Philosophy in the Age of Reason Chapter 5 Section I: Philosophy in the Age of Reason
Scientific Revolution 1500s – 1600s: transformed the way people in Europe looked at the world NATURAL LAW NATURAL LAW: rules discoverable by reason Natural law used to understand social, economical, and political problems. ENLIGHTENMENT Scientific Revolution ENLIGHTENMENT
HOBBES & LOCKE Both 17 th century English thinkers Set forth ideas that were the key to the Enlightenment era Both men lived through the English Civil War (Cavaliers vs. Roundheads) BUT BUT, two very different ideas about human nature and the role of government
Hobbes Locke Leviathan People were naturally cruel, greedy, selfish SOCIAL CONTRACTSOCIAL CONTRACT Powerful government= Absolute Monarch = Two Treatises of Government People were reasonable and moral NATURAL RIGHTSNATURAL RIGHTS Absolute Monarch = People have the right to overthrow the government if it fails its obligations!!!!!
MONTESQUIEU Studied many forms of government & culture Absolute Monarch = BAD! The Spirit of Laws (1748) Separation of Powers Separation of Powers: Legislative, Executive, Judicial Checks & Balances
VOLTAIRE FREEDOM OF SPEECH !!! Exposed the abuses of government Very outspoken Battled inequality and injustice Imprisoned twice
DIDEROT Encyclopedia Encyclopedia : 28-volume set of books Wanted “to change the general way of thinking.” 4,000 copies printed helped spread Enlightenment Ideas French government saw Encyclopedia as a threat!
ROUSSEAU Similar ideas as Locke People were basically good and only corrupted by the evils of society Thomas Paine & Marquis de Lafayette adopted their ideas The Social Contract HATED ALL FORMS OF OPPRESSION
WOMEN PHILOSOPHERS Women’s rights were limited to home and family Women were excluded from the SOCIAL CONTRACT WOLLSTONECRAFT: A Vindication of the Rights of Woman Argued for equal education
CHAPTER 5, SECTION 2 As Enlightenment ideas spread across Europe, what cultural and political changes took place?
Enlightenment Ideas Spread Paris, France = Heart of Enlightenment Ideas flowed from France, across Europe, and beyond
New Ideas Challenge Society More and more, people saw that reform was necessary in order to achieve a just society. Prior to Enlightenment, most Europeans accepted without question, a society based on divine-right rule and a strict class system
CENSORSHIP Most government and church officials felt it was their duty to defend the old order. (Believed that God set up the “old order”) They waged a war of censorship: restricting access to ideas and information Books were burned and banned; writers were imprisoned. To avoid censorship, writers often disguised their ideas in works of fiction.
SALONS New literature, the arts, science and philosophy were regular topics of discussion in the salons. SALONS: informal social gatherings where ideas were exchanged
Arts & Literature Reflect New Ideas ARTS 1600s & 1700s, arts evolved to meet changing tastes. Baroque: colorful, huge, exciting Rococo:lighter, elegant, charming MUSIC Composers: a new, elegant style of music emerged known as “classical.” Bach, Handel, Haydn, Mozart LITERATURE By 1700s, literature developed new forms and a wider audience Daniel Defoe Robinson Crusoe
ENLIGHTENED DESPOTS Philosophes tried to persuade rulers to adopt their ideas Some monarchs did accept the ideas of the Enlightenment –Enlightened Despots: absolute rulers who used their political power to bring about social change –Other rulers still practiced absolutism
FREDERICK THE GREAT Extremely tight control over his subjects as king of Prussia (1740-1786) Had a duty to work for the common good Praised Voltaire’s work –Reduced the use of torture, allowed freedom of the press, and religious tolerance
CATHERINE THE GREAT Empress of Russia Exchanged letters with VOLTAIRE & DIDEROT Believed in Enlightenment ideas such as equality and liberty Abolished torture and established religious tolerance in her lands
JOSEPH II Son of Maria Theresa (Hapsburg Empress) Eager student of Enlightenment!!! Traveled in disguise among his subjects to learn of his problems Supported religious equality Ended censorship Sold properties of many monasteries Abolished serfdom
Birth of the American Republic Birth of the American Republic Chapter 5, Section III
Britain becomes Global Power 1.Geography (control trade, set up outposts across the globe) 2.Success in War 3.Territory Expanded
NAVY Britain built superior naval power protected their growing empire and trade
GEORGE III Came to power in 1769 (60-year reign) Wanted to recover the powers that the monarch lost Decided colonists in North America should pay for the costs of the 7 Years War and French & Indian War!!!
Characteristics of 13 Colonies Home to diverse religious & ethnic groups politics = free discussion social distinctions blurred Colonist grew in favor of separation from Britain!!!
Birth of the American Republic - With war between the British and French over, Britain began enforcing old taxes and passing new taxes on the colonies to pay for the war debt.
Stamp Act required all printed materials to be stamped showing that a tax had been paid to the King.
Stamp Act Congress - 9 Colonies wrote a protest to the King over the stamp act. “No Taxation Without Representation” -- Parliament repealed the Stamp Act Boycott – Colonist refused to buy or sell English Goods.
Boston Massacre - 1770, British soldiers fire on a group of angry colonist killing five. Boston Tea Party – 1773, men disguised as Native Americans boarded three ships and dumped the British tea overboard. Intolerable Acts - New laws passed to punish the colonist for the troubles they had caused.
Declaration of Independence Colonist upset drafted Declaration of Rights July 4 th, 1776 colonist adopted the Declaration of Independence A NEW NATION IS FORMED!!!
The Revolutionary War (1775-1783) - Began at Lexington and Concord Massachusetts on April 19, 1775 when British soldiers clashed with American Patriots
The American Army - few military resources - no money to pay its soldiers -fighting on their own soil -Better leadership -They had to motivation to win -PATRIOTS
The British Army -professional soldiers -Better weapons - huge navy - plenty of cash to fund the war -offered freedom to slaves who fought for them -More soldiers Loyalist - colonist who supported Britain
The French Alliance (1777) -Americans defeat British troops at the Battle of Saratoga, which convinces France to join in the battle against the British. -Turning point of the war
France provided: -military supplies (muskets, cannons, ammunition) - trained soldiers - French War ships
Winter at Valley Forge (1777-1778) Symbolized great hardship for Patriots, but they did not give up Soldiers without shoes, food, and clothing Many faced amputation, sickness and starvation
Guerrilla Warfare This form of surprise hit and run attacks began to develop in the South by Colonist Guerrilla warfare was successful. The Americans began to weaken the British forces in the South
Battle of Yorktown 1781 - British Army is surrounded and cut off at Yorktown, Virginia which results in the surrender of the British Army Lord Cornwallis will surrender 80,000 British troops Yorktown would be the last major battle of the war. Britain realized they had no choice but to negotiate a peace treaty with Colonist Treaty of Paris Treaty of Paris officially ended the War in 1783
The Constitutional Convention - began in May 1787 in Philadelphia Purpose: to revise the Articles of Confederation Who: 55 delegates known as the Framers - Delegates worked in secret - they quickly decided to replace the Articles with a new constitution Framers incorporated the ideas of Locke, Hobbes, Montesquieu and Rousseau into the new constitution Constitution signed on Sept. 17, 1787 Constitution officially passed 1791