Essential Question Why were Americans divided over the question of independence from England?
Essential Question: What historical, geographic, social, and economic factors created ties and tensions between England and the colonies?
Essential Question: In what ways did the British colonies find success?
Essential Question: What are the similarities and differences in mercantilism and capitalism?
ANSWER: In the late 1600s most countries in Western Europe practiced mercantilism, a program of creating wealth by carefully controlling trade. England profited when it had a favorable balance of trade, or when it sold more products to other countries than it bought from then England therefore wanted to decrease its imports, and increase its exports. As a result, the English concentrated more on importing and exporting to its colonies than to foreign countries.
ANSWER: Capitalism is an economic system in which private businesses own and operate most industries; and competition determines the cost of goods as well as workers’ pay.
Privy Council …was a group of royal advisers in the English colonies who set royal policy.
Parliament …was England’s national lawmaking body.
Bicameral Legislature …is a lawmaking body made up of two houses.
John Peter Zenger …criticized the royal governor of New York in his newspaper and officials accused him of libel.
Libel … is printing a false statement about a person that damaged his or her reputation.
Dominion of New England …united the New England colonies under one government for James II.
Apprentices …were young boys who were sent to learn trades, such as blacksmiths and printers, from master craftspeople.
Staple crops … are crops that are in demand year-round, such as wheat.
Pop Quiz What are staple crops? Who was Eliza Lucas Pinckney? What are cash crops? What were the slave codes? Who are apprentices?
Mini Question How did climate and geography affect each colonial region’s economy? Southern - depended on agriculture and raw materials New England – cold climate and rocky soil made farming difficult, became shipbuilders and craftspeople Middle – Agriculture and trade were important
Mini Question What was the labor source in each region, and why did it develop differently from those in the other regions? Southern – slaves New England – skilled craftspeople and apprentices (few slaves) Middle – slaves and indentured servants
Mini Question What roles did women play in the colonial economy? Woman sometimes ran farms, businesses, and they worked in the home.
Revivals In the late 1730s and 1740s, ministers began to revive people’s interest in religion by delivering emotional sermons at __________, which were large, public church gatherings.
Great Awakening The __________ was an unorganized movement of Christina sermons and church meetings.
Scientific Revolution During the 1600s scientists in western Europe began using logic and reason to make new discoveries about the laws that governed nature. This change in the way people looked at the world became known as the __________.
Scientific Method Scientists developed the __________ to make discoveries.
Enlightenment Many people began using logic and reason to study human nature as well. This change in thought is referred to as the __________. Thinkers of the __________ developed ideas about how government should work.
David Rittenhouse __________ designed mathematical and astronomical tools and studied the solar system.
Benjamin Banneker __________ made careful astronomical calculations and published them in an almanac.
Benjamin Franklin __________was one of the most important colonial thinkers, scientists, and inventors.
Anne Bradstreet Preachers such as John Cotton developed a new, dramatic style of sermon,m while poets such as __________ wrote about family and religious faith.
Pop Quiz Who was David Rittenhouse? What was the Scientific Revolution? What was the scientific method? Who was Phillis Wheatley? Who was Galileo Galilei?
Pop Quiz What was the Enlightenment? Who was Anne Bradstreet? Who was Benjamin Banneker? Who was Benjamin Franklin? Who was Sir Isaac Newton?
Mini Question How did the ideas form the Scientific Revolution influence the Enlightenment? Many people began using logic and reason to study human nature about how government should work.
Mini Question What was education like in the colonies? New England – established schools to teach students to read the Bible Middle and Southern colonies established few schools.
Mini Question What contributions did colonial scientists, writers, and artists make to American culture? Rittenhouse studied the solar system Banneker predicted an eclipse Benjamin Franklin was the most important colonial thinker Anne Bradstreet wrote about family and religion Painters moved to the colonies