In this section you will learn that two early English colonies failed, but Jamestown survived – partly through individual effort and hard work.
Thanks to successful campaigns against the Spanish in Europe, England was able to begin competing with Spain for economic superiority in North America.
HOW DID THE ENGLISH GET A FOOTHOLD IN NORTH AMERICA? THEN IN THE 1500’s THE SPANISH LAID CLAIM TO MUCH OF NORTH AMERICA IN 1588 THE ENGLISH PUNK THE SPANISH ARMADA IN EUROPE (OUCH!) ENGLAND NOW CAN GRAB A PIECE OF THE AMERICAN PIE! SO…
Spanish and Portuguese Empires in the period of (1581-1640).
Defeat of the Spanish Armada, 1588, depicts the battle of Gravelines.
England set up colonies in America in order to: Increase trade Import raw materials Find gold Find a passage through the Americas to the Indies Establish the Protestant faith in America
WHY DID THE ENGLISH WANT TO COLONIZE NORTH AMERICA? Increase trade Import raw materials Find a passage through the Americas to the Indies Establish the Protestant faith in America Find gold REASONS FOR ENGLAND TO COLONIZE NORTH AMERICA
Many English colonists voyaged to America to: Find economic opportunities. Seek gold. Escape religious persecution
REASONS AN ENGLISHMAN MIGHT GO TO AMERICA Find economic opportunities Seek gold Escape religious persecution
Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I who gave Sir Walter Raleigh permission to set up a colony at Roanoke.
In 1585 Sir Walter Raleigh set up a colony at Roanoke. The colony failed. Urged by the artist John White, Raleigh tried again in 1587, this time with 100 settlers including members of White’s family, who disappeared without a trace. In 1607, the Plymouth Company sponsored a colony in Maine. It also failed.
Portrait of Walter Raleigh, near age 32, by Nicholas Hilliard, c.1585
In 1607, the Virginia Company of London financed a colony at Jamestown, Virginia. In 1608, John Smith took control of the Jamestown colony. 800 more colonists arrived in 1609, and by 1621 Jamestown had grown to more than 2,000.
James I of England from the period 1603– 1613, authorized the James Town settlement after whom it is named.
In 1607, the Virginia Company of London financed a colony at______, Virginia. In 1608, ______ took control of that colony. 1) Jonestown, Jim Jones 2) Johnstown, John Smith 3) Roanoke, John White 4) Jamestown, John Smith
Which of the following was not a reason why England set up colonies in North America: 1) Increase trade 2) Find gold 3) Establish the Catholic faith in America 4) Find a passage through the Americas to the Indies
Thanks to successful campaigns against the Spanish in Europe, ______ was able to begin competing with Spain for economic superiority in North America. 1) Mexico 2) England 3) The Netherlands. 4) Portugal
Many English colonists voyaged to America for all the following reasons except: 1) Establish a mission system. 2) Seek gold. 3) Escape religious persecution. 4) Find economic opportunities.
In 1585 Sir Walter Raleigh set up a colony at______. The colony failed. Urged by the artist______, Raleigh tried again in 1587. 1) Connecticut, Michelangelo 2) Jamestown, King James 3) Roanoke, John White 4) Plymouth, John Rolfe
Pocahontas and John Smith were both young adults when they met. Pocahontas had an amazing figure, and wore a leather minidress with one shoulder strap. She had a tattoo. Pocahontas was a girl of 11; Smith was a man of 28. Pocahontas was a naked child when she visited John Smith in Jamestown. For Winter warmth, she would wear a mantle; one of hers was covered with feathers. When she turned 12, she started wearing a leather dress with or without one shoulder strap. Dresses were often decorated with pictures of animals, birds, or tortoises. She probably did have tattoos.
John Smith was tall and clean shaven. He wore tight pants and some armor. The colonists sailed on the Susan Constant John Smith was short, had a full beard, and wore puffy pants (like everyone else). He did wear the type of armor shown. The colonists sailed in three ships: the Susan Constant, Godspeed, and Discovery.
Ratcliffe was governor of the colony, so he was in charge during the voyage. The colony did not have a governor for the first couple of years. It had a council with a president. Captain Newport was admiral and fleet commander during the voyage of 1607. After they landed, they opened the secret orders to see who was on the governing council. The council elected Wingfield as the first president. Ratcliffe was elected president in September, 1607. Captain John Smith is elected council president of Jamestown Virginia in 1608. In 1609, Smith left, and Percy became President. Thomas West (Baron De La Warre) was appointed the first Governor in 1609, but he did not arrive until 1610.
As soon as they landed, John Smith started scouting around. John Smith was captured when ventured out alone at night to meet Pocahontas. John Smith was arrested and clapped in irons during the voyage, and was not released until a month after the landing at Jamestown. After that, he did plenty of exploring and trading. He mapped most of the area. John Smith was captured on an expedition one day in December, when he and his Indian guide split off from the other two Englishmen.
John Smith's compass showed Pocahontas where her true path lay. When Opechancanough captured him, John Smith used his compass to demonstrate “the roundnesse of the earth and skies, the spheare of the Sunne, Moone, and Starres, and how the Sunne did chase the night round about the world continually: the greatnesse of the Land and Sea, the diversitie of Nations, varietie of Complexions, and how we were to them Antipodes...” (Wow! He said all that in Algonquian?)
John Smith was going to be executed on top of a bluff at dawn, in front of an army of colonists who had come to rescue him. John Smith and Pocahontas met in the wilderness and fell in love, like Romeo and Juliet. Pocahontas was engaged to Kocoum, but she chose John Smith instead. It appeared that John Smith was going to be executed in Powhatan's long house, in front of Powhatan's warriors and counselors. The colonists did not know where he was. John Smith met Pocahontas when she "rescued" him from execution. Powhatan then adopted Smith as his son, "Nantaquoud". Pocahontas and her new kinsman became good friends. This really belongs in Pocahontas II. After John Smith went home to England, then Pocahontas was engaged to Kocoum, but she chose John Rolfe instead.
