letting field lie fallow Land lost fertility Yields seriously diminished

30 The Urban Paradox 1740--4% of colonists lived in cities
Philadelphia, New York, Boston, Charles Town (Charleston today) Thriving ports Shipped livestock, grain, and lumber that enriched the countryside Escalating problems Urban poverty, crowding, poor sanitation, periodic epidemics of contagious diseases

31 The Urban Paradox (cont.)
Women in cities Middle-class women ran complex households that included servants, slaves, and apprentices sewing, knitting, daily trips to public market, family businesses, etc. Most had at least 1 household servant Help with cooking, cleaning, laundering

32 Slavery The economic progress of colonial America meant that most masters could afford to keep their slaves healthier. For the slaves=meant heavier workloads and longer lives Worked harder and longer and had lower standards of living than whites Masters generally spent 60% more to maintain their white indentured servants than their black slaves

33 Slavery (cont.) The number of slaves residing in cities mounted
20% of population in NYC Majority of population in Charles Town and Savannah urban racial tensions ran high 1739 Stono Rebellion in South Carolina 1712 and 1741 slave conspiracies in NY Almost all rebellions by slaves were suppressed by frightened whites

34 The Rise of the Colonial Elites
In the 18th century, class differences were becoming more apparent in America Wealthy rural gentry and urban commercial elites attempted to imitate the fashions and lifestyles of the European upper class Bought expensive chinaware Learned formal dances Studied foreign languages Cultivated the manners of the gentry Some even sent sons abroad to study Growing taste for British consumer goods

35 Competing for a Continent, 1713-1750
France and the American Heartland After 1713, France resumed building its empire in North America 1718=founded New Orleans Made it the capital of Louisiana province Farming, hunting, fishing, trading with Indians Alliances with the Choctaws in LA Tried to win over Native American trading partners in the Ohio Valley and Great Plains

36 France and the American Heartland (cont.)
Several French posts in the Ohio Valley became sizable villages housing Indians, French, and mixed-ancestry metis Generally more successful in getting along with the Indians than the British, the French also crushed tribes that stood in their way such as the Natchez

37 Native Americans and British Expansion
The Carolinians met resistance from the Indian tribes on whose lands they were encroaching, culminating in the Tuscarora ( ) and Yamasee (1715) wars Those tribes were driven from the area Tuscarora moved to upstate New York and joined the Iroquois Confederacy

38 Native Americans and British Expansion (cont.)
Covenant Chain Series of treaties Aided the colonists’ fight for lands Solidifying Iroquois power among Native Americans throughout the Northeast

39 Native Americans and British Expansion (cont.)
Pennsylvania coerced the Delaware Indians into ceding their lands and moving into territory adjacent to that of the Iroquois Other eastern tribes also were pushed westward they were used by the Iroquois as buffer between themselves and the aggressive English


41 British Expansion in the South: Georgia
Georgia was the last of the original 13 colonies to be established on the North American mainland Only one to received some financial support from the British govt. James Oglethorpe founder Haven for English debtors Outpost protecting the Carolinas from the Spanish empire to the south

42 British Expansion in the South: Georgia (cont.)
1733=Savannah was established 1740=2,800 settlers there Most were not English debtors 1/2 were not English German, Swiss, Scottish, Jewish Society of industrious small farmers Able to defend themselves from attack Banned African slavery Limited size of landholdings

43 British Expansion in the South: Georgia (cont.)
Settlers switched to rice cultivation to make a profit Needed large farms and slaves 1750 restrictions were dropped Attracted more settles and developed a booming plantation-slave economy

44 Spain’s Borderlands Spain spread its empire throughout the Southwest and part of the Southeast European population in New Mexico grew very slowly Navajo and Apache raids ceased Those tribes made an alliance with the Spanish against the Utes and Comanches

45 Spain’s Borderlands (cont.)
Texas Spanish established outposts and missions (including the Alamo) Indians in Texas traded more with the French Did not like to farm for the Spanish Periodic raids on the province by the French and Comanches discouraged Hispanic settlement in Texas As late as 1760, only 1,200 Spaniards lived there

46 Spain’s Borderlands (cont.)
The Spanish attempted to weaken the British Carolinas and Georgia by offering freedom to English-owned slaves who fled to their colony of Florida

47 The Return of War, War among the imperial rivals for North America resumed in 1739 First war was between British and Spanish over the Florida-Georgia border This war merged with the larger War of the Austrian Succession (King George’s War) ( ) Only one battle on North American soil during King George’s War Battle of Louisbourg which was on the St. Lawrence

48 The Return of War, 1739-1748 (cont.)
New Englanders seized Louisbourg from the French In the peace treaty (Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle) the British returned Louisbourg for an outpost the French had taken in India Many Americans felt lingering resentment over how little England appreciated the lives they had sacrificed to gain Louisbourg

49 Public Life in British America, 1689-1750
Colonial Politics Shift from royal governors and appointed officials to the representative colonial assemblies Most important political result of the Glorious Revolution and the adoption of the English Bill of Rights in British America These legislative bodies exercised influence over the governors by controlling their salaries, authorized spending, imposed taxes, etc. America (at least the upper class) became more and more self-governing (except for trade regulations, restrictions on printing money, and declaring war)

50 Colonial Politics (cont.)
Wealthy elites dominated colonial politics Elected to the colonial assemblies Appointed to the governor’s councils Appointed to judgeships in the courts Women, blacks, Indians could NOT vote or hold office Property qualifications excluded about 40% of white males from voting and holding office Proportion of men who did have the vote was higher than in England and Ireland during the same time period

51 The Enlightenment American intellectuals were influenced by the ideals of the 18th century Enlightenment Emphasized reason, progress, science, and capacity for human improvement

52 The Enlightenment (cont.)
Skeptical of beliefs not founded on science or strict logic Mostly in cities Circulated the latest European books, investigated nature, conducted experiments Some were Deists (believed in a god who created the universe and set it in motion according to natural laws discoverable by human intellect but who did not intervene thereafter with miracles

53 The Enlightenment (cont.)
Franklin and Jefferson were Deists Formally attended church and called themselves Christians Enlightened intellectuals took a dim view of the emotional excesses of the Great Awakening

54 The Great Awakening 1740’s “an outpouring of passionate Christian revivalism” Across all 13 colonies Jonathan Edwards, William Tennent, Theodore Frelinghuysen, George Whitefield Colonists repented and seek salvation

55 George Whitefield

56 The Great Awakening (cont.)
Many new colleges were founded to educate ministers Princeton (Presbyterian) Columbia (King’s College) (Anglican) Brown (Baptist) Dartmouth (Congregationalist) Insistence on the equality of all born-again Christians in God’s eyes and the corruption of “unsaved” upper-class leaders

57 Conclusion By 1750, the British mainland colonies had:
grown prosperous, established representative governments, upper-and middle class intellectuals participating in the developing of new ideas sweeping Europe known as the Enlightenment Anglo-American society was also torn by class, race, and religious tensions

58 Conclusion (cont.) The imperial wars that Britain fought with the aid of the colonists between 1739 and 1748 both drew Americans closer to the mother country and spawned some resentment about British lack of appreciation for Americans’ contributions

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