Presentation on theme: "The American Revolution"— Presentation transcript:
1The American Revolution PreviewMain Idea / Reading FocusChange and CrisisFaces of History: George WashingtonStruggle for IndependenceMap: The Revolutionary WarForming a New GovernmentVisual Study Guide / Quick FactsVideo: The Impact of the Declaration of Independence
2The American Revolution Main IdeaEnlightenment ideas led to revolution, independence, and a new government for the United States.Reading FocusWhat were some of the causes of change and crisis in the American colonies?How was the struggle for independence affected by Enlightenment concepts?How did American colonists form a new government?
3Change and Crisis Forming a New Identity Mid-1770s By the mid-1700s dramatic new Enlightenment ideas had spread to North America, inspiring the British colonists to forge a new nation.British colonies had expanded rapidly along east coast since early 1600sOffered opportunities not available in Great BritainLand plentiful, cheapClass system absentGood chance for advancement through intelligence, hard workForming a New IdentityPopulation over 2.1 millionColonies had been established nearly 150 yearsAllowed large measure of independence, though still British subjectsEach had own government, made own lawsBegan to identify less with BritainMid-1770s
4Opposing British Policies Britain began to assert its right to impose laws on coloniesBritain defeated France in French and Indian War, 1763France had to give up its North American coloniesBritain decided to make colonies pay part of war costs in taxesNew TaxStamp Act, 1765, required colonists to pay tax for official stamp on all newspapers, legal documents, other public papersColonial leaders outraged Parliament taxed them without representatives there to plead caseCalled for boycott of English goods, act repealed 1766
5Opposing British Policies Townshend Acts1767, British imposed taxes on glass, paper, paints, teaBoston merchants called for another boycottBritish sent troops to keep order, Bostonians harassed troopsBoston Massacre1770, British discipline snappedBritish troops shot, killed five menMost of Townshend Acts partially repealed, tax on tea remainedBoston Tea Party1773, Sons of Liberty boarded ships in Boston Harbor, dumped crates of tea overboard, British closed portParliament passed Intolerable Acts, regulations limiting freedom of colonists
6Opposing British Policies First Continental CongressCalled in Philadelphia, 1774Colonists listed grievances against BritishPlan to reconcile differences with British presentedPlan voted down
7Shot Heard ‘round the World Revolution BeginsSons of Liberty expected war, hid weapons in countryside and towns west of BostonApril 1775, British troops marched out of Boston to find weaponsBritish troops confronted colonial militiamen in LexingtonShots rang out; the American Revolution beganShot Heard ‘round the WorldNot all colonists wanted independence from BritainThomas Paine argued in 1776 pamphlet, Common Sense, that colonies no longer needed British ruleSaid colonies deserved independencePaine’s pamphlet helped gain popular support for causeCommon Sense
9What did the Stamp Act and the Townshend Acts have in common? CompareWhat did the Stamp Act and the Townshend Acts have in common?Answer(s): Both imposed taxes on the colonies.
10Struggle for Independence The American Revolution was the first war in which old ideas about government were challenged by the ideas of the Enlightenment. The Patriots created a nation based on these ideas.Second Continental Congress, 1776Committee formed to write document declaring colonies’ independenceDeclaring IndependenceMembers familiar with Enlightenment conceptsAdams, Jefferson, FranklinJefferson wrote draft incorporating ideas from Locke, RousseauCommitteeElegant expression of Enlightenment political philosophyDrew ideas from English Bill of Rights, 1689Individual, society rights, freedomsDeclaration
11Beginning of Revolution The Revolutionary WarCommanding GeneralSecond Continental Congress assigned George Washington as army’s commanding generalCourageous, resourceful leaderBeginning of RevolutionEvacuated Boston, June 1775Began poorly for BritishAmericans positioned cannons overlooking cityEarly BattlesBritish defeated Washington in Battle of Long IslandWashington crossed Delaware, engineered surprising victory at TrentonValley ForgeBritish defeated Washington in New JerseyWashington moved into Pennsylvania, spent bitter winter at Valley Forge
12Strategies in the South The Revolutionary WarThe British won battles in upstate New York during the summer of 1777, but in October the Americans won the Battle of Saratoga. The victory was crucial as Benjamin Franklin was in Paris seeking aid from the French. This alliance became a turning point in the war.American forces strengthened over next two yearsBritish tried to divide colonies in twoCaptured Savannah, 1778, Charleston, 1780Americans made numerous attacks on British in South CarolinaStrategies in the SouthFrench and American armies surrounded British, Yorktown, September 1781Lord Cornwallis surrendered after siege of several weeksAmerican colonists won independence, October 1781Victories in the NorthBritish government formally recognized the independence of the United States with the Treaty of Paris, in September of 1783.
14The Revolutionary War The Treaty of Paris Set the geographic boundaries for the new United StatesGave Americans much greater territory than original 13 coloniesAmericans gained all land east of Mississippi River and north of 31st parallelEnd of war just the beginningAmericans faced task of building new nation
15What events led to the signing of the Declaration of Independence? SequenceWhat events led to the signing of the Declaration of Independence?Answer(s): Second Continental Congress declares colonies' independence from Britain; Washington assigned commander of army; American forces strengthened; French and American armies defeat British army; colonists win independence
16Forming a New Government The Articles of Confederation Colonists had to learn to work together, form new governmentFirst government established by Articles of Confederation, approved 1781National government made deliberately weak to avoid abuses of powerGovernment had no power to tax, could not negotiate with foreign nationsArticles produced government too weak to govern effectivelyDelegates met at Constitutional Convention, 1787, to revise ArticlesInstead wrote ConstitutionGeorge Washington presided over conventionJames Madison negotiated main pointsThe ConstitutionConstitution created federal system of governmentCertain powers reserved to federal government, others for statesThree branches of government: executive, judicial, legislativeSystem of checks and balancesFederal System
17Forming a New Government Influence of Enlightenment thought on Constitution very powerfulFounding principle, government exists for the peopleReflected Locke’s and Rousseau’s idea of government by consent of peopleDivision of government into three branches reflected Montesquieu’s idea of separation of powers
18Impact of American Government The Bill of RightsOpponents to Constitution said it failed to protect citizen’s rightsWanted protection of individual’s rights added to ConstitutionCongress added Bill of Rights, first 10 amendments to ConstitutionProtected natural rights advocated by Voltaire, Locke, RousseauImpact of American GovernmentNews of successful American revolution impacted other governmentsAlthough French King Louis XVI supported Americans, France experienced own revolution, 1789America had shown it was possible to oppose tyrannySoldiers’ courage, Constitution framers’ wisdom, shining examples
19Find the Main IdeaHow did the Constitution and the Bill of Rights change the government and society of the United States?Answer(s): caused anger about taxation without representation; colonial leaders supported creation of new nation; committee formed at Continental Congress; Jefferson wrote draft; adopted by the Congress