Pocahontas had animal friends. Percy was Ratcliffe's dog. Thomas was a young colonist friend of Smith's. George Percy was a prominent colonist who followed Smith as council president, and wrote two books about his experiences. A clever name for the dog! Thomas Savage, young laborer, arrived in January 1608, and was sent to live with Powhatan the next month, sort of like a "cultural exchange student".
In 1612, John Rolfe developed a high-grade tobacco that the colonists learned to grow. It became very popular in England.
Settlers were offered 50 acres of land if they paid for their own passage to the colonies. Those who could not afford passage to America, borrowed money and became indentured servants, who worked for many years in order to pay back the loans.
The 1606 grants by James I to the London and Plymouth companies. The overlapping area (yellow) was granted to both companies on the stipulation that neither found a settlement within 100 miles of each other.
The strict rule of the colonist’s Governor forced his replacement by an elected assembly called the House of Burgesses.
As the number of colonists increased, their relationship with the Powhatan natives grew worse. In an effort to improve relations between the English and the Powhatan, John Rolfe married Chief Powhatan’s daughter, Pocahontas in 1614.
Sir Walter Raleigh John Smith colony at Jamestown John Rolfe colony at Roanoke John White Pocahontas
Back in England, Ratcliffe tries to have Smith killed. Smith escapes but decides to lay low. Pocahontas hears that he has died. Still believing that Virginia is full of gold, Ratcliffe schemes up a war. King James appoints him Admiral of the invasion armada. When Smith was evacuated to England for treatment of his gunpowder wound in October 1609, the colonists told Pocahontas that he had died. The same month Smith left Virginia, October 1609, Ratcliffe was caught by the Indians, and died a horrible death.
Handsome diplomat John Rolfe is dispatched to Virginia. He manages to mistake Pocahontas for the chief at first, but recovers quickly. Pocahontas and Rolfe rush to England, on a desperate mission to avert the war. While Pocahontas was being held hostage at Jamestown in 1613, she met colonist John Rolfe, a successful tobacco planter and sincere Christian. She converted to Christianity and married him in April 1614. The "Peace of Pocahontas" began with the marriage of Pocahontas to John Rolfe. Their son Thomas was born around 1615. In 1616, the Virginia Company sent the Rolfe family on a promotional English tour, with several other Indians and colonists.
Uttamatomakkin is supposed to tally the population of England, by cutting a notch in his stick for each man he sees. He soon gives up! Pocahontas attends the Hunt Ball at the royal court, where Ratcliffe sets a trap for her. She is arrested, and thrown into prison at the Tower of London. True story! Pocahontas attended the lavish Twelfth Night Masque at the royal court. A great time was had by all.
Pocahontas is relieved to see John Smith alive, as he and John Rolfe rescue her from the Tower. Pocahontas and John Rolfe set sail for Virginia. Love is in the air. The End. John Smith did visit Pocahontas. She was so shocked, she hid her face, and could not speak for two or three hours. Finally, she said, “They did tell me always you were dead, and I knew no other ’till I came to Plymouth. Yet Powhatan did command Uttamatomakkin to seek you, and know the truth – because your countrymen will lie much.” The Rolfe family set sail for Virginia, but disease was in the air. Pocahontas died at Gravesend.
A 1616 engraving of Pocahontas by Simon van de Passe. The original English caption (not visible here) reads "Matoaks als Rebecka daughter to the mighty Prince Powhatan Emperour of Attanoughkomouck als virginia converted and baptized in the Christian faith, and wife to the wor. th M r. Joh. Rolff." The inscription under the portrait reads "Aetatis suae 21 A. 1616", Latin for "at the age of 21 in the year 1616".
Chief Powhatan in a longhouse at Werowoco moco (detail of John Smith map, 1612)
Fed up of the ever expanding colonists, the Powhatan natives killed hundreds of Jamestown’s residents in 1622.
The Native American people lived very differently than the English settlers who came to stay.
Indian massacre of 1622, depicted in a 1628 woodcut
Nathaniel Bacon led a group of landless settlers against Governor William Berkeley, and burned Jamestown to the ground in 1676, in a revolt that came to be known as Bacon’s rebellion.
In 1612, ______ developed a high-grade ______ that the colonists learned to grow. 1) John Rolfe, corn 2) John Rolfe, tobacco 3) John Smith, tobacco 4) John Ratcliffe, corn
Fed up of the ever expanding colonists, ______ killed hundreds of Jamestown’s residents in 1622. 1) the Powhatan natives 2) Nathaniel Bacon 3) the Spanish 4) Queen Elisabeth I
The strict rule of the colonist’s Governor forced his replacement by an elected assembly called the ______. 1) Court of Burgesses 2) Court of Charles I 3) House of Commons 4) House of Burgesses
Those who could not afford passage to America, borrowed money and became______, who worked for many years in order to pay back the loans. 1) Puritans 2) indentured servants 3) wealthy land owners 4) Free Masons
Nathaniel Bacon led a group of landless settlers against Governor William Berkeley, and burned Jamestown to the ground in 1676, in a revolt that came to be known as______. 1) the great migration 2) Bacon’s rebellion 3) the charge of the light brigade 4) the boxer rebellion
John Rolfe married Chief Powhatan’s daughter, ______ in 1614. 1) Nakatani 2) Pocatani 3) Pocahatan 4) Pocahontas