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Chapter 5 Section I: Philosophy in the Age of Reason

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1 Chapter 5 Section I: Philosophy in the Age of Reason

2 Scientific Revolution
1500s – 1600s: transformed the way people in Europe looked at the world NATURAL LAW: rules discoverable by reason Natural law used to understand social, economical, and political problems. Scientific Revolution  ENLIGHTENMENT

3 HOBBES & LOCKE Both 17th century English thinkers
Set forth ideas that were the key to the Enlightenment era Both men lived through the English Civil War (Cavaliers vs. Roundheads) BUT, two very different ideas about human nature and the role of government

4 Hobbes Locke Two Treatises of Government Leviathan
People were reasonable and moral NATURAL RIGHTS Absolute Monarch =  People have the right to overthrow the government if it fails its obligations!!!!! Leviathan People were naturally cruel, greedy, selfish SOCIAL CONTRACT Powerful government=  Absolute Monarch = 

5 MONTESQUIEU Studied many forms of government & culture
Absolute Monarch =   BAD! The Spirit of Laws (1748) Separation of Powers: Legislative, Executive, Judicial Checks & Balances

6 VOLTAIRE FREEDOM OF SPEECH !!! Exposed the abuses of government
Very outspoken Battled inequality and injustice Imprisoned twice

7 DIDEROT Encyclopedia : 28-volume set of books
Wanted “to change the general way of thinking.” 4,000 copies printed  helped spread Enlightenment Ideas French government saw Encyclopedia as a threat!

8 ROUSSEAU Similar ideas as Locke
People were basically good and only corrupted by the evils of society Thomas Paine & Marquis de Lafayette adopted their ideas The Social Contract HATED ALL FORMS OF OPPRESSION

9 WOMEN PHILOSOPHERS Women were excluded from the SOCIAL CONTRACT
Women’s rights were limited to home and family Women were excluded from the SOCIAL CONTRACT WOLLSTONECRAFT: A Vindication of the Rights of Woman Argued for equal education

10 NAME: #______ CHAPTER 5, SECTION 2 As Enlightenment ideas spread across Europe, what cultural and political changes took place? Coach Calhoun

11 Enlightenment Ideas Spread
Paris, France = Heart of Enlightenment Ideas flowed from France, across Europe, and beyond

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13 New Ideas Challenge Society
More and more, people saw that reform was necessary in order to achieve a just society. Prior to Enlightenment, most Europeans accepted without question, a society based on divine-right rule and a strict class system

14 CENSORSHIP Most government and church officials felt it was their duty to defend the old order. (Believed that God set up the “old order”) They waged a war of censorship: restricting access to ideas and information Books were burned and banned; writers were imprisoned. To avoid censorship, writers often disguised their ideas in works of fiction.

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16 SALONS New literature, the arts, science and philosophy were regular topics of discussion in the salons. SALONS: informal social gatherings where ideas were exchanged

17 Arts & Literature Reflect New Ideas
1600s & 1700s, arts evolved to meet changing tastes. Baroque: colorful, huge, exciting Rococo:lighter, elegant, charming MUSIC Composers: a new, elegant style of music emerged known as “classical.” Bach, Handel, Haydn, Mozart LITERATURE By 1700s, literature developed new forms and a wider audience Daniel Defoe Robinson Crusoe

18 ENLIGHTENED DESPOTS Philosophes tried to persuade rulers to adopt their ideas Some monarchs did accept the ideas of the Enlightenment Enlightened Despots: absolute rulers who used their political power to bring about social change Other rulers still practiced absolutism

19 FREDERICK THE GREAT Extremely tight control over his subjects as king of Prussia ( ) Had a duty to work for the common good Praised Voltaire’s work Reduced the use of torture, allowed freedom of the press, and religious tolerance

20 CATHERINE THE GREAT Empress of Russia
Exchanged letters with VOLTAIRE & DIDEROT Believed in Enlightenment ideas such as equality and liberty Abolished torture and established religious tolerance in her lands

