Presentation on theme: "Chapter 5 Section I: Philosophy in the Age of Reason"— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 5 Section I: Philosophy in the Age of Reason
2Scientific Revolution 1500s – 1600s: transformed the way people in Europe looked at the worldNATURAL LAW: rules discoverable by reasonNatural law used to understand social, economical, and political problems.Scientific Revolution ENLIGHTENMENT
3HOBBES & LOCKE Both 17th century English thinkers Set forth ideas that were the key to the Enlightenment eraBoth men lived through the English Civil War (Cavaliers vs. Roundheads)BUT, two very different ideas about human nature and the role of government
4Hobbes Locke Two Treatises of Government Leviathan People were reasonable and moralNATURAL RIGHTSAbsolute Monarch = People have the right to overthrow the government if it fails its obligations!!!!!LeviathanPeople were naturally cruel, greedy, selfishSOCIAL CONTRACTPowerful government= Absolute Monarch =
5MONTESQUIEU Studied many forms of government & culture Absolute Monarch = BAD!The Spirit of Laws (1748)Separation of Powers: Legislative, Executive, JudicialChecks & Balances
6VOLTAIRE FREEDOM OF SPEECH !!! Exposed the abuses of government Very outspokenBattled inequality and injusticeImprisoned twice
7DIDEROT Encyclopedia : 28-volume set of books Wanted “to change the general way of thinking.”4,000 copies printed helped spread Enlightenment IdeasFrench government saw Encyclopedia as a threat!
8ROUSSEAU Similar ideas as Locke People were basically good and only corrupted by the evils of societyThomas Paine & Marquis de Lafayette adopted their ideasThe Social ContractHATED ALL FORMS OF OPPRESSION
9WOMEN PHILOSOPHERS Women were excluded from the SOCIAL CONTRACT Women’s rights were limited to home and familyWomen were excluded from the SOCIAL CONTRACTWOLLSTONECRAFT: A Vindication of the Rights of WomanArgued for equal education
10NAME:#______CHAPTER 5, SECTION 2As Enlightenment ideas spread across Europe, what cultural and political changes took place?Coach Calhoun
11Enlightenment Ideas Spread Paris, France = Heart of EnlightenmentIdeas flowed from France, across Europe, and beyond
13New Ideas Challenge Society More and more, people saw that reform was necessary in order to achieve a just society.Prior to Enlightenment, most Europeans accepted without question, a society based on divine-right rule and a strict class system
14CENSORSHIPMost government and church officials felt it was their duty to defend the old order. (Believed that God set up the “old order”)They waged a war of censorship: restricting access to ideas and informationBooks were burned and banned; writers were imprisoned.To avoid censorship, writers often disguised their ideas in works of fiction.
16SALONSNew literature, the arts, science and philosophy were regular topics of discussion in the salons.SALONS: informal social gatherings where ideas were exchanged
17Arts & Literature Reflect New Ideas 1600s & 1700s, arts evolved to meet changing tastes.Baroque: colorful, huge, excitingRococo:lighter, elegant, charmingMUSICComposers: a new, elegant style of music emerged known as “classical.”Bach, Handel, Haydn, MozartLITERATUREBy 1700s, literature developed new forms and a wider audienceDaniel Defoe Robinson Crusoe
18ENLIGHTENED DESPOTSPhilosophes tried to persuade rulers to adopt their ideasSome monarchs did accept the ideas of the EnlightenmentEnlightened Despots: absolute rulers who used their political power to bring about social changeOther rulers still practiced absolutism
19FREDERICK THE GREATExtremely tight control over his subjects as king of Prussia ( )Had a duty to work for the common goodPraised Voltaire’s workReduced the use of torture, allowed freedom of the press, and religious tolerance
20CATHERINE THE GREAT Empress of Russia Exchanged letters with VOLTAIRE & DIDEROTBelieved in Enlightenment ideas such as equality and libertyAbolished torture and established religious tolerance in her lands
21JOSEPH II Son of Maria Theresa (Hapsburg Empress) Eager student of Enlightenment!!!Traveled in disguise among his subjects to learn of his problemsSupported religious equalityEnded censorshipSold properties of many monasteriesAbolished serfdom
22Birth of the American Republic Chapter 5, Section III
23Britain becomes Global Power NAME:#______Britain becomes Global PowerGeography (control trade, set up outposts across the globe)Success in WarTerritory ExpandedOn the eve of the American Revolution, Britain was a powerhouse.Atlantic Slave TradeGood ClimateFrench & Indian War/ 7 years WarCoach Calhoun
25NAVY Britain built superior naval power protected their growing empire and trade
26GEORGE III Came to power in 1769 (60-year reign) Wanted to recover the powers that the monarch lostDecided colonists in North America should pay for the costs of the 7 Years War and French & Indian War!!!
28Characteristics of 13 Colonies Home to diverse religious & ethnic groupspolitics = free discussionsocial distinctions blurredColonist grew in favor of separation from Britain!!!
29Birth of the American Republic - With war between the British andFrench over, Britain began enforcingold taxes and passing new taxes on thecolonies to pay for the war debt.
30Stamp Actrequired all printed materials to be stamped showing that a tax had been paid to the King.
31“No Taxation Without Representation” Stamp Act Congress- 9 Colonies wrote a protest to the King over the stamp act.“No Taxation Without Representation”-- Parliament repealed the Stamp ActBoycott – Colonist refused to buy or sell English Goods.
32Boston Massacre, British soldiers fire on a group of angry colonist killing five.Boston Tea Party– 1773, men disguised as Native Americans boarded three ships and dumped the British tea overboard.Intolerable Acts- New laws passed to punish the colonist for the troubles they had caused.
33Declaration of Independence Colonist upset drafted Declaration of RightsJuly 4th, 1776 colonist adopted the Declaration of IndependenceA NEW NATION IS FORMED!!!American Revolution
34The Revolutionary War (1775-1783) - Began at Lexington and Concord Massachusetts on April 19, 1775 when British soldiers clashed with American Patriots
35The American Army - few military resources - no money to pay its soldiersfighting on their own soilBetter leadershipThey had to motivation to winPATRIOTS
36The British Army professional soldiers Better weapons - huge navy - plenty of cash to fund the waroffered freedom to slaves who fought for themMore soldiersLoyalist - colonist who supported Britain
37The French Alliance (1777)Americans defeat British troops at the Battle of Saratoga, which convinces France to join in the battle against the British.Turning point of the war
38France provided: military supplies (muskets, cannons, ammunition) - trained soldiers- French War ships
39Winter at Valley Forge (1777-1778) Symbolized great hardship for Patriots, but they did not give upSoldiers without shoes, food, and clothingMany faced amputation, sickness and starvation
40Guerrilla WarfareThis form of surprise hit and run attacks began to develop in the South by ColonistGuerrilla warfare was successful. The Americans began to weaken the British forces in the South
41Battle of Yorktown 1781 - British Army is surrounded and cut off at Yorktown, Virginia whichresults in the surrender of theBritish ArmyLord Cornwallis will surrender 80,000 British troopsYorktown would be the last major battle of the war. Britain realized they had no choice but to negotiate a peace treaty with Colonist Treaty of Paris officially ended the War in 1783
42The Constitutional Convention NAME:The Constitutional Convention#______- began in May 1787 in PhiladelphiaPurpose: to revise the Articles of ConfederationWho: 55 delegates known as the Framers- Delegates worked in secret- they quickly decided to replace the Articles with a new constitutionFramers incorporated the ideas of Locke, Hobbes, Montesquieu and Rousseau into the new constitutionConstitution signed on Sept. 17, 1787Constitution officially passed 1791Coach Calhoun