21 JOSEPH II Son of Maria Theresa (Hapsburg Empress)
Eager student of Enlightenment!!! Traveled in disguise among his subjects to learn of his problems Supported religious equality Ended censorship Sold properties of many monasteries Abolished serfdom

22 Birth of the American Republic Chapter 5, Section III

23 Britain becomes Global Power
NAME: #______ Britain becomes Global Power Geography (control trade, set up outposts across the globe) Success in War Territory Expanded On the eve of the American Revolution, Britain was a powerhouse. Atlantic Slave Trade Good Climate French & Indian War/ 7 years War Coach Calhoun

24 BRITISH COLONIES

25 NAVY Britain built superior naval power
protected their growing empire and trade

26 GEORGE III Came to power in 1769 (60-year reign)
Wanted to recover the powers that the monarch lost Decided colonists in North America should pay for the costs of the 7 Years War and French & Indian War!!!

27 13 COLONIES

28 Characteristics of 13 Colonies
Home to diverse religious & ethnic groups politics = free discussion social distinctions blurred Colonist grew in favor of separation from Britain!!!

29 Birth of the American Republic
- With war between the British and French over, Britain began enforcing old taxes and passing new taxes on the colonies to pay for the war debt.

30 Stamp Act required all printed materials to be stamped showing that a tax had been paid to the King.

31 “No Taxation Without Representation”
Stamp Act Congress - 9 Colonies wrote a protest to the King over the stamp act. “No Taxation Without Representation” -- Parliament repealed the Stamp Act Boycott – Colonist refused to buy or sell English Goods.

32 Boston Massacre , British soldiers fire on a group of angry colonist killing five. Boston Tea Party – 1773, men disguised as Native Americans boarded three ships and dumped the British tea overboard. Intolerable Acts - New laws passed to punish the colonist for the troubles they had caused.

33 Declaration of Independence
Colonist upset  drafted Declaration of Rights July 4th, 1776  colonist adopted the Declaration of Independence A NEW NATION IS FORMED!!! American Revolution

34 The Revolutionary War (1775-1783)
- Began at Lexington and Concord Massachusetts on April 19, 1775 when British soldiers clashed with American Patriots

35 The American Army - few military resources
- no money to pay its soldiers fighting on their own soil Better leadership They had to motivation to win PATRIOTS

36 The British Army professional soldiers Better weapons - huge navy
- plenty of cash to fund the war offered freedom to slaves who fought for them More soldiers Loyalist - colonist who supported Britain

37 The French Alliance (1777) Americans defeat British troops at the Battle of Saratoga, which convinces France to join in the battle against the British. Turning point of the war

38 France provided: military supplies (muskets, cannons, ammunition)
- trained soldiers - French War ships

39 Winter at Valley Forge (1777-1778)
Symbolized great hardship for Patriots, but they did not give up Soldiers without shoes, food, and clothing Many faced amputation, sickness and starvation

40 Guerrilla Warfare This form of surprise hit and run attacks began to develop in the South by Colonist Guerrilla warfare was successful. The Americans began to weaken the British forces in the South

41 Battle of Yorktown 1781 - British Army is surrounded and cut
off at Yorktown, Virginia which results in the surrender of the British Army Lord Cornwallis will surrender 80,000 British troops Yorktown would be the last major battle of the war. Britain realized they had no choice but to negotiate a peace treaty with Colonist  Treaty of Paris officially ended the War in 1783

42 The Constitutional Convention
NAME: The Constitutional Convention #______ - began in May 1787 in Philadelphia Purpose: to revise the Articles of Confederation Who: 55 delegates known as the Framers - Delegates worked in secret - they quickly decided to replace the Articles with a new constitution Framers incorporated the ideas of Locke, Hobbes, Montesquieu and Rousseau into the new constitution Constitution signed on Sept. 17, 1787 Constitution officially passed 1791 Coach Calhoun